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KING RICHARD THE THIRD
BY JACOB ABBOTT.
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight
hundred and fifty-eight, by
HARPER & BROTHERS,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of
KING RICHARD THE THIRD, known com-
monly in history as Richard the Usurper, was
perhaps as bad a man as the principle of hered-
itary sovereignty ever raised to the throne, or
perhaps it should rather be said, as the principle
of hereditary sovereignty ever made. There
is no evidence that his natural disposition was
marked with any peculiar depravity. He was
made reckless, unscrupulous, and cruel by the
influences which surrounded him, and the cir-
cumstances in which he lived, and by being
habituated to believe, from his earliest child-
hood, that the family to which he belonged
were born to live in luxury and splendor, and
to reign, while the millions that formed the
great mass of the community were created only
to toil and to obey. The manner in which the
principles of pride, ambition, and desperate love
of power, which were instilled into his mind in
his earliest years, brought forth in the end their
legitimate fruits, is clearly seen by the following
I. RICHARD'S MOTHER ......-............... 13
RICHARD'S FATHER...-----.....-....... ... 33
THE CHILDHOOD OF RICHARD ..---.....-... 57
IV. ACCESSION OF EDWARD IV., RICHARD'S ELDER
BROTHER .---.. --... ---......-... ..... 67
V WARWICK, THE KING-MAKER.------.---.... 89
VI. THE DOWNFALL OF YORK---.......----..--.... 118
VII. THE DOWNFALL OF LANCASTER.--....-------... 137
VIII. RICHARD'S MARRIAGE .---.--... --..---.. .. 165
IX. END OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD --..-----.. 182
X. RICHARD AND EDWARD V.....------------- 208
XI. TAKING SANCTUARY 221
XII. RICHARD LORD PROTECTOR .....----------- 236
XIII. PROCLAIMED KING 258
XIV. THE CORONATION .......----..- ---------- 279
XV. FATE OF THE PRINCES.........-------..----- 291
XVI. DOMESTIC TROUBLES....-----.........--------------... 301
XVII. THE FIELD OF BOSWORTH....-------........... 320
THE ROYAL CHAMPION...---....----....-- --Frontsptece.
SCENES OF CIVIL WAR ...--.................... 15
LUDLOW CASTLE......--..... 26
CASTLE AND PARK OF THE MIDDLE AGES-----..--- 29
HENRY VI. IN HIS CHILDHOOD 38
QUEEN MARGARET OF ANJOU, WIFE OF HENRY VI... 40
WALLS OF YORK............. 49
LAST HOURS OF KING RICHARD'S FATHER-----..--- 54
CASTLE AND GROUNDS BELONGING TO THE HOUSE OF
THE OLD QUINTAINE---.........----.. ...-- ..... 84
PLAYING BALL-...... --------.---------------- 86
BATTLE-DOOR AND SHUTTLE-COCK 87
RICHARD'S SIGNATURE ................----..-. 88
EDWARD IV....-----.. ..-------....---- ........ 102
QUEEN ELIZABETH WOODVILLE...-----.. ..------- 103
WESTMINSTER IN TIMES OF PUBLIC CELEBRATIONS- 106
WARWICK IN THE PRESENCE OF THE FRENCH KING 112
THE SANCTUARY 133
DEATH OF WARWICK ON THE FIELD OF BARNET... 148
STREET LEADING TO THE TOWER 151
CHURCH AT TEWKESBURY --..----------........ 155
QUEEN MARGARET BROUGHT IN PRISONER AT COV-
TOMB OF HENRY VI. 163
RICHARD III. 176
QUEEN ANNE ..-----............--------------...------..---- 177
MIDDLEHAM CASTLE..-- ...------....-------------. 180
LOUIS XI. OF FRANCE......-------..-----------..--- 184
THE MURDERERS COMING FOR CLARENCE 200
JANE SHORE...-- ........-------------------- 203
THE ATTEMPTED RECONCILIATION 211
ANCIENT PORTRAIT OF EDWARD V. 219
ANCIENT VIEW OF WESTMINSTER--...-.....--- .. 228
THE PEOPLE IN THE STREETS ....-------------.... 235
CLARENCE'S CHILDREN HEARING OF THEIR FATHER'S
THE COUNCIL IN THE TOWER -...- ...-----...-- 244
POMFRET CASTLE ..---......--...---.......... 248
BAYNARD'S CASTLE.-.......---.... .------....- 273
THE KING ON HIS THRONE --------------------. 276
THE BLOODY TOWER 283
QUEEN ELIZABETH AT THE GRAVE----....------- 304
PORTRAIT OF THE PRINCESS ELIZABETH-----... --. 318
THE CASTLE AT TAMWORTH.----..---....--..-- 325
KING HENRY VII... ......---- ............. ---332
THE MONASTERY AT BERMONDSEY.-------------- 335
KING RICHARD III.
The great quarrel between the houses of York and Lancaster.
T HE mother of King Richard the Third was
a beautiful, and, in many respects, a noble-
minded woman, though she lived in very rude,
turbulent, and trying times. She was born, so
to speak, into one of the most widely-extended,
the most bitter, and the most fatal of the family
quarrels which have darkened the annals of the
great in the whole history of mankind, namely,
that long-protracted and bitter contest which
was waged for so many years between the two
great branches of the family of Edward the
Third-the houses of York and Lancaster-for
the possession of the kingdom of England.
This dreadful quarrel lasted for more than a
hundred years. It led to wars and commo-
tions, to the sacking and burning of towns, to
the ravaging of fruitful countries, and to atro-
cious deeds of violence of every sort, almost
without number. The internal peace ofhund-
14 KING RICHARD III.
Terrible results of the quarrel. Origin of it.
reds of thousands of families all over the land
was destroyed by it for many generations. Hus-
bands were alienated from wives, and parents
from children by it. Murders and assassina-
tions innumerable grew out of it. And what
was it all about ? you will ask. It arose from
the fact that the descendants of a certain king
had married and intermarried among each oth-
er in such a complicated manner that for sev-
eral generations nobody could tell which of
two different lines of candidates was fairly en-
titled to the throne. The question was settled
at last by a prince who inherited the claim on
one side marrying a princess who was the heir
on the other. Thus the conflicting interests of
the two houses were combined, and the quarrel
But, while the question was pending, it kept
the country in a state of perpetual commotion,
with feuds, and quarrels, and combats innumer-
able, and all the other countless and indescrib-
able horrors of civil war.
The two branches of the royal family which
were engaged in this quarrel were called the
houses of York and Lancaster, from the fact
that those were the titles of the fathers and
heads of the two lines respectively. The Lan-
caster party were the descendants of John of
SCENES OF CIVIL WAR.
Intricate questions of genealogy and descent.
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and the York party
were the successors and heirs of his brother Ed-
mund, Duke of York. These men were both
sons of Edward the Third, the King of England
who reigned immediately before Richard the
Second. A full account of the family is given
in our history of Richard the Second. Ofcourse,
they being brothers, their children were cousins,
and they ought to have lived together in peace
and harmony. And then, besides being relat-
ed to each other through their fathers, the two
branches of the family intermarried together, so
as to make the relationships in the following
generations so close and so complicated that it
was almost impossible to disentangle them. In
reading the history of those times, we find dukes
or princes fighting each other in the field, or
laying plans to assassinate each other, or striv-
ing to see which should make the other a cap-
tive, and shut him up in a dungeon for the rest
of his days; and yetthese enemies, so exasper-
ated and implacable, are very near relations-
cousins, perhaps, if the relationship is reckoned
in one way, and uncle and nephew if it is reck-
oned in another. During the period of this
struggle, all the great personages of the court,
and all, or nearly all, the private families of the
kingdom, and all the towns and the villages,
18 KING RICHARD III.
Lady Cecily Neville. bhe becomes Duchess of York.
were divided and distracted by the dreadful
Richard's mother, whose name, before she was
married, was Lady Cecily Neville, was born into
one side of this quarrel, and then afterward mar-
ried into the other side of it. This is a speci-
men of the way in which the contest became
complicated in multitudes of cases. Lady Ceci-
ly was descended from the Duke of Lancaster,
but she married the Duke of York, in the third
generation from the time when the quarrel
Of course, upon her marriage, Lady Cecily
Neville became the Duchess of York. Her
husband was a man of great political import-
ance in his day, and, like the other nobles of
the land, was employed continually in wars
and in expeditions of various kinds, in the
course of which he was continually changing
his residence from castle to castle all over En-
gland, and sometimes making excursions into
Ireland, Settland, and France. His wife ac-
companied him in many of these wanderings,
and she led, of course, so far as external cir-
cumstances were concerned, a wild and adven-
turous life. She was, however, very quiet and
domestic in her tastes, though proud and am-
bitious in her aspirations, and she occupied her-
Her mode of life. Extract from the ancient annals.
self, wherever she was, in regulating her hus-
band's household, teaching and training her
children, and in attending with great regularity
and faithfulness to her religious duty, as relig-
ious duty was understood in those days.
The following is an account, copied from an
ancient record, of the manner in which she spent
her days at one of the castles where she was
She useth to arise at seven of the clock,
and hath ready her chapleyne to say with her
mattins of the daye (that is, morning prayers),
and when she is fully ready, she hath a lowe
mass in her chamber. After'mass she taketh
something to recreate nature, and soe goeth to
the chapelle, hearing the divine service and two
lowe masses. From thence to dynner, during
the tyme of whih she hath a lecture of holy mat-
ter (that is, reading from a religious book), either
Hilton of Contemplative and Active Life, or
some other spiritual and instructive work. After
dynner she giveth audience to all such as hath
any matter to shrive unto her, by the space of
one hower, and then sleepeth one quarter of an
shower, and after she hath slept she contynueth
in prayer until the first peale of even songe.
In the tyme of supper she reciteth the Icc-
20 KING RICHARD III.
Lady Cecily's family. Names of the children.
ture that was had at dynner to those that be in
her presence. After supper she disposeth her-
self to be famyliare with her gentlewomen to
the seasoning of honest myrthe, and one bower
before her going to bed she taketh a cup of
wine, and after that goeth to her pryvie closette,
and taketh her leave of God for all night, mak-
inge end of her prayers for that daye, and by
eight of the clocke is in bedde."
The going to bed at eight o'clock was in keep-
[ng with the other arrangements of the day, for
we find by a record of the rules and orders of
the duchess's household that the dinner-hour
was eleven, and the supper was at four.
This lady, Richard's mother, during her mar-
ried life, had no less than twelve children.
Their names were Anne, Henry, Edward, Ed-
mund, Elizabeth, Margaret, William, John,
George, Thomas, Richard, and Ursula. Thus
Richard, the subject of this volume, was the
eleventh, that is, the last but one. A great
many of these, Richard's brothers and sisters,
died while they were children. All the boys
died thus except four, namely, Edward, Ed-
mund, George, and Richard. Of course, it is
only with those four that we have any thing to
do in the present narrative.
1 CAR 'S MOTHER. 21
The boys' situation and mode of life. Their letters.
Several of the other children, however, be-
sides these three, lived for some time. They
resided generally with their mother while they
were young, but as they grew up they were
often separated both from her and from their
father-the duke, their father, being often called
away from home, in the course of the various
wars in which he was engaged, and his wife fre-
quently accompanied him. On such occasions
the boys were left at some castle or other, under
the care of persons employed to take charge of
their education. They used to write letters to
their father from time to time, and it is curious
that these letters are the earliest examples of
letters from children to parents which have been
preserved in history. Two of the boys were at
one time under the charge of a man named
Richard Croft, and' the boys thought that he
was too strict with them. One of the letters,
which has been preserved, was written to com-
plain of this strictness, or, as the boy expressed
it, "the odieux rule and demeaning" of their
tutor, and also to ask for some "fyne bonnets,"
which the writer wished to have sent for him-
self and for his little brother. There is another
long letter extant which was written at nearly
the same time. This letter was written, or at
least signed, by two of the boys, Edward and
22 KING RICHARD III.
Letter written by Edward and Edmund.
Edmund, and was addressed to their father on
the occasion of some of his victories. But,
though signed by the boys' names, I suspect,
from the lofty language in which it is express-
ed, and from the many high-flown expressions
of duty which it contains, that it was really
written for the boys by their mother or by one
of their teachers. Of this, however, the reader
can judge for himself on perusing the letter.
In this copy the spelling is modernized so as to
make it more intelligible, but the language is
transcribed exactly from the original.
"Right high and mighty prince, our most
worshipful and greatly redoubted lord and fa-
In as lowly a wise as any sons can or may,
we recommend us unto your good lordship, and
please it to your highness to wit, that we have
received your worshipful letters yesterday by
your servant William Clinton, bearing date at
York, the 29th day of May.*
By the which William, and by the relation
of John Milewater, we conceive your worship-
ful and victorious speed against your enemies,
There were no postal arrangements in those days, and
all letters were sent by private, and generally by special mes-
The boys congratulate their father on his victories.
to their great shame, and to us the most comfort-
able things that we desire to hear. Whereof
we thank Almighty God of his gifts, beseech-
ing him heartily to give you that good and co-
tidian* fortune hereafter to know your enemies,
and to have the victory over them.
"And if it please your highness to know of
our welfare, at the making of this letter we were
in good health of body, thanked be God, be-
seeching your good and gracious fatherhood for
our daily blessing.
"And whereas you command us by your
said letters to attend specially to our learning
in our young age, that should cause us to grow
to honor and worship in our old age, please it
your highness to wit, that we have attended to
our learning since we came hither, and shall
hereafter, by the which we trust to God your
gracious lordship and good fatherhood shall be
"Also we beseech your good lordship that
it may please you to send us Harry Lovedeyne,
groom of your kitchen, whose service is to us
right agreeable; and we will send you John
Boyes to wait upon your lordship.
"Right high and mighty prince, our most
worshipful and greatly redoubted lord and fa-
24 KING RICHARD III.
Farther particulars about the boys.
their, we beseech Almighty God to give you as
good life and long as your own princely heart
can best desire.
Written at your Castle of Ludlow, the 3d
"Your humble sons,
The subscriptions E. March and E. Rutland
stand for Edward, Earl of March, and Edmund,
Earl of Rutland; for, though these boys were
then only eleven and twelve years of age re-
spectively, they were both earls. One of them,
afterward, when he was about seventeen years
old, was cruelly killed on the field of battle,
where he had been fighting with his father, as
we shall see in another chapter. The other,
Edward, became King of England. He came
immediately before Richard the Third in the
The letter which the boys wrote was super-
scribed as follows:
"To the right high and mighty prince, our
most worshipful and greatly redoubted lord and
father, the Duke of York, Protector and De-
fender of England." &
RICHARD'S MOTHER. 27
The Castle of Ludlow. Character of Richard's mother.
The castle of Ludlow, where the boys were
residing when this letter was written, was a
strong fortress built upon a rock in the western
part of England, not far from Shrewsbury. The
engraving is a correct representation of it, as it
appeared at the period when those boys were
there, and it gives a very good idea of the sort
of place where kings and princes were accus-
tomed to send their families for safety in those
stormy times. Soon after the period of which
we are speaking, Ludlow Castle was sacked and
destroyed. The ruins of it, however, remain to
the present day, and they are visited with much
interest by great numbers of modern travelers.
Lady Cecily, as we have already seen, was in
many respects a noble woman, and a most faith-
ful and devoted wife and mother; she was,
however, of a very lofty and ambitious spirit,
and extremely proud of her rank and station.
Almost all her brothers and sisters-and the
family was very large-were peers and peer-
esses, and when she married Prince Richard
Plantagenet, her heart beat high with exultation
and joy to think that she was about to become
a queen. She believed that Prince Richard
was fully entitled to the throne at that time,
for reasons which will be fully explained in the
next chapter, and that, even if his claims should
28 KING RICHARD II.
Spirit of aristocracy. Relative condition of the nobles and the people.
not be recognized until the death of the king
who was then reigning, they certainly would be
so recognized then, and she would become an
acknowledged queen, as she thought she was
already one by right. So she felt greatly ex-
alted in spirit, and moved and acted among all
who surrounded her with an air of stately re-
serve of the most grand and aristocratic char-
In fact, there has, perhaps, no time and place
been known in the history of the world in
which the spirit of aristocracy was more lofty
and overbearing in its character than in En-
gland during the period when the Plantagenet
family were in prosperity and power. The no-
bles formed then, far more strikingly than they
do now, an entirely distinct and exalted class,
that looked down upon all other ranks and gra-
dations of society as infinitely beneath them.
Their only occupation was war, and they re-
garded all those who were engaged in any em-
ployments whatever, that were connected with
art or industry, with utter disdain. These last
were crowded together in villages and towns
which were formed of dark and narrow streets,
and rude and comfortless dwellings. The no-
bles lived in grand castles scattered here and
there over the country, with extensive parks
CASTLE AND PARK OF THE MIDDLE AGE8.
RICHARD'S MOTHER. 31
Character of Richard's mother. The governess.
and pleasure-grounds around them, where they
loved to marshal their followers, and inaugu-
rate marauding expeditions against their rivals
or their enemies. They were engaged in con-
stant wars and contentions with each other,
each thirsting for more power and more splen-
dor than he at present enjoyed, and treating all
beneath him with the utmost haughtiness and
disdain. Richard's mother exhibited this aris-
tocratic loftiness of spirit in a very high de-
gree, and it was undoubtedly in a great manner
through the influence which she exerted over
her children that they were inspired with those
sentiments of ambition and love of glory to
which the crimes and miseries into which sev-
eral of them fell in their subsequent career were
To assist her in the early education of her
children, Richard's mother appointed one of the
ladies of the court their governess. This gov-
erness was a personage of very high rank, be-
ing descended from the royal line. With the
ideas which Lady Cecily entertained of the ex-
alted position of her family, and of the future
destiny of her children, none but a lady of high
rank would be thought worthy of being in-
trusted with such a charge. The name of the
governess was Lady Mortimer.
32 KING RICIARD III.
Sir Richard Croft, the boys' governor.
The boys, as they grew older, were placed
under the charge of a governor. His name was
Sir Richard Croft. It is this Sir Richard that
they allude to in their letter. He, too, was a
person of high rank and of great military dis-
tinction. The boys, however, thought him too
strict and severe with them; at least so it would
seem, from the manner in which they speak of
him in the letter.
The governor and the governess appear to
have liked each other very well, for after a time
Sir Richard offered himself to Lady Mortimer,
and they were married.
Besides Ludlow Castle, Prince Richard had
several other strongholds, where his wife from
time to time resided. Richard, who was one
of the youngest of the children, was born at
one of these, called Fotheringay Castle; but,
before coming to the event of his birth, I must
give some account of the history and fortunes
of his father.
RICHARD'S FATHER. 33
Genealogy of Richard Plantagenet. Family of Edward III.
R ICHARD'S father was a prince of the house
of York. In the course of his life he was
declared heir to the crown, but he died before
he attained possession of it, thus leaving it for
his children. The nature of his claim to the
crown, and, indeed, the general relation of the
various branches of the family to each other,
will be seen by the genealogical table on the
next page but one.
Edward the Third, who reigned more than
one hundred years before Richard the Third,
and his queen Philippa, left at their decease four
sons, as appears by the table.* They had other
children besides these, but it was only these
four, namely, Edward, Lionel, John, and Ed-
mund, whose descendants were involved in the
quarrels for the succession. The others either
died young, or else, if they arrived at maturity,
the lines descending from them soon became
Of the four that survived, the oldest was Ed-
See page 35.
34 KING RICHARD 111. [A.D.1415.
Succession of heirs in the family of Edward III.
ward, called in history the Black Prince. A
full account of his life and adventures is given
in our history of Richard the Second. He died
before his father, and so did not attain to the
crown. He, however, left his son Richard his
heir, and at Edward's death Richard became
king. Richard reigned twenty years, and then,
in consequence of his numerous vices and
crimes, and of his general mismanagement, he
was deposed, and Henry, the son of John of
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, Edward's third son,
ascended the throne in his stead.
Now, as appears by the table, John of Gaunt
was the third of the four sons, Lionel, Duke of
Clarence, being the second. The descendants
of Lionel would properly have come before
those of John in the succession, but it happen-
ed that the only descendants of Lionel were
Philippa, a daughter, and Roger, a grandchild,
who was at this time an infant. Neither of
these were able to assert their claims, although
in theory their claims were acknowledged to
be prior to those of the descendants of John.
The people of England, however, were so desir-
ous to be rid of Richard, that they were will-
ing to submit to the reign of any member of
the royal family who should prove strong
enough to dispossess him. So they accepted
GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE FAMILY OF EDWARD III., SHOWING THE CONNECTION OF
THE HOUSES OF YORK AND LANCASTER.
EDWARD LIONEL JOHN EDMUND
(The Black Prince). (Duke of Clarence). (Of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster). (Duke of York).
RIcAD II. PHILIPPA=Edward Mortimer. HENRY IV. RionanD=Anne.
I I (See second Column.)
ROGER MORTIMER HENsB V. I
(Earl of Marche. RICHARD PLANTAOENET
| HENY VI. (Duke of York).
ANN-=Richard of York. |
(See fourth column.) EDWARD ]
(Prince of Wales). EDWARD IV. GEORE RIOHARD III.
(Duke of Clarence).
The character=denotes marriage; the short perpendicular line I a descent. There were many
other children and descendants in the different branches of the family besides those whose names are
inserted in the table. The table includes only those essential to an understanding of the history.
86 KING RICHARD III. [A.D.1415.
Union of the houses of Clarence and York.
Henry of Lancaster, who ascended the throne
as Henry the Fourth, and he and his successors
in the Lancastrian line, Henry the Fifth and
Henry the Sixth, held the throne for many
Still, though the people of England general-
ly acquiesced in this, the families of the other
brothers, namely, of Lionel and Edmund, called
generally the houses of Clarence and of York,
were not satisfied. They combined together,
and formed a great many plots and conspira-
cies against the house of Lancaster, and many
insurrections and wars, and many cruel deeds
of violence and murder grew out of the quar-
rel. At length, to strengthen their alliance
more fully, Richard, the second son of Edmund
of York, married Anne, a descendant of the
Clarence line. The other children, who came
before these, in the two lines, soon afterward
died, leaving the inheritance of both to this pair.
Their son was Richard, the father of Richard
the Third. He is called Richard Plantagenet,
Duke of York. On the death of his father and
mother, he, of course, became the heir not only
of the immense estates and baronial rights of
both the lines from which he had descended,
but also of the claims of the older line to the
crown of England.
A.D.1415.] RICHARD'S FATHER. 87
Richard- Flantagenet a prisoner. King Henry VI.
The successive generations of these three
lines, down to the period of the union of the
second and fourth, cutting off the third, is
shown clearly in the table.
Of course, the Lancaster line were much
alarmed at the combination of the claims of
their rivals. King Henry the Fifth was at that
period on the throne, and, by the time that
Richard Plantagenet was three years old, un-
der pretense of protecting him from danger, he
caused him to be shut up in a castle, and kept
a close prisoner there.
Time rolled on. King Henry the Fifth died,
and Henry the Sixth succeeded him. Richard
Plantagenet was still watched and guarded; but
at length, by the time that Richard was thir-
teen years old, the power and influence of his
branch of the royal family, or rather those of
the two branches from which, combined, he
was descended, were found to be increasing,
while that of the house of Lancaster was de-
clining. After a time he was brought out from
his imprisonment, and restored to his rank and
station. King Henry the Sixth was a man of
a very weak and timid mind. He was quite
young too, being, in fact, a mere child when
he began to reign, and every thing went wrong
with his government. While he was young, he
38 KING RICHARD III. [A.D.1425.
His gentle and quiet character. Portrait.
could, of course, do nothing, and when he grew
older he was too gentle and forbearing to con-
trol the rough and turbulent spirits around him.
He had no taste for war and bloodshed, but
loved retirement and seclusion, and, as he ad-
vanced in years, he fell into the habit of spend-
ing a great deal of his time in acts of piety and
devotion, performed according to the ideas and
customs of the times. The annexed engraving,
representing him as he appeared when he was
HENRY VI. IN HIS CHILDHOOD.
A.D.1425.] RICHARD'S FATHER. 39
Discontent of the people. Arrangements made for the succession.
a boy, is copied from the ancient portraits, and
well expresses the mild and gentle traits which
marked his disposition and character.
Such being the disposition and character of
Henry, every thing during his reign went
wrong, and this state of things, growing worse
and worse as he advanced in life, greatly en-
couraged and strengthened the house of York
in the effort which they were inclined to make
to bring their own branch of the family to the
See," said they, "what we come to by al-
lowing a line of usurpers to reign. These Hen-
rys of Lancaster are all descended from a young-
er son, while the heirs of the older are living,
and have a right to the throne. Richard Plan-
tagenet is the true and proper heir. He is
a man of energy. Let us make him king."
But the people of England, though they grad-
ually came to desire the change, were not will-
ing yet to plunge the country again into a state
of civil war for the purpose of making it. They
would not disturb Henry, they said, while he
continued to live; but there was nobody to suc-
ceed him, and, when he died, Richard Plantag-
enet should be king.
Henry was married at this time, but he had
no children. The name of his wife was Mar-
40 KING RICHARD III. [A.D.1425.
Character of Margaret of Anjou.
garet of Anjou. She was a very extraordinary
and celebrated woman. Though very beauti-
ful in person, she was as energetic and mascu-
line in character as her poor husband was ef-
feminate and weak, and she took every thing
QUEEN MARGARET OF ANJOU, WIFE OF HENRY VI.
into her own hands. This, however, made mat-
ters worse instead of better, and the whole coun-
A.D.1454.] RICHARD'S FATHER. 41
No children. Feeble and failing capacity of the king.
try seemed to rejoice that she had no children,
for thus, on the death of Henry, the line would
become extinct, and Richard Plantagenet and
his descendants would succeed, as a matter of
course, in a quiet and peaceful manner. As
Henry and Margaret had now been married
eight or nine years without any children, it was
supposed that they never would have any.
Accordingly, Richard Plantagenet was uni-
versally looked upon as Henry's successor,
and the time seemed to be drawing nigh when
the change of dynasty was to take place. Hen-
ry's health was very feeble. He seemed to be
rapidly declining. His mind was affected, too,
quite seriously, and he sometimes sank into a
species of torpor from which nothing could
Indeed, it became difficult to carry on the
government in his name, for the king sank at
last into such a state of imbecility that it was
impossible to obtain from him the least sign or
token that would serve, even for form's sake, as
an assent on his part to the royal decrees. At
one time Parliament appointed a commission to
visit him in his chamber, for the purpose of as-
certaining the state that he was in, and to see
also whether they could not get some token
From him which they could consider as his as-
42 KING RICHARD III.
Richard Plantagenet formally declared the heir.
sent to certain measures which it was deemed
important to take; but they could not get from
the king any answer or sign of any kind, not-
withstanding all that they could do or say.
They retired for a time, and afterward came
back again to make a second attempt, and then,
as an ancient narrative records the story, "they
moved and stirred him by all the ways and
means that they could think of to have an an-
swer of the said matter, but they could have no
answer, word nor sign, and therefore, with sor-
rowful hearts, came away."
This being the state of things, Parliament
thought it time to make some definite arrange-
ments for the succession. Accordingly, they
passed a formal and solemn enactment declar-
ing Richard Plantagenet heir presumptive of
the crown, and investing him with the rank and
privileges pertaining to that position. They
also appointed him, for the present, Protector
and defender of the realm.
Richard, the subject of this volume, was at
this time an infant two years old. The other
ten children had been born at various periods
It was now, of course, expected that Henry
would soon die, and that then Richard Plan-
tagenet would at once ascend the throne, ac-
RICHARD'S FATHER. 43
Unexpected birth of a prince. Suspicions.
knowledge by the whole realm as the sole and
rightful heir. But these expectations were sud-
denly disturbed, and the whole kingdom was
thrown into a state of great excitement and
alarm by the news of a very unexpected and
important event which occurred at this time,
namely, the birth of a child to Margaret, the
queen. This event awakened all the latent
fires of civil dissension and discord anew. The
Lancastrian party, of course, at once rallied
around the infant prince, who, they claimed,
was the rightful heir to the crown. They be-
gan at once to reconstruct and strengthen their
plans, and to shape their measures with a view
to retain the kingdom in the Lancaster line.
On the other hand, the friends of the combined
houses of Clarence and York declared that they
would not acknowledge the new-comer as the
rightful heir. They did not believe that he was
the son of the king, for he, as they said, had
been for a long time as good as dead. Some
said that they did not even believe that the
child was Margaret's son. There was a story
that she had had a child, but that he was very
weak and puny, and that he had died soon aft-
er his birth, and that Margaret had cunningly
substituted another child in his place, in order
to retain her position and power by having a
44 KING RICHARD III.
Various plans and speculations. Richard's hopes.
supposed son of hers reign as king after her hus-
band should die. Margaret was a woman of so
ambitious and unscrupulous a character, that
she was generally believed capable of adopting
any measures, however criminal and bold, to
accomplish her ends.
But, notwithstanding these rumors, Parlia-
ment acknowledged the infant as his father's
son and heir. He was named Edward, and cre-
ated at once Prince of Wales, which act was a
solemn acknowledgment of his right to the suc-
cession. Prince Richard made no open oppo-
sition to this; for, although he and his friends
maintained that he had a right to the crown,
they thought that the time had not yet come
for openly advancing their claim, so for the pres-
ent they determined to be quiet. The child
might not survive, and his father, the king, be-
ing in so helpless and precarious a condition,
might cease to live at any time; and if it should
so happen that both the father and the child
should die, Richard would, of course, succeed at
once, without any question. He accordingly
thought it best to wait a little while, and see
what turn things would take.
He soon found that things were taking the
wrong turn. The child lived, and appeared
likely to continue to live, and, what was per-
A.D.1459.] RICHARD'S FATHER. 45
Progress of the formation of parties.
haps worse for him, the king, instead of declin-
ing more and more, began to revive. In a short
time he was able to attend to business again, at
least so far as to express his assent to measures
prepared for him by his ministers. Prince Rich-
ard was accordingly called upon to resign his
protectorate. He thought it best to yield to this
proposal, and he did so, and thus the govern-
ment was once more in Henry's hands.
Things went on in this way for two or three
years, but the breach between the two great
parties was all the time widening. Difficulties
multiplied in number and increased in magni-
tude. The country took sides. Armed forces
were organized on one side and on the other,
and at length Prince Richard openly claimed
the crown as his right. This led to a long and
violent discussion in Parliament. The result
was, that a majority was obtained to vote in fa-
vor of Prince Richard's right. The Parliament
decreed, however, that the existing state of
things should not be disturbed so long as Hen-
ry continued to live, but that at Henry's death
the crown should descend, not to little Edward
his son, the infant Prince of Wales, but to
Prince Richard Plantagenet and his descend-
Queen Margaret was at this time at a castle
46 KING RICHARD III. [A.D.1460.
Queen Margaret's resolution and energy. Wars.
in Wales, where she had gone with the child,
in order to keep him in a place of safety while
these stormy discussions were pending. When
she heard that Parliament had passed a law set-
ting aside the claims of her child, she declared
that she would never submit to it. She imme-
diately sent messengers all over the northern
part of the kingdom, summoning the faithful
followers of the king every where to arm them-
selves and assemble near the frontier. She her-
self went to Scotland to ask for aid. The King
of Scotland at that time was a child, but he was
related to the Lancastrian family, his grand-
mother having been a descendant of John of
Gaunt, the head of the Lancaster line. He was
too young to take any part in the war, but his
mother, who was acting as regent, furnished
Margaret with troops. Margaret, putting her-
self at the head of these forces, marched across
the frontier into England, and joined herself
there to the other forces which had assembled
in answer to her summons.
In the mean time, Prince Richard had assem-
bled his adherents too, and had commenced his
march to the northward to meet his enemies.
He took his two oldest sons with him, the two
that wrote the letter quoted in the last chapter.
One of these you will recollect was Edward.
A.D.1461.] RICHARD'S FATH'EI. 47
Richard's two brothers, Edward and Edmund.
Earl of Marche, and the second was Edmund,
Earl of Rutland. Edward was now about eight-
een years of age, and his brother Edmund
about seventeen. One would have said that at
this period of life they were altogether too
young to be exposed to the hardships, fatigues,
and dangers of a martial campaign; but it was
the custom in those times for princes and no-
bles to be taken with their fathers to fields of
battle at a very early age: And these youthful
warriors were really of great service too, for
the interest which they inspired among all ranks
of the army was so great, especially when their
rank was very high, that they were often the
means of greatly increasing the numbers and
the enthusiasm of their fathers' followers.
Edward, indeed, was in this instance deemed
old enough to be sent off on an independent
service, and so, while the prince moved forward
with the main body of his army toward the
north, he dispatched Edward, accompanied by
a suitable escort, to the westward, toward the
frontiers of Wales, to assemble all the armed
men that he could find in that part of the king-
dom who were disposed to espouse his cause.
Edmund, who was a year younger than Ed-
ward, went with his father.
The prince proceeded to the city of York,
48 KING RICHARD III. [A.D.1461.
The walls of York. Prince Richard at York.
which was then a fortified place of great strength.
The engraving gives a very good idea of the
appearance of the walls in those times. These
walls remain, indeed, almost entire at the pres-
ent day, and they are visited a great deal by
tourists and travelers, being regarded with much
interest as furnishing a very complete and well-
preserved specimen of the mural fortifications
of the Middle Ages. Such walls, however,
would be almost entirely useless now as means
of defense, since they would not stand at all
against an attack from modern artillery.
The great church seen over the walls, in the
heart of the city, is the famous York minster,
one of the grandest Cathedral churches in En-
gland. It was a hundred and fifty years in
building, and it was completed about two cen-
turies before Richard's day.
When Prince Richard reached York, he en-
tered the town, and established himself there,
with a view of waiting till his son should ar-
rive with the re-enforcements which he had
been sent to seek in the western part of England.
While he was there, and before the re-enforce-
ments came, the queen, at the head of her army
from Scotland, which was strengthened, more-
over, by the troops which she had obtained in
the north of England, came marching on down
WALLS OF YORK.
A.D.1461.] RICHARD'S FATHER. 51
Boldness of the queen. The advice of Richard's counselors.
the country in great force. When she came
into the neighborhood of York, she encamped,
and then sent messengers to Prince Richard,
taunting and deriding him for having shut him-
self up within fortified walls, and daring him to
come out into the open field and fight her.
The prince's counselors advised him to do no
such thing. One of them in particular, a cer-
tain Sir Davy Hall, who was an old and faith-
ful officer in the prince's service, urged him to
pay no attention to Queen Margaret's taunts.
"We are not strong enough yet," said he,
"to meet the army which she has assembled.
We must wait till our re-enforcements come.
By going out now we shall put our cause in
great peril, and all to no purpose whatever."
"Ah! Davy, Davy," said the prince, "hast
thou loved me so long, and now wouldst thou
have me dishonored? When I was regent in
Normandy, thou never sawest me keep fortress,
even when the dauphin himself, with all his
power, came to besiege me.* I always, like a
man, came forth to meet him, instead of remain-
ing within my walls, like a bird shut up in a
In former years Prince Richard had acted as viceroy of
the English possessions in France, under King Henry, and
while there he had been engaged in wars with the King of
France, and with the dauphin, his son.
52 KING RICHARD III. [A.D.1461.
Richard's reply. The battle. Richard defeated.
cage. Now if I did not then keep myself shut
up for fear of a great, strong prince, do you
think I will now, for dread of a scolding woman,
whose weapons are only her tongue and her
nails, and thus give people occasion to say that
I turned dastard before a woman, when no man
had ever been able to make me fear ? No,
I will never submit to such disgrace. I would
rather die in honor than live in shame; and
so the great numbers of our enemies do not de-
ter me in the least; they rather encourage me;
therefore, in the name of God and St. George,
advance my banner, for I am determined that I
will go out and fight them, if I go alone."
So Prince Richard came forth from the gates
of York at the head of his columns, and rode on
toward the queen's camp. Edmund went with
him. Edmund was under the care of his tutor,
Robert Aspell, who was charged to keep close
to his side, and to watch over him in the most
vigilant manner. The army of the queen was
at some distance from York, at a place called
Wakefield. Both parties, as is usual in civil
wars, were extremely exasperated against each
other, and the battle was desperately fought.
It was very brief, however, and Richard's troops
were defeated. Richard himself was taken pris-
oner. Edmund endeavored to escape. His
LAST HOURS OF KING RICHARD'S FATHER.
A.D.1461.] RICHARD'S FATHER. 55
Death of Edmund. Death of Richard.
tutor endeavored to hurry him off the field, but
he was stopped on the way by a certain noble-
man of the queen's party, named Lord Clifford.
The poor boy begged hard for mercy, but Clif-
ford killed him on the spot.
The prince's army, when they found that the
battle had gone against them, and that their
captain was a prisoner, fled in all directions over
the surrounding country, leaving great numbers
dead upon the field. The prince himself, as
soon as he was taken, was disarmed on the field,
and all the leaders of the queen's army, includ-
ing, as the most authentic accounts relate, the
queen herself, gathered around him in wild ex-
ultation. They carried him to a mound form-
ed by an ant-hill, which they said, in mockery,
should be his throne. They placed him upon
it with taunts and derision. They made a
crown for him of knotted grass, and put it upon
his head, and then made mock obeisances be-
fore him, saying, Hail! king without a king-
dom. Hail! prince, without a people."
After having satisfied themselves with their
taunts and revilings, the party killed their pris-
oner and cut off his head. They set his head
upon the point of a lance, and in this way pre-
sented it to Queen Margaret. The queen or-
dered the head to be decorated with a paper
56 KING RICHARD 111. [A.D).1461.
The head set upon a pole at York.
crown, and'then to be carried to York, and set
up at the gates of that city upon a tall pole.
Thus was little Richard, the subject of this
narrative, left fatherless. He was at this period
between eight and nine years old.
Condition of young Richard in his childhood.
THE CHILDHOOD OF RICHARD III.
YOUNG Richard, as was said at the close of
the last chapter, was of a very tender age
when his father and his brother Edmund were
killed at the battle of Wakefield. He was at
that time only about eight years old. It is very
evident too, from what has been already related
of the history of his father and mother, that
during the whole period of his childhood and
youth he must have passed through very stormy
times. It is only a small portion of the life of
excitement, conflict, and alarm which was led
by his father that there is space to describe in
this volume. So unsettled and wandering a
life did his father and mother lead, that it is not
quite certain in which of the various towns and
castles that from time to time they made their
residence, he was born. It is supposed, how-
ever, that he was born in the Castle of Fother-
ingay, in the year 1452. His father was killed
in 1461, which would make Richard, as has al-
ready been said, about eight or nine years old
at that time.
58 KING RICHARD 111.
SStrange tales in respect to his birth.
There were a great many strange tales re-
lated in subsequent years in respect to Rich-
ard's birth. 'He became such a monster, mor-
ally, when he grew to be a man, that the people
believed that he was born a monster in person.
The story was that he came into the world very
ugly in face and distorted in form, and that his
hair and his teeth were already grown. These
were considered as portents of the ferociousness
of temper and character which he was subse-
quently to manifest, and of the unnatural:and
cruel crimes which he would live to commit.
It is very doubtful, however, whether any of
these stories are true. It is most probable that
at his birth he looked like any other child.
There were a great many periods of intense
excitement and terror in the family history be-
fore the great final calamity at Wakefield when
Richard's father and his brother Edmund were
killed. At these times the sole reliance of the
prince in respect to the care of the younger
children was upon Lady Cecily, their mother.
The older sons went with their father on the
various martial expeditions in which he was en-
gaged. They shared with him the hardships
and dangers of his conflicts, and the triumph
and exultations of his victories. The younger
children, however, remained in seclusion with
Dangers to which Richard was exposed in his childhood.
their mother, sometimes in one place and some-
times in another, wherever there was, for the
time being, the greatest promise of security.
Indeed, during the early childhood of Rich-
ard, the changes and vicissitudes through which
the family passed were so sudden and violent
in their character as sometimes to surpass the
most romantic tales of fiction. At one time,
while Lady Cecily was residing at the Castle of
Ludlow with Richard and some of the younger
children, a party of her husband's enemies, the
Lancastrians, appeared suddenly at the gates of
the town, and, before Prince Richard's party
had time to take any efficient measures for de-
fense, the town and the castle were both taken.
The Lancastrians had expected to find Prince
Richard himself in the castle, but he was not
there. They were exasperated by their disap-
pointment, and in their fury they proceeded to
ransack all the rooms, and to destroy every
thing that came into their hands. In some of
the inner and more private apartments they
found Lady Cecily and her children. They
immediately seized them all, made them pris-
oners, and carried them away. By King Hen-
ry's orders, they were placed in close custody
in another castle in the southern part of En-
gland, and all the property, both of the prince
60 KING RICHARD 111.
Extraordinary vicissitudes in the life of his mother.
and of Lady Cecily, was confiscated. While
the mother and the younger children were thus
closely shut up and reduced to helpless destitu-
tion, the father and the older sons were obliged
to fly from the country to save their lives. In
less than three months after this time these
same exiled and apparently ruined fugitives
were marching triumphantly through the coun-
try, at the head of victorious troops, carrying
all before them. Lady Cecily and her children
were set at liberty, and restored to their prop-
erty and their rights, while King Henry him-
self, whose captives they had been, was himself
made captive, and brought in durance to Lon-
don, and Queen Margaret and her son were in
their turn compelled to fly from the realm to
save their lives.
This last change in the condition of public
affairs took place only a short time before the
great final contest between Prince Richard of
York, King Richard's father, and the family of
Henry, when the prince lost his life at Wake-
field, as described in the last chapter.
Of course, young'Richard, being brought up
amid these scenes of wild commotion, and ac-
customed from childhood to witness the most
cruel and remorseless conflicts between branch-
es of the same family, was trained by them to
PALACE AND GARDEN BELONGING TO THE HOUSE OF YORK.
The castles and palaces belonging to the house of York.
be ambitious, daring, and unscrupulous in re-
spect to the means to be used in circumventing
or destroying an enemy. The seed thus sown
produced iri subsequent years most dreadful
fruit, as will be seen more fully in the sequel
of his history.
There were a great many hereditary castles
belonging to the family of York, many of which
had descended from father to son for many gen-
erations. Some of these castles were strong for-
tresses, built in wild and inaccessible retreats,
and intended to be used as places of temporary
refuge, or as the rallying-points and rendez-
vous of bodies of armed men. Others were
better adapted for the purposes of a private res-
idence, being built with some degree of refer-
ence to the comfort of the inmates, and sur-
rounded with gardens and grounds, where the
ladies and the children who were left in them
could find recreation and amusement adapted
to their age and sex.
It was in such a castle as this, near London,
that Lady Cecily and her younger children were
residing when her husband went to the north-
ward to meet the forces of the queen, as related
in the last chapter. Here Lady Cecily lived in
great state, for she thought the time was draw-
ing nigh when her husband would be raised to
64 KING RICHARD III.
Situation of Lady Cecily at the time of her husband's death.
the throne. Indeed, she considered him as al-
ready the true and rightful sovereign of the
realm, and she believed that the hour would
very soon come when his claims would be uni-
versally acknowledged, and when she herself
would be Queen of England, and her boys royal
princes, and, as such, the objects of universal at-
tention and regard. She instilled these ideas
continually into the minds of the children, and
she exacted the utmost degree of subserviency
and submission toward herself and toward them
on the part of all around her.
While she was thus situated in her palace
near London, awaiting every day the arrival of
a messenger from the north announcing the
final victory of her husband over all his foes,
she was one day thunderstruck, and overwhelm-
ed with grief and despair, by the tidings that
her husband had been defeated, and that he
himself, and the dear son who had accompa-
nied him, and was just arriving at maturity,
had been ignominiously slain. The queen,
too, her most bitter foe, now exultant and vic-
torious, was advancing triumphantly toward
Not a moment was to be lost. Lady Cecily
had with her, at this time, her two youngest
sons, George and Richard. She made immedi-
Lady Cecily sends the children to the Continent.
ate arrangements for her flight. It happened
that the Earl of Warwick, who was at this time
the Lord High Admiral, and who, of course, had
command of the seas between England and the
Continent, was a relative and friend of Lady
Cecily's. He was at this time in London. Lady
Cecily applied to him to assist her in making
her escape. He consented, and, with his aid,
she herself, with her two children and a small
number of attendants, escaped secretly from
London, and made their way to the southern
coast. There Lady Cecily put the children and
the attendants on board a vessel, by which they
were conveyed to the coast of Holland. On
landing there, they were received by the prince
of the country, who was a friend of Lady Ceci-
ly, and to whose care she commended them.
The prince received them with great kindness,
and sent them to the city of Utrecht, where he
established them safely in one of his palaces,
and appointed suitable tutors and governors
to superintend their education. Here it was
expected that they would remain for several
Their mother did not go with them to Hol-
land. Her fears in respect to remaining in
England were not for herself, but only for her
helpless children. For herself, her only im-
66 KING RICHARD III.
Situation of Lady Cecily and of her oldest son.
pulse was to face and brave the dangers which
threatened her, and triumph over them. So
she went boldly back to London, to await there
whatever might occur.
Besides, her oldest son was still in England,
and she could not forsake him. You will rec-
ollect that, when his father went north to meet
the forces of Queen Margaret, he sent his oldest
son, Edward, Earl of Marche, to the western part
of England, to obtain re-enforcements. Edward
was at Gloucester when the tidings came to him
of his father's death. Gloucester is on the west-
ern confines of England, near the southeastern
borders of Wales. Now, of course, since her
husband was dead, all Lady Cecily's ambition,
and all her hopes of revenge were concentrated
in him. She wished to be at hand to counsel
him, and to co-operate with him by all the
means in her power. How she succeeded in
these plans, and how, by means of them, he soon
became King of England, will appear in the
A.D.1461.] EDWARD IV. 67
Edward now becomes heir to the crown.
ACCESSION OF EDWARD IV., RICH-
ARD'S ELDER BROTHER.
R ICHARD'S brother Edward, as has already
been remarked, was at Gloucester when
he heard the news of his father death. This
news, of course, made a great change in his
condition. To his mother, the event was pure-
ly and simply a calamity, and it could awaken
no feelings in her heart but those of sorrow and
chagrin. In Edward's mind, on the other hand,
the first emotions of astonishment and grief
were followed immediately by a burst of ex-
ultation and pride. He, of course, as now the
oldest surviving son, succeeded at once to all
the rights and titles which his father had en-
joyed, and among these, according to the ideas
which his mother had instilled into his mind,
was the right to the crown. His heart, there-
fore, when the first feeling of grief for the loss
of his father had subsided, bounded with joy as
"So now lam the King of England."
The enthusiasm which he felt extended itself
68 KING RICHARD III.
His energy and decision. He marches to intercept Margaret.
at once to all around him. He immediately
made preparations to put himself at the head of'
his troops, and march to the eastward, so as to
intercept Queen Margaret on her way to London,
for he knew that she would, of course, now press
forward toward the capital as fast as possible.
He accordingly set out at once upon his
march, and, as he went on, he found that the
number of his followers increased very rapidly.
The truth was, that the queen's party, by their
murder of Richard, and of young Edmund his
son, had gone altogether too far for the good of
their own cause. The people, when they heard
the tidings, were indignant at such cruelty.
Those who belonged to the party of the house
of York, instead of being intimidated by the se-
verity of the measure, were exasperated at the
brutality of it, and they were all eager to join
the young duke, Edward, and help him to
avenge his father's and his brother's death.
Those who had been before on the side of the
house of Lancaster were discouraged and re-
pelled, while those who had been doubtful were
now ready to declare against the queen.
It is in this way that all excesses in the hour
of victory defeat the very ends they were in-
tended to subserve. They weaken the perpe-
trators, and not the subjects of them.
Warwick. Battle with the queen. Warwick defeated.
In the mean time, while young Edward, at
the head of his army, was marching on from
the westward toward London to intercept the
queen, the Earl of Warwick, who has already
been mentioned as a friend of Lady Cecily, had
also assembled a large force near London, and
he was now advancing toward the northward.
The poor king was with him. Nominally, the
king was in command of the expedition, and
every thing was done in his name, but really
he was a forlorn and helpless prisoner, forced
wholly against his will-so far as the feeble de-
gree of intellect which remained to him enabled
him to exercise a will-to seem to head an en-
terprise directed against his own wife, and his
best and strongest friend.
The armies of the queen and of the Earl of
Warwick advanced toward each other, until
they met at last at a short distance north of
London. A desperate battle was fought, and
the queen's party were completely victorious.
When night came on, the Earl of Warwick
found that he was beaten at every point, and
that his troops had fled in all directions, leaving
thousands of the dead and dying all along the
road sides. The camp had been abandoned, and
there was no time to save any thing; even the
poor king was left behind, and the officers of
70 KING RICHARD III.
Margaret regains possession of her husband.
the queen's army found him in a tent, with only
one attendant. Of course, the queen was over-
joyed at recovering possession of her husband,
not merely on his own account personally, but
also because she could now act again directly
in his name. So she prepared a proclamation,
by which the king revoked all that he had
done while in the hands of Warwick, on the
ground that he had been in durance, and had
not acted of his own free will, and also declared
Edward a traitor, and offered a large reward for
The queen was now once more filled with
exultation and joy. Her joy would have been
complete were it not that Edward himself was
still to be met, for he was all this time advanc-
ing from the westward; she, however, thought
that there was not much to be feared from such
a boy, Edward being at this time only about
nineteen years of age. So the queen moved on
toward London, flushed with the victory, and
exasperated with the opposition which she had
met with. Her soldiers were under very little
control, and they committed great excesses.
They ravaged the country, and plundered with-
out mercy all those whom they considered as
belonging to the opposite party; they commit-
ted, too, many atrocious acts of cruelty. It is
A.D.1461.] EDWARD IV. 71
Excesses committed by the queen's troops.
always thus in civil war. In foreign wars, arm-
ies are much more easily kept under control.
Troops march through a foreign territory, feel-
ing no personal spite or hatred against the in-
habitants of it, for they think it is a matter of
course that the people should defend their coun-
try and resist invaders. But in a civil war, the
men of each party feel a special personal hate
against every individual that does not belong
to their side, and in periods of actual conflict
this hatred becomes a rage that is perfectly un-
Accordingly, as the queen and her troops ad-
vanced, they robbed and murdered all who came
in their way, and they filled the whole country
with terror. They even seized and plundered
a convent, which was a species of sacrilege.
This greatly increased the general alarm. "The
wretches !" exclaimed the people, when they
heard the tidings, "nothing is sacred in their
eyes." The people of London were particu-
larly alarmed. They thought there was danger
that the city itself would be given up to plun-
der if the queen's troops gained admission. So
they all turned against her. She sent one day
into the town for a supply of provisions, and
the authorities, perhaps thinking themselves
bound by their official duty to obey orders of
72 KING RICHARD III.
Edward advances. He enters London. His welcome.
this kind coming in the king's name, loaded up
some wagons and sent them forth, but the peo-
ple raised a mob, and stopped the wagons at
the gates, refusing to let them go on.
In the mean time, Edward, growing every
hour stronger as he advanced, came rapidly on
toward London. He was joined at length by
the Earl of Warwick and the remnant of the
force which remained to the earl after the bat-
tle which he had fought with the queen. The
queen, now finding that Edward's strength was
becoming formidable, did not dare to meet him;
so she retreated toward the north again. Ed-
ward, instead of pursuing her, advanced direct-
ly toward London. The people threw open the
gates to him, and welcomed him as their deliv-
erer. They thronged the streets to look upon
him as he passed, and made the air ring with
their loud and long acclamations.
There was, indeed, every thing in the circum-
stances of the case to awaken excitement and
emotion. Here was a boy not yet out of his
teens, extremely handsome in appearance and
agreeable in manners, who had taken the field
in command of a very large force to avenge the
cruel death of his father and brother, and was
now coming boldly, at the head of his troops,
into the very capital of the king and queen unn
A.D.1461.] EDWARD IV. 73
Excitement in London. Measures taken by Edward.
der whose authority his father and brother had
The most extraordinary circumstance con-
nected with these proceedings was, that during
all this time Henry was still acknowledged by
every one as the actual king. Edward and his
friends maintained, indeed, that he, Edward,
was entitled to reign, but no one pretended that
any thing had yet been done which could have
the legal effect of putting him upon the throne.
There was, however, now a general expectation
that the time for the formal deposition of Hen-
ry was near, and in and around London all was
excitement and confusion. The people from
the surrounding towns flocked every day into
the city to see what they could see, and to hear
what they could hear. They thronged the
streets whenever Edward appeared in public,
eager to obtain a glimpse of him.
At length, a few days after Edward entered
the city, his counselors and friends deemed that
the time had come for action. Accordingly,
they made arrangements for a grand review in
a large open field. Their design was by this
review to call together a great concourse of
spectators. A vast assembly convened accord-
ing to their expectations. In the midst of the
ceremonies, two noblemen appeared before the
74 KING RICHARD III. [A.D.1461.
Voice of the people. They declare in favor of Edward.
multitude to make addresses to them. One of
them made a speech in respect to Henry, de-
nouncing the crimes, and the acts of treachery
and of oppression which his government had
committed. He dilated long on the feebleness
and incapacity of the king, and his total inabil-
ity to exercise any control in the management
of public affairs. After he had finished, he
called out to the people in a loud voice to de-
clare whether they would submit any longer to
have such a man for king.
The people answered "NAY, NAY, NAY,"
with loud and long acclamations.
Then the other speaker made an address in
favor of Edward. He explained at length the
nature of his title to the crown, showing it to
be altogether superior in point of right to that
of Henry. He also spoke long and eloquently
in praise of Edward's personal qualifications,
describing his courage, his activity, and energy,
and the various graces and accomplishments for
which he was distinguished, in the most glow-
ing terms. He ended by demanding of the peo-
ple whether they would have Edward for king.
The people answered YEA, YEA, YEA;
KING EDWARD FOREVER! KING EDWARD FOR-
EVER I" with acclamations as long and loud as
EDWARD IV 75
Edward is formally enthroned. Various ceremonies.
Of course there could be no legal validity in
such proceedings as these, for, even if England
had at that time been an elective monarchy, the
acclamations of an accidental assembly drawn
together to witness a review could on no ac-
count have been deemed a valid vote. This
ceremony was only meant as a very public an-
nouncement of the intention of Edward imme-
diately to assume the throne.
The next day, accordingly, a grand council
was held of all the great barons, and nobles,
and officers of state. By this council a decree
was passed that King Henry, by his late pro-
ceedings, had forfeited the crown, and Edward
was solemnly declared king in his stead. Im-
mediately afterward, Edward rode at the head
of a royal procession, which was arranged for
the purpose, to Westminster, and there, in the
presence of a vast assembly, he took his seat
upon the throne. While there seated, he made
a speech to the audience, in which he explained
the nature of his hereditary rights, and declared
his intention to maintain his rights thenceforth
in the most determined manner.
The king now proceeded to Westminster Ab-
bey, where he performed the same ceremonies
a second time. He was also publicly proclaimed
king on the same day in various parts of London.
76 KING RICHARD III.
Edward marches to the northward. A battle.
Edward was now full of ardor and enthusi-
asm, and his first impulse was to set off, at the
head of his army, toward the north, in pursuit
of the queen and the old king. The king and
queen had gone to York. The queen had not
only the king under her care, but also her son,
the little Prince of Wales, who was now about
eight years old. This young prince was the
heir to the crown on the Lancastrian side, and
Edward was, of course, very desirous of getting
him, as well as the king and queen, into his
hands; so he put himself at the head of his
troops, and began to move forward as fast as he
could go. The body of troops under his com-
mand consisted of fifty thousand men. In the
queen's army, which was encamped in the neigh-
borhood of York, there were about sixty thou-
Both parties were extremely exasperated
against each other, and were eager for the fight.
Edward gave orders to his troops to grant no
quarter, but, in the event of victory, to massa-
cre without mercy every man that they could
bring within their reach. The armies came to-
gether at a place called Towton. The combat
was begun in the midst of a snow-storm. The
armies fought from nine o'clock in the morn-
ning till three in the afternoon, and by that
EDWARD IV. 77
Edward enters York in triumph. He inters his father's body.
time the queen's troops were every where driv-
en from the field. Edward's men pursued them
along the roads, slaughtering them without mer-
cy as fast as they could overtake them, until at
length nearly forty thousand men were left dead
upon the ground.
The queen fled toward the north, taking with
her her husband and child. Edward entered
York in triumph. At the gates he found the
head of his father and that of his brother still
remaining upon the poles where the queen had
put them. He took them reverently down, and
then put other heads in their places, which he
cut off for the purpose from some of his prison-
ers. He was in such a state of fury, that I sup-
pose, if he could have caught the king and queen,
he would have cut off their heads, and put them
on the poles in the place of his father's and his
brother's; but he could not catch them. They
fled to the north, toward the frontiers of Scot-
land, and so escaped from his hands.
Edward determined not to pursue the fugi-
tives any farther at that time, as there were
many important affairs to be attended to in
London, and so he concluded to be satisfied at
present with the victory which he had obtain-
ed, and with the dispersion of his enemies, and
to return to the capital. He first, however,
78 KING RICHARD III.
He returns to London. Grief of his mother.
gathered together the remains of his father and
brother, and caused them to be buried with sol-
emn funeral ceremonies in one of his castles
near York. This was, however, only a tempo-
rary arrangement, for, as soon as his affairs were
fully settled, the remains were disinterred, and
conveyed, with great funeral pomp and parade,
to their final resting-place in the southern part
of the kingdom.
As soon as Edward reached London, one of
the first things that he did was to send for his
two brothers, George and Richard, who, as will
be recollected, had been removed by their moth-
er to Holland, and were now in Utrecht pursu-
ing their education. These two boys were all the
brothers of Edward that remained now alive.
They came back to London. Their widowed
mother's heart was filled with a melancholy
sort of joy in seeing her children once more to-
gether, safe in their native land; but her spirit,
after reviving for a moment, sank again, over-
whelmed with the bitter and irreparable loss
which she had sustained in the death of her
husband. His death was, of course, a fatal blow
to all those ambitious plans and aspirations
which she had cherished for herself. Though
the mother of a king, she could now never be-
come herself a queen; and, disappointed and un-
EDWARD IV. 79
Situation of George and Richard. Richard's person.
happy, she retired to one of the family castles
in the neighborhood of London, and lived there
comparatively alone and in great seclusion.
The boys, on the other hand, were brought
forward very conspicuously into public life. In
the autumn of the same year in which Edward
took possession of the crown, they were made
royal dukes, with great parade and ceremony,
and were endowed with immense estates to en-
able them to support the dignity of their rank
and position. George was made Duke of Clar-
ence; Richard, Duke of Gloucester; and from
this time the two boys were almost always des-
ignated by these names.
Suitable persons, too, were appointed to take
charge of the boys, for the purpose of conduct-
ing their education, and also to manage their
estates until they should become of age.
There have been a great many disputes in re-
spect to Richard's appearance and character at
this time. For a long period after his death,
people generally believed that he was, from his
very childhood, an ugly little monster, that no-
body could look upon without fear; and, in
fact, he was very repulsive in his personal ap-
pearance when he grew up, but at this time of
his life the historians and biographers who saw
and knew him say that he was quite a pretty
80 KING RICHARD III.
Description of the armor worn in those days.
boy, though puny and weak. His face was
handsome enough, though his form was frail,
and not perfectly symmetrical. Those who had
charge of him tried to strengthen his constitu-
tion by training him to the martial exercises
and usages which were practiced in those days,
and especially by accustoming him to wear the
ponderous armor which was then in use.
This armor was made of iron or steel. It
consisted of a great number of separate pieces,
which, when they were all put on, incased al-
most the whole body, so as to defend it against
blows coming from any quarter. First, there
was the helmet, or cap of steel, with large oval
pieces coming down to protect the ears. Next
came the gorget, as it was called, which was a
sort of collar to cover the neck. Then there
were elbow pieces to guard the elbows, and
shoulder-plates for the shoulders, and a breast-
plate or buckler for the front, and greaves for
the legs and thighs. These things were neces-
sary in those days, or at least they were advan-
tageous, for they afforded pretty effectual pro-
tection against all the ordinary weapons which
were then in use. But they made the warriors
themselves so heavy and unwieldy as very
greatly to interfere with the freedom of their
movements when engaged in battle. There
A.D.1461.] EDWARD IV. 81
Necessity of being trained to use this armor.
was, indeed, a certain advantage in this weight,
as it made the shock with which the knight on
horseback encountered his enemy in the charge
so much the more heavy and overpowering;
but if he were by any accident to lose his seat
and fall to the ground, he was generally so en-
cumbered by his armor that he could only par-
tially raise himself therefrom. He was thus
compelled to lie almost helpless until his ene-
my came to kill him, or his squire or some
other friend came to help him up.*
Of course, to be able to manage one's self at
all in these habiliments of iron and steel, there
was required not only native strength of con-
stitution, but long and careful training, and it
was a very important part of the education of
young men of rank in Richard's days to famil-
iarize them with the use of this armor, and in-
ure them to the weight of it. Suits of it were
made for boys, the size and weight of each suit
being fitted to the form and strength of the
wearer. Many of these suits of boys' armor
are still preserved in England. There are sev-
eral specimens to be seen in the Tower of Lon-
don. They are in the apartment called the
Horse Armory, which is a vast hall with effi-
gies of horses, and of men mounted upon them,
See engraving on page 148.
82 KING RICHARD III.
The armor costly. Substitutes for it. Exercises.
all completely armed with the veritable suits
of steel which the men and the horses that they
represent actually wore when they were alive.
The horses are arranged along the sides of the
room in regular order from the earliest ages
down to the time when steel armor of this kind
ceased to be worn.
These suits of armor were very costly, and
the boys for whom they were made were, of
course, filled with feelings of exultation and
pride when they put them on; and, heavy and
uncomfortable as such clothing must have been,
they were willing to wear it, and to practice the
required exercises in it. When actually made
of steel, the armor was very expensive, and such
could only be afforded for young princes and
nobles of very high rank; for other young
men, various substitutes were provided; but all
were trained, either in the use of actual armor,
or of substitutes, to perform a great number
and variety of exercises. They were taught,
when they were old enough, to spring upon a
horse with as much armor upon them and in
their hands as possible; to run races; to see how
long they could continue to strike heavy blows
in quick succession with a battle-axe or club,
as if they were beating an enemy lying upon
the ground, and trying to break his armor to
=I J --
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S~. _, ~IC
--i ---~ --
7 LC -'
Tee OLD QUINT~NNE.
Feats to be performed. Account of the quintaine.
pieces; to dance and throw summersets; to
mount upon a horse behind another person by
leaping from the ground, and assisting them-
selves only by one hand, and other similar
things. One feat which they practiced was to
climb up between two partition walls built pret-
ty near together, by bracing their back against
one wall, and working with their knees and
hands against the other. Another feat was to
climb up a ladder on the under side by means
of the hands alone.
Another famous exercise, or perhaps rather
game, was performed with what was called the
quintaine. The quintaine consisted of a stout
post set in the ground, and rising about ten or
twelve feet above the surface. Across the top
was a strong bar, which turned on a pivot made
in the top of the post, so that it would go round
and round. To one end of this cross-bar there
was fixed a square board for a target; to the
other end was hung a heavy club. The cross-
bar was so poised upon the central pivot that
it would move very easily. In playing the
game, the competitors, mounted on horseback,
were to ride, one after another, under the tar-
get-end of the cross-bar, and hurl their spears
at it with all their force. The blow from the
spear would knock the target-end of the cross-
86 KING RICHARD III.
Other exercises and sports. Playing ball.
bar away, and so bring round the other end,
with its heavy club, to strike a blow on the
horseman's head if he did not get instantly out
of the way. It was as if he were to strike one
enemy in front in battle, while there was an-
other enemy ready on the instant to strike him
There is one of these ancient quintaines now
standing on the green in the village of Off-
ham, in Kent.
Such exercises as these were, of course, only
fitted for men, or at least for boys who had
nearly attained to their full size and strength.
There were other games and exercises intended
for smaller boys. There are many rude pic-
tures in ancient books illustrating these old
games. In one they are playing ball; in an-
other they are playing shuttle-cock. The bat-
tle-doors that they use are very rude.
These pictures show how ancient these com-
mon games are. In another picture the boys
Jumping through a hoop. The two brothers companions.
BATTLE-DOOR AND SHUTTLE-COCK.
are playing with a hoop. Two of them are
holding the hoop up between them, and the
third is preparing to jump through it, head
foremost. His plan is to come down on the
other side upon his hands, and so turn a sum-
merset, and come up on his feet beyond.
In these exercises and amusements, and, in-
deed, in all his occupations, Richard had his
brother George, the Duke of Clarence, for his
playmate and companion. George was not
only older than Richard, but he was also much
more healthy and athletic; and some persons
have thought that Richard injured himself, and
perhaps, in some degree, increased the deformity
which he seems to have suffered from in later
years, or perhaps brought it on entirely, by
88 KING RICHARD III. [A.D.1461.
Richard's intellectual education.
overloading himself, in his attempts to keep
pace with his brother in these exercises, with
burdens of armor, or by straining himself in
athletic exertions which were beyond his pow-
The intellectual education of the boys was
not entirely neglected. They learned to read
and write, though they could not write much,
or very well. Their names are still found, as
they signed them to ancient documents, several
of which remain to the present day. The fol-
lowing is a fac-simile of Richard's signature,
copied exactly from one of those documents.
RIOHAD'B 8 SIGNATURE.
Richard continued in this state of pupilage
in some of the castles belonging to the family
from the time that his brother began to reign
until he was about fourteen years of age. Ed-
ward, the king, was then twenty-four, and Clar-
ence about seventeen.
A.D.1461.] WARWICK. 89
Situation of Richard under the reign of his brother.
WARWICK, THE KING-MAKER.
R ICHARD'S brother, Edward the Fourth,
began to reign when Richard was about
eight or nine years of age. His reign contin-
ued-with a brief interruption, which will be
hereafter explained-for twenty years; so that,
for a very important period of his life, after
he arrived at some degree of maturity, name-
ly, from the time that he was fourteen to the
time that he was thirty, Richard was one of his
brother's subjects. He was a prince, it is true,
and a prince of the very highest rank-the
next person but one, in fact, in the line of suc-
cession to the crown. His brother George, the
Duke of Clarence, of course, being older than
he, came before him; but both the young men,
though princes, were subjects. They were un-
der their brother Edward's authority, and bound
to serve and obey him as their rightful sover-
eign; next to him, however, they were the
highest personages in the realm. George was,
from this time, generally called Clarence, and
90 KING RICHARD III.
Strange vicissitudes in the life of Margaret.
The reader may perhaps feel some interest
and curiosity in learning what became of Queen
Margaret and old King Henry after they were
driven out of the country toward the north, at
the time of Edward's accession. Their pros-
pects seemed, at the time, to be hopelessly ruin-
ed, but their case was destined to furnish an-
other very striking instance of the extraordi-
nary reverses of fortune which marked the his-
tory of nearly all the great families during the
whole course of this York and Lancaster quar-
rel. In about ten years from the time when
Henry and Margaret were driven away, appar-
ently into hopeless exile, they came back in tri-
umph, and were restored to power, and Edward
himself, in his turn, was ignominiously expelled
from the kingdom. The narrative of the cir-
cumstances through which these events were
brought about forms quite a romantic story.
In order, however, that this story may be
more clearly understood, I will first enumerate
the principal personages that take a part in it,
and briefly remind the reader of the position
which they respectively occupied, and the rela-
tions which they sustained to each other.
First, there is the family of King Henry, con-
sisting of himself and his wife, Queen Margaret,
and his little son Edward, who had received the
Representatives of the house of York. Margaret.
title of Prince of Wales. This boy was about
eight years old at the time his father and moth-
er were driven away. We left them, in the last
chapter, flying toward the frontiers of Scotland
to save their lives, leaving to Edward and his
troops the full possession of the kingdom.
Henry and his little son, the Prince of Wales,
of course represent the house of Lancaster in
the dispute for the succession.
The house of York was represented by Ed-
ward, whose title, as king, was Edward the
Fourth, and his two brothers, George and Rich-
ard, or, as they were now generally called, Clar-
ence and Gloucester. In case Edward should
be married and have a son, his son would suc-
ceed him, and George and Richard would be ex-
cluded; if, however, he should die without is-
sue, then George would become king; and if
George should die without issue, and Richard
should survive him, then Richard would suc-
ceed. Thus, as matters now stood, George and
Richard were presumptive heirs to the crown,
and it was natural that they should wish that
their brother Edward should never be married.
Besides these two brothers, who were the
only ones of all his brothers that were now
living, Edward had a sister named Margaret.
Margaret was four years younger than Edward
92 KING RICHARD III.
Value of a marriageable young lady. Warwick.
the king, and about six years older than Rich-
ard. She was now about seventeen. A young
lady of that age in the family of a king in
those days was quite a treasure, as the king
was enabled to promote his political schemes
sometimes very effectually by bestowing her
in marriage upon this great prince or that, as
would best further the interests which he had
in view in foreign courts.
This young lady, Edward's sister, being of
the same name-Margaret-with the queen of
old King Henry, was distinguished from her by
being called Margaret of York, as she belonged
to the York family. The queen was generally
known as Margaret of Anjou. Anjou was the
place of her nativity.
The next great personage to be named is the
Earl of Warwick. He was the man, as you
will doubtless recollect, who was in command
of the sea between England and the Continent
at the time when Lady Cecily wished to send
her children, George and Richard, away after
their father's death, and who assisted in arrang-
ing their flight. He was a man of great power
and influence, and of such an age and charac-
ter that he exerted a vast ascendency over all
within his influence. Without him, Edward
never would have conquered the Lancaster
Warwick becomes Edward's prime minister.
party, and he knew very well that if Warwick,
and all those whom Warwick would carry with
him, were to desert him, he should not be able
to retain his kingdom. Indeed, Warwick re
ceived the surname of King-maker from the
fact that, in repeated instances during this quar-
rel, he put down one dynasty and raised up the
other, just as he pleased. He belonged to a
great and powerful family named Neville. As
soon as Edward was established on his throne,
Warwick, almost as a matter of course, became
prime minister. One of his brothers was made
chancellor, and a great number of other posts
of distinction and honor were distributed among
the members of the Neville family. Indeed, al-
though Edward was nominally king, it might
have been considered in some degree a question
whether it was the house of York or the house
of Neville that actually reigned in England.
The Earl of Warwick had two daughters.
Their names were Isabella and Anne. These
two young ladies the earl reckoned, as Ed-
ward did his sister Margaret, among the most
important of his political resources. By mar-
rying them to persons of very high position,
he could strengthen his alliances and increase
his power. There was even a possibility, he
thought, of marrying one of them to the King
94 KING RICHARD III. [A.D.1461.
The three great parties. The fortunes of Margaret of Anjou.
of England, or to a prince who would become
Thus we have for the three great parties to
the transactions now to be described, first, the
representatives of the house df Lancaster, the
feeble Henry, the energetic and strong-minded
Margaret of Anjou, and their little son, the
Prince of Wales; secondly, the representatives
of the house of York, King Edward the Fourth,
the two young men his brothers, George, Duke
of Clarence, and Richard, Duke of Gloucester,
and his sister Margaret; and, thirdly, between
these two parties, as it were, the Earl of War-
wick and his two daughters, Isabella and Anne,
standing at the head of a vast family influence,
which ramified to every part of the kingdom,
and was powerful enough to give the ascend-
ency to either side, in favor of which they might
We are now prepared to follow Queen Mar-
garet in her flight toward the north with her
husband and her son, at the time when Edward
the Fourth overcame her armies and ascended
the throne. She pressed on as rapidly as pos-
sible, taking the king and the little prince with
her, and accompanied and assisted in her flight
by a few attendants, till she had crossed the
frontier and was safe in Scotland. The Scots
A.D.1462.] WARWICK. 95
She escapes to France. A new expedition planned.
espoused her cause, and assisted her to raise
fresh troops, with which she made one or two
short incursions into England; but she soon
found that she could do nothing effectual in
this way, and so, after wasting some time in
fruitless attempts, she left Scotland with the
king and the prince, and went to France.
Here she entered into negotiations with the
King of France, and with other princes and po-
tentates on the Continent, with a view of rais-
ing men and money for a new invasion of En-
gland. At first these powers declined to assist
her. They said that their treasuries were ex-
hausted, and that they had no men. At last,
however, Margaret promised to the King of
France that if he would furnish her with a fleet
and an army, by which she could recover the
kingdom of her husband, she would cede to him
the town of Calais, which, though situated on
the coast of France, was at that time an English
possession. This was a very tempting offer,
for Calais was a fortress of the first class, and a
military post either for England or France of a
very important character.
The king consented to this proposal. He
equipped a fleet and raised an army, and Mar-
garet set sail for England, taking the king and
the prince with her. Her plan was to land in
96 KING RICHARD III. [A.D.1462.
Margaret is defeated and compelled to fly.
the northern part of the island, near the fron-
tiers of Scotland, where she expected to find the
country more friendly to the Lancastrian line
than the people were toward the south. As
soon as she landed she was joined by many of
the people, and she succeeded in capturing some
castles and small towns. But the Earl of War-
wick, who was, as has been already said, the
prime minister under Edward, immediately
raised an army of twenty thousand men, and
marched to the northward to meet her. Mar-
garet's French army was wholly unprepared to
encounter such a force as this, so they fled to
their ships. All but about five hundred of the
men succeeded in reaching the ships. The five
hundred were cut to pieces. Margaret herself
was detained in making arrangements for the
king and the prince. She concluded not to
take them to sea again, but to send them secret-
ly into Wales, while she herself went back to
France to see if she could not procure re-en-
forcements. She barely had time, at last, to
reach the ships herself, so close at hand were
her enemies. As soon as the queen had em-
barked, the fleet set sail. The queen had saved
nearly all the money and all the stores which
she had brought with her from France, and she
hoped still to preserve them for another at-
She encounters great dangers at sea. The king concealed.
tempt. But the fleet had scarcely got off from
the shore when a terrible storm arose, and the
ships were all driven upon the rocks and dash-
ed to pieces. The money and the stores were
all lost; a large portion of the men were drown-
ed; Margaret herself and the captain of the
fleet saved themselves, and, as soon as the storm
was over, they succeeded in making their escape
back to Berwick in an old fishing-boat which
they obtained on the shore.
Soon after this, Margaret, with the captain of
the fleet and a very small number of faithful
followers who still adhered to her, sailed back
again to France.
The disturbances, however, which her land-
ing had occasioned, did not cease immediately
on her departure. The Lancastrian party all
over England were excited and moved to ac-
tion by the news of her coming, and for two
years insurrections were continually taking
place, and many battles were fought, and great
numbers of people were killed. King Henry
was all this time kept in close concealment,
sometimes in Wales, and sometimes among the
lakes and mountains in Westmoreland. He
was conveyed from place to place by his ad-
herents in the most secret manner, the knowl-
edge in respect to his situation being confined