The Baldwin Library
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ALL THE YEAR ROUND
A NATURE READER
FRANCES L. STRONG
ST. PAUL TEACHERS' TRAINING SCHOOL
GERTRUDE A. STOKER
SUPERVISOR OF DRAWING, ST. PAUL
GINN & COMPANY
BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON
COPYRIGHT, 1896, BY
FRANCES L. STRONG
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
nbie Rthetnzum prezS
GINN & COMPANY- PRO-
PRIETORS BOSTON U.S.A.
NOTE TO THE TEACHER.
T is not the purpose of the author of this series to offer,
or even suggest, any rules for its use. If anything is
established in education, it is the fact that aside from
certain underlying principles and general directions, each
teacher must be a rule unto herself. The methods which
the author and her colleagues have found successful might
be entirely out of harmony with an equally good system in
some other city. It is to be presumed, however, that if this
series of nature-stories should be so fortunate as to be
received with favor by the educational public, it will occa-
sionally find its way into the hands of some teachers who
are not familiar with nature-work as developed in large
cities and well-organized school systems. To these it may
be interesting and helpful to know just "how it has been
done" in the schools out of which these stories grew, and
in which they have been used. Indeed, by way of com-
parison and suggestion, it may also be of assistance to those
who have passed through the experimental stage and have
wrought out a system of their own.
It has been the custom in the St. Paul public schools to
pursue the following plan:
. Note to the Teacher.
Materials. The .teacher goes out with her pupils to
collect the materials referred to in the. lessons, gathering
enough to allow each pupil one specimen. Animals and
plants are kept alive in the schoolroom to enable all to
study their growth and habits.
After the material is at hand, the development of a spe-
cific lesson is divided (though not formally and rigidly) into
I. Morning Talk. The work of the day is begun with a
morning talk based either upon one of the natural objects,
or upon a geographical topic, according to the season.
If an animal, a plant, or a stone be the subject of the
lesson, pains are taken to see that each child is provided
with a specimen. By skillful questioning, statements are
drawn from the children concerning the facts the teacher
wishes observed. New words are occasionally suggested and
written upon the blackboard, and their frequent use is re-
quired throughout the lesson. In studying objects, it has,
of course, been found advisable to consider them as belong-
ing to some great family, making comparisons, and finding
resemblances and differences. Children readily find this
family element in all things studied.
If a geographical topic is chosen, observations are made
from representations by means of pictures, sand-maps, cabinet
specimens, etc. For instance, in studying the life of the
American Indian, page 81, preparatory to the Hiawatha lessons,
a sand-table showing a forest of pines, a mirror lake, a birch-
bark canoe, a tent of cloth or paper, and a doll dressed as an
Indian, furnishes the basis of an excellent lesson upon the
life and habits of the Red Man.
Note to the Teacher.
II. Drawing.- The observation lesson is followed by a
drawing lesson upon the subject studied. The child has
already been supplied with the plant or animal. Each child
draws his specimen 'carefully. It is by no means necessary
for the teacher herself to be able to draw in order to get
results. Each child is simply required to reproduce with
his pencil just what he sees, just as he sees it. Children
illustrate their language papers on flowers with water-colors
or pencil. Work in free-hand cutting can be given from all
objects, such as bottles, leaves, animals, etc. Scissors are
used for this cutting. Modeling in clay is done from any
object that will correlate with the other work. It has been
found that in connection with the myths there is a great
opportunity to develop imagination by. allowing the child to
illustrate the stories.
III. Spelling.- A spelling lesson upon the new and diffi-
cult words will follow.
IV. Reading.- The child is now ready for the reading
lesson appropriate to the subject.
V. Language.- Finally, the children write descriptions of
the object or country studied, giving free expression to the
facts each has acquired.
It may be added that great interest may be excited by
introducing into the number-work problems concerning the
subject of the morning talk.
The literature, also, holds a very prominent place in this
nature-work. The following list suggests poems to be com-
mitted to memory, and stories to be read in connection with
Note to the Teacher.
A Drop of Water .
Swan Maidens .
Snow Bound .
Snow Image .
The First Snow-Fall
. . Longfellow
..... ... Hans Andersen
. . . Cooke's Myths
. . Whittier
. . Longfellow
St. Nicholas, 1885, Cast Away in
Primary Education, Jan. 1895.
School Journal, Dec. 1894.
Seven Little Sisters .
The Children of the Cold .
the Cold Hayes
S. Jane Andrews
. Frederick Sckwatka
As will be inferred from the method outlined above, the
purpose of this book will be entirely misconceived, if it is
looked upon merely as a convenient means of furnishing new
reading-matter for the children (although it is sincerely hoped
that it will do this). It is intended also to stimulate the
thought, enlarge the vocabulary, and open the eyes of the
children to the wonders of the world around them.
In the St. Paul public schools the manuscript of this
series has been used in the second grade. It is thought,
however, that it may be used in the third, and even the
fourth, with equally good results.
October 17, 1895.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
THE POND SNAIL .
THE CORAL .
THE CORAL REEFS .
WHAT BECOMES OF THE SHELLS.
THE FOSSILS .
TESTING TO FIND LIME .
HOW THE SAND BECAME SANDSTONE
A STORY ABOUT GLASS .
THE TRAVELS OF THE KING'S WINDOW PANES
THE STARFISH .
THE SEA-URCHIN .
THE SPONGE .
r5. THE COAL FORESTS
16. COAL MINING
viii Table of Contents.
17. THE EVERGREENS 42
18. THE PINES 44
19. THE DISCONTENTED PINE (Poetry) 46
20. THE FIR TREE 50
21. THE LITTLE FIR TREES (Poetry) 56
STUDY OF MAN.
22. THE ESKIMO. PART I. 59
23. THE ESKIMO. PART II. 64
24. THE SEAL 67
25. HUNTING SEALS 69
26. HASSAN. 71
27. THE CAMEL 74
28. THE PALMS 76
29. THE PALM TREE (Poetry) 79
30. BLACK HAWK 81
31. HIAWATHA'S CHILDHOOD. 84
32. HIAWATHA'S FIRST DEER 86
33. VAPOR 88
34. CLOUDS. 91
35. RAIN. .93
36. DEW 94
37. FROST PICTURES 96
38. LITTLE JACK FROST (Poetry) 98
39. THE LITTLE WHITE FAIRIES 100
---= I- 'K
1. THE POND SNAIL.
THE pond snail makes __
its home in ponds. -
It has one broad foot
which helps it to move T
about, or to fasten it-
self to different things
it finds in the water.
The snail has two
little horns or feelers
in front. If we watch these feelers, we shall
see that it keeps them moving as if it were feeling
its way. The eyes are at the base of the feelers,
and look like two black dots. The mouth is
between them; but we shall find that it is below
Have you ever seen this strange creature come
to the surface to breathe? It has a little opening
in its side, through which air passes. It is fine
The Pond Snail.
sport to watch the snail come up to breathe.
Then you can see the bubbles of air.
It has a shell house which it carries with it.
Snails have been called very slow; but if we had
to carry our houses on our backs, do you think
we could move quickly?
The pointed end of the shell is called the apex.
The opening where the snail comes out is the
Look closely and see all the little lines on the
shell. These are the lines of growth. When the
snail was a baby, its house was very small. As it
grew, it needed a larger one. This it built little by
little. In the water it drank it found something
which helped to make the hard shell.
What do you think it was? Did I hear some
one say lime?
Yes, it is lime which helps the snail in building
its house. You will find some lime in the bottom
of your teakettle. Take a piece and feel how
hard it is.
2. THE CORAL.
I AM a tiny baby coral. When I was
first hatched from an egg, I was very
soft and shaped like a pear. I was
covered with a fringe which quivered
and kept me in motion.
For some time I swam around in the
water, hunting for a good place to fasten myself.
As I do not like muddy or sandy water, I have
come down to the bottom of the sea where the
water is quiet and clear. Here I have fastened
myself to a rock and begun to grow. Gradually,
at the top of my body there comes a hole which
is my mouth, and around it, like a fringe, appear
A sac, which is my stomach, forms in the
center. When I take a drink of sea-water, I
draw it into my stomach through my long hollow
feelers. The lime from the water gathers at the
bottom of the sea, where I am fastened to the
rock. The lime in the water hardens the outside
6 The Coral.
Now nothing soft remains, but my mouth and
feelers at the top, and my stomach within.
I have something strange to tell you. I begin
to bud. In this way I spread and grow taller.
Little corals grow out from my sides and base.
This way of growing is called budding, because
it is a-little like the branching of a plant; but
each bud is a new coral, fastened to the
Sone from which it buds, as the branches
of a tree to the stem. As the corals
grow and bud, the lower ones become
3. THE CORAL REEFS.
I CAME from an--
egg. So it is not -- --- .=-_-_.c-- -
only by dividing or --
budding that I in- L
crease, but also by the --
hatching of eggs. I keep
on budding and sending forth eggs.
There are many hills in the ocean, and I chose
one of these for my home. The eggs settle down
beside me. They begin to grow and bud and
send forth more eggs. So, all around the foot
of the hill, on which we have settled, we form
As each tiny coral forms new corals, it gradually
hardens. Thus, the tiny creatures make a solid
foundation for those that grow above and at the
side of them.
Little by little, all the cracks between our walls
are filled with sand and bits of shell.
The rocky walls, far down in the sea, form
strange and beautiful shapes.
The Coral Reefs.
At last, the tiny corals reach the surface of
the water and can grow no higher. Their work
Then the great waves rush and beat against
the coral, breaking off large pieces.
These pieces become worn into sand by the
rolling and grinding done by the waves. The
broken masses and sand are thrown up on top
of the wall of coral.
Pieces of floating wood and sea-weed land upon
the wall and there decay. They are mixed with
the coral sand and a little soil is made.
Seeds are carried there by the birds, wind, and
waves, and in time grow into plants, grass, and
At last men come to settle and build cities
upon these islands made by the tiny corals.
Many ships have been wrecked on these coral
reefs. Before the reefs have reached the surface
of the water, sailors cannot see them.
The ship strikes -one'of these walls and a large
hole is made in the boat. Many lighthouses have
been built to warn the sailors.
Ask your teacher to show you on the map the
coral reefs near Florida.
-- ---- -
~--i~ f~-r s-;
CAST UP BY THE SEA.
R ~- %$1
4. WHAT BECOMES OF THE SHELLS.
SAM a shell. My home is in the great ocean.
Our family'is a very large one; much larger
than your father's family, for I have thousands
of brothers and sisters.
Some of my relatives are so very small that
you could not see them without a microscope:
others are very large.
Many of the little animals living in us are
What do you think happens to the shell houses?
The great waves wash part of us up on the
beach, but others sink to the bottom of the
The great rivers that flow into the ocean, bring
mud and sand with them. This mud settles to
the bottom with the shells.
Have you ever seen my home, the great
STry to think how many of the lakes you have
seen it would take to make this great body of
water, and how heavy it must be.
Io What becomes of the Shells.
This water presses on us, until we are packed so
closely that we become stone. Do you remember
what we drank to make our shells hard?
Think what quantities of lime there must be in
this stone. Would you like to know our name?
We are called Limestone.
5. THE FOSSILS.
SAM the fossil of a shell. When the little
animal inside my shell was alive, many
thousands of years ago, I lived in the ocean.
Now I am locked up in this storehouse of
limestone with many of my neighbors who once
lived with me in the sea.
Some of them lived in shells; others were coral;
and others lived in stone lilies.
The tiny coral creatures built their beautiful
towers in the sea. Living among them were little
animals, that built up stone lilies about themselves.
These lilies were fastened to the bottom of the sea
by long waving stems.
I, too, lived among the coral. I had two shells
fastened together like a clam shell.
The shells were beautifully chiseled and were of
delicate tints of red, green, yellow, blue, and pink.
12 The Fossils.
There were a great many other little creatures
living in shells. Some were large; others very
tiny. Some floated about in the water; others
fastened themselves to rocks or to other creatures.
But we all gathered lime from the water, and
made our hard frames. Then, as the tiny creatures
died, we sank down, down to the bottom of the sea.
The earth in the water settled between us. The
heavy water pressed so hard that it pressed us to
Then, little by little, the great sea became lower
and at last disappeared, leaving us on the land.
Do you think there are fossils forming now in
the ocean ? Yes, and on the land too.
I will tell you one way in which beautiful ones
are formed. Streams of water flowing over lime-
stone dissolve some of it.
On the banks of a stream a leaf or a twig falls,
or some moss is fastened to a rock.
As the water slowly trickles over them, some of
the lime settles and gathers around them. In time,
they decay; but their shape is left in the stone.
Sometimes, fossils of leaves and fishes are formed
in the lakes and rivers, just as they are in the
6. TESTING TO FIND LIME.
M ISS ALLEN asked the children to bring to
school everything in which they thought
they might find lime. She told them she would
show them how to prove whether they were right
I wish you could have seen the many things that
were placed on her desk the next morning.
Some brought many different kinds of shells;
others the hard pieces found in the bottom of the
Fred was anxious to try his pieces of coral,
petrified wood, and moss.
James brought some of his agates and a piece of
When Leo came to school, he passed a lot
where men were building two new houses. He
stopped, thinking he might find something there.
The men were building the cellar of one of the
houses of a grayish blue stone. He took a piece
of this. In the street, the men were mixing mortar
to hold these stones together. Watching them,
Testing to find Lime.
he found that they put in large white lumps of
something which came packed in barrels. The
man gave him a large piece to take to school.
In the other house they were plastering the
walls, and laying marble hearths in the fireplaces.
The men gave him a small piece of the marble,
and some plaster on a shingle.
Anna brought a dead starfish and a sea-urchin's
Mary's father was a doctor. She had heard him
say that a baby had very soft bones and that an
old person's were hard. Mary remembered how the
snail's house was hardened, and she wondered if the
lime in the water we drink could make bones hard.
Now was Mary's chance to test a bone, so she
brought all of them that she could find.
Grace laid on the desk, a piece of chalk, a quartz
crystal, and a carnelian.
That morning Miss Allen said, "I am glad
you have brought so many things for us to test.
This bottle is filled with acid. There are so many
acids, I will give you the name of the one we use
to test our stones.
It is called muriatic acid. That is a pretty big
word for children, but it is well to be able to call
things by their right names.
Testing to find Lime.
"We must be very careful in using this acid.
It is very strong. It will eat holes in wood and
in our clothes, and burn our fingers.
"Tom, you may take this board and place it
on the desk. Now put on it all the things we
wish to test."
After this was done, Miss Allen poured a drop
of acid on each article. What a bubbling and
spluttering there was! It made one think of
Miss Allen said, "If it bubbles, you may know
there is lime there; if not, there is none."
The shells, pieces from the teakettle, the
petrified wood and moss, the coral, the sea-
urchin's house, and the starfish were tried first.
All these bubbled. Some bubbled more than
others, showing that they contained more lime.
SThe marble, plaster, blue stone, and white lump
Leo found at the new house were tested next.
There was lime in all these.
Then the bones, chalk, quartz, carnelian, agate,
and granite had drops of the acid poured on them.
The bones and chalk bubbled, but the quartz,
carnelian, agate, and granite made no fuss at all.
They held no lime.
After these were tested, Miss Allen said, I will
16 Testing to find Lime.
keep this bottle of acid on the shelf, and if you find
other things you would like to test, I shall be glad
to help you."
She then asked, "Do you know why it is that
the water in lakes, rivers, and springs is hard,
while rain water is soft?"
SY name is Quartz. I have a story to tell you
about my family.
A little girl found some pretty stones and took
them to school. I was among those stones, and
very glad to make the children a visit.
Suddenly I found myself on a desk with a
piece of glass and a knife. How sharp that knife
looked! It fairly made me tremble, it was so near.
However, I need not have been afraid. Soon a
boy picked up the knife and went to work to cut
me in two. Just think, that sharp glistening blade
could not even scratch me!
Then the boy picked up the piece of glass and
tried to scratch me with that; but he could not
make the least mark on my glossy coat.
I wondered if I could make a scratch on the
glass, and kept saying to myself, Don't I wish
I had a chance to make my mark on that shiny
I think the boy must have heard me, for he
tried to scratch the glass with me, and I found
that I could make a beautiful cut in it. Then he
tried me on the blade of the knife, and I left a
scratch on that too.
There were a great many of my family visiting
the school that day. Some were as clear as glass;
some were smoky; some were milky.
Carnelians and agates, which are used in jewelry
and to make marbles, belong to my family. Have
you ever cracked open a carnelian and seen the
pretty red and white bands inside ?
A little girl had a purple stone in her ring and
her teacher told her it was an amethyst. This is
another of my sisters.
Tom broke many pieces of different kinds, and
found that we did not break evenly, and that the
faces made by the breaking were not smooth.
8. HOW THE SAND BECAME SANDSTONE.
YOU all know that the Quartz family is very
hard, and that some of us are beautifully
colored. I have been thinking of a strange story
a friend of mine once told me. Would you like
to hear it? Yes? Well, then I will tell you
what happened to some of our family, years and
Many pieces of the Quartz family lived on the
shore of the ocean. All day the great waves rolled
up on the shores, and tossed the pebbles up and
down, back and forth, knocking them against one
Gradually stones were broken into small pieces.
By and by they were so small that passers-by
said, How beautiful and fine the sand is here!"
The wind, too, liked to play with the sand; for
it carried it hither and thither over the beach.
Sometimes the sand traveled back and forth two
or three times in a day.
One day it said, "I wonder what kind of a
journey I shall make to-day."
How the Sand Became Sandstone.
That day it met two new families on the beach,
the Lime family and the Iron family.
These three families liked each other so well
that they decided to live together. Not long
after this, when they were settled for the day, a
rainstorm came and beat down steadily upon them.
The lime grew soft, gluing the sand into one
large lump, like a stone. It took many years to
make this stone. Don't you think sandstone is a
good name for a stone made of sand?
The Iron family is of a great many colors,- red,
yellow, brown, and even green. They gave some
of their color to the sandstone, and that is the
reason we have red, green, and yellow sandstones
as well as white.
9. A STORY ABOUT GLASS.
O NCE upon a time, hundreds of years ago, a
strange-looking ship was sailing slowly on
the great sea. The ship was heavily laden with
soda, and had been out a long time.
The sailors were tired of the tossing of the great
sea, and longed for the quiet land.
Suddenly across the waves, a speck was seen.
Surely, that must be land!
A moment later, the cry It is land" was heard
from every sailor.
Soon the eager men landed and hastened to
collect sticks for a fire. All were anxious to cook
a dinner on the land.
The fire was started and the kettle brought.
But they could find nothing with which to prop
it. No stones were to be found.
What were they to do? Give it up? No, a
thousand times no!
"Bring some of the lumps of soda," called the
captain. Soon the dinner was cooking nicely; but
stop, what was the trouble ?
22 A Story about Glass.
The fire had melted the soda and sand together,
and on that far away coast, the sailors had what
do you suppose ? Glass.
This was the first glass ever made.
10. THE TRAVELS OF THE KING'S
ONE of the kings of England was very rich.
In his many palaces, he had everything
money could buy. But his greatest treasures
were his glass windows, for in those days very few
people had such wonderful things.
In the far North, people used thin sheets of ice
for their windows. In some countries, people
stretched skins until they were so thin that the
light could come through. These skins they used
for window panes.
Where this king lived, they used neither the ice
nor the skins for window panes. The wind and
rain could blow in through the open spaces left
to light the house.
How many colds those people must have had!
You will understand why this king thought so
much of his glass windows. He owned a great
many houses, living sometimes in one, and some-
times in another. He had only one set of windows
for all his houses.
24 The Travels of the King's Window Panes.
What could he do? When he traveled from
palace to palace, he had his windows packed, and
taken with him.
11. THE STARFISH.
T HE starfish is sometimes called a sea-star, five-
finger, or five-fingered Jack. Its home is in
the great ocean.
Starfishes are of different colors; some are
orange, some crimson, some purple, and some
brick red. There are others that are pale in tint,
either delicate pink or 'faintly purplish. How
pretty these little creatures must look in the
The starfish has five arms; under these arms are
tubes which it uses as feet. It will fasten itself
firmly to a rock, and will even allow its tube-like
feet to be torn rather than let go.
There is a curious thing about the arms. If a
hungry fish bites one off, or the big waves knock
it against a stone and ---.- -- -- --
break one, the arm will --''
The starfish has an -- '-
eye at the end of each -
arm. These eyes are
not at all like yours; they are very poor. But
they answer nicely for the starfish.
The mouth is on the under side of the animal,
in the center of the arms. The starfish is very
greedy, and seems to do nothing but eat. It feeds
on oysters, clams, and sea-snails.
It has a curious way of feeding. It catches its
food in its five arms and holds it firmly. Then
with its mouth it sucks its food from the oyster or
The starfish lays eggs and carries them in its
five arms. People who have studied this creature,
have taken the eggs away from it, and let them
float in the water to see what the starfish would do.
It swims after them, gathers them up, and carries
When a baby starfish is hatched, it has no arms,
but is shaped like an egg. The little egg is
covered with something hair-like until its arms
begin to grow.
Have you ever noticed the many spikes on its
back? These help to protect it from its enemies.
- :\ 'V
12. THE SEA-URCHIN.
W HEN this strange animal is a baby, it is no
larger than a pea. As the baby grows, it
needs a larger house. It does not build a new
one, but it -makes the old one larger.
The sea-urchin's house is not made of one
part or even two. It has five or six hundred
pieces in its shell. These pieces are beautifully
The shell is covered with green and purple
spines. These spines make the sea-urchin look
like a huge burr. ,They are very useful, for they
protect it from its enemies.
It has many feet arranged in rows. The feet
are little tubes with suckers at the ends. The sea-
i' ,- /, I :
The Sea- Urchin.
urchin can push these feet out beyond the spines,
and uses them to catch its prey. Sometimes, when
the urchin moves about, it rolls like a ball.
The mouth of the sea-urchin is on the under
side. It has five hard, pointed teeth. They do
not move up and down, or from side to side.
They move towards each other, meeting in a
One thing, which the sea-urchin does, will show
you how hard its teeth are. It hollows out a house
for itself in the hardest rocks, by digging it out
with its teeth.
It is very funny to see a family of sea-urchins in
holes in a rock, sometimes as many as a dozen
It also uses its teeth in eating. It is a very
hungry animal, and eats all the little creatures
that it can catch.
When the sea-urchin is dead, its spines some-
times fall off. Then we can see the beautiful shell.
The spines are fastened to little knobs. You will
see little rows of dots on the shell. These dots are
the holes through which the sea-urchin pushed its
feet. We can see five larger dots that were five
Many years ago, people thought that the shell
The Sea-Urchin. 29
was the egg of some sea-animal, and called it a sea-
The sea-urchin is not unlike the starfish. If we
could close the starfish's five arms, it would have
much the shape of the sea-urchin.
13. THE OYSTER.
W HEN we see the oyster and its shell house,
it is hard to believe that it came from
The egg is very small. After being sent into
the water, the wee baby in it begins to grow. It
has a perfect little shell when it is hatched.
The baby oyster is a lively little fellow, and for
two or three days after it is born, swims about like
a young fish. Then it settles down for life by
fastening. itself to an old shell or rock on the sea-
Many of these little oyster babies do not live to
be grown oysters. They are swallowed by other
The oyster's shell is not pretty. You can see
the layers as they have been built up, and its age
is known by the lines of growth, and also by its
size. The oyster is fit for food when it is four or
five years old.
The shell has two covers joined by a hinge.
Shells that have two parts are called bi-valves.
The oyster can open and close its shell. It will
close it at the least noise.
The shell is fastened to the sea-bottom by one of
the valves, so this valve is larger than the other.
There is a spot on the white lining of each valve.
It is near the middle of the valve, and is a dark
The oyster has a strong muscle which is
fastened to the shell where you find the purple
It breathes with gills. The mouth is at the
smaller end near the hinge. The gills and
mouth have little hairs all around them. These
keep moving and breathing when the shell is
open. They push the water into the mouth.
. Sometimes oysters are found together in large
numbers. They cover the bottom of the sea for
miles and miles. These places are called oyster-
32 The Oyster.
A bird called the oyster-catcher, the starfish,
and the crabs, are their enemies, and destroy great
numbers of the oysters.
THE SPONGE DIVER.
' ~~ll l'i
14. THE SPONGE.
" W HAT is a sponge? Can you tell me,
No, Miss Hall," said May. I use my sponge
every day, but I have never thought how it is
made. Let me think! Do men make sponges
as they do cloth and many other things?"
"No; people used to think a sponge was a
plant, but that is not true. It is a little animal."
"An animal! How very strange! Where is
Its home is in the great ocean. The sponge
comes from an egg. When it is hatched, the
baby sponge sends out little hairs, which help it
to move about in the water. As the baby has
no eyes, it does not know where it is going, and
often gets a hard bump."
"Oh, Miss Hall, has the poor baby a head,
ears, legs, tail, or arms?"
"No, May," was the answer, "it -has none of
those; but it has a hole called a mouth. Soon
it settles to the sea-bottom. With its mouth it
fastens itself to something, and never moves
from that spot.
"The sponge has hard and soft parts. The
hard part is called its skeleton, and it is this
part of the sponge which we use. The soft
parts were like jelly, and have been taken out.
When the sponge was alive, all the holes were
filled with the jelly.
"Sponges are not all of the same form. Some
are cup-shaped, some pear-shaped, and some have
many branches. There are some as large as a
man's head, and others no larger than an egg.
Men fish for the sponges, and divers go into
the water and tear them from the rocks.
"When they are taken out of the ocean, they
are thrown into large tanks of water. Then all
the soft parts are beaten out. The skeletons are
washed and dried in the sun."
How many strange animals there are in the
ocean," said May, and what a strange picture
the sea-bottom would make "
15. THE COAL FORESTS.
T RY to imagine yourself in a forest years and
years ago. You will not meet any one, for
this was long ago when the world was young,
and before man came to live on this earth of
It is a strange forest that we are about to
enter. There is no winter there; the trees grow
all the year round.
You know how your plants at home grow and
bloom in the hot days of July. All the days are
warm July days in this forest. The ferns are as
large as our trees.
It is a dense forest, for every little seed falling
into the warm mud below sprouts, and is soon
a large tree.
Do you think that much sunlight could pierce
through the many branches? You are right; it
could not, and it is dark and gloomy among
these great trees.
Hark Is that the chirp of a robin? No!
Here we have trees without birds, a forest with-
The Coal Forests.
out a song, for there are, as yet, no birds
upon the earth.
The only sound to break the still-
ness is the hoarse croaking of a
S strange frog and the chirp of a
Here we meet our old friends,
the pines and the firs; and see the well-known
cones waving among the branches.
We can find plenty of water plants and ferns,
but not one flower or bright berry.
The trees spring up quickly in the soft, warm
mud. The leaves come, fade, and fall just as
The trees, with their roots in mud, are easily
blown down. They are then buried in the
water, and partly decay. This matter becomes
packed so closely that it turns into peat.
Hundreds and hundreds of years pass; tree
after tree springs up, reaches its height, dies, and
decays in the dark below.
Let us come away from the forest now, for a
strange thing is about to happen.
Look! Do you see? A flood has covered
the place where we stood such a short time ago.
The beautiful great trees have fallen upon the
The Coal Forests. 37
soft bed of mud where their parents and grand-
parents have lain for hundreds of years.
Now, the mud and sand are settling upon
them, forming shale and sandstone. These press
heavily upon the beautiful old trees.
After many years, the water will disappear,
and a new forest will spring up. It will grow,
and then again the same thing will happen.
The weight becomes greater and greater as
these layers are formed. The trees are packed
more and more tightly, until they become one
solid mass, called coal.
16. COAL MINING.
TAYERS of coal are not always straight and
level. They are often slanting, or hollow
like a basin.
Sometimes they bend, so that the coal comes
to the surface of the ground. Then it is easy
to mine the coal by digging into a kind of
Sometimes very deep holes must be dug to
reach the coal. These holes are called shafts.
Cages or huge buckets are drawn up and down
these shafts by means of ropes.
If you ever visit a coal mine, you will find
yourself in a new world. Everything is black.
As you go down with a rush away from the
sunlight and cool air, you wonder when the
journey will end.
Suppose the ropes should break! You grasp
the sides of the cage tightly, and go down into
It is not a bit as if you were gliding down
into the depths of the earth, but as though the
earth were rising and you were standing still.
Coal Mining. 39
But at last the cage stops, and you are glad
to step out. There are many passages dug
down in the mine, all connecting with each other.
So there is a kind of town below the ground
with many streets.
You carry lanterns, and after a time get used
to the darkness. You can see men moving
about that look like shadows.
Sometimes the miner has to lie on his side to
use his pick in loosening the coal.
When the coal has been loosened, other men
load it in big baskets. These they push and
pull into more open spaces, where the ponies
can do the work.
Some of the ponies used in the mine never
feel the warm sunshine or breathe the fresh air.
They have stables in the mine; and hay, corn,
and fresh water are sent down every day.
40 Coal Mining.
Ask your teacher to tell you the differ-
ent ways in which fresh air is forced into
Not long ago children worked in the
i ii mines, but you will not find them there
I -ow. The law has put a stop to that.
What a noise there is! The coming
l'' down and going up of the cage, the
shouting, the slamming of doors, the
trotting ponies, and the cars of coal being taken
to the shaft!
We follow our guide through the dark pas-
sages, and at last come again under the shaft
Coal Mning. 41
which leads to the world of light and life. We
get into the cage, and up we go.
Even on a cloudy day it seems bright in the
world above after the blackness in the mine.
17. THE EVERGREENS.
l ". '" ABOUT the time old
_-__^----- ...- : -- Jack Frost comes
to visit us, the trees
begin to get ready for winter. Most of them
lose all their leaves. They have work to do on
the ground, to cover the plants and seeds.
Some trees are green all winter. We call
these evergreens. Don't you think that is a
good name for them?
The leaves are not like those of the oak or
maple. They look like needles, and so they are
called needles. The frost cannot hurt these
Most of the evergreen trees are shaped like
cones, each having one large central stem. The
smaller stems or branches grow in whorls around
the large one.
Often little scale-covered buds will be found
at the ends of the branches.
About the base of the smaller branches a
circle of scales will be found. This shows that
these branches have grown from the buds.
The lighter color of the branches shows how
much they have grown this year.
The branches of the evergreen are very tough,
and the loads of snow do not break them.
The flower is not brightly colored. It is a
cone made up of many scales, all beautifully
At the base of each scale are two little cradles
with a baby seed in each. Each baby seed has
one wing which helps it to fly to its new home.
Within each seed is a baby tree, with its store-
house of food.
In the older cones the scales spread and
Have you ever shaken one of the cones and
seen the little winged seeds fly out?
The evergreens make the winter world brighter
and more beautiful.
The birds love the evergreens. Can you tell
18. THE PINES.
P INES and firs are given the first place
among the woodland treasures. This is
because of their great usefulness.
They are very useful to ship-builders and
w a could find nothing
to fill the place
of the lumber
The trunk of
some fir or pine
is used in every ship for a mast. When the
trunks are sawed into strips, we have the red, yel-
low, and white boards used in finishing houses.
The Scotch Pine becomes a tall tree when
growing in good soil, but in poor soil and in
very high places, it is a kind of shrub.
The needles grow in sheaths about an eighth
of an inch in length. In this sheath are two
twisted needles. One side of these needle-like
leaves is grooved; the other is curved. The
grooved sides face each other, so that when
placed together they look like one needle.
The cones are small, being an inch and a half
or two inches in length.
-The White Pine is one of the largest of the
forest trees, being often one hundred and thirty
to one hundred and fifty feet in height. Some
have been cut that were over two hundred feet.
From this tree comes most of the lumber
used for the framework of buildings, timbers of
bridges, and masts of ships.
The White Pine has five long slender needles
in each sheath. They are longer and finer than
the needles of the Scotch Pine.
Each needle has three sides. One side is
flat; two are curved.
The Pitch Pine has dark, stiff needles, ar-
ranged in threes. They are not all of the same
length. The cones are also of different lengths.
Large quantities of the Pitch Pine are used
for fuel. Tar and lamp black are sometimes
made from it.
19. THE DISCONTENTED PINE.
O NCE a little Pine-tree,
In the forest ways,
Sadly sighed and murmured,
Thro' the summer days.
"I am clad in needles -
Hateful things!" he cried,
" All the trees about me
Laugh in scornful pride.
Broad their leaves and fair to see;
Worthless needles cover me.
" Ah, could I have chosen,
Then, instead of these,
Shining leaves should crown me,
Shaming all the trees;
Broad as theirs and brighter,
Dazzling to behold,
All of gleaming silver -
Aye, of burnished gold.
Then the rest would weep and sigh:
None would be so fine as I."
The Discontented Pine.
Slept the little Pine-tree
When the night came down,
While the leaves he wished for
Budded on his crown.
All the forest wondered,
At the dawn, to see
What a golden fortune
Decked this little tree.
Then he sang and laughed aloud;
Glad was he and very proud.
Foolish little Pine-tree!
At the close of day,
Thro' the gloomy twilight,
Came a thief that way.
Soon the treasure vanished;
Sighed the Pine, "Alas!
Would that I had chosen
Leaves of crystal glass."
Long and bitterly he wept,
But with night again he slept.
Gladly in the dawning
Did he wake to find
That the gentle fairies
Had again been kind.
The Discontented Pine.
How his blazing crystals
Lit the morning air!
Never had the forest
Seen a sight so fair.
Then a driving storm did pass;
All his leaves were shattered glass.
Humbly said the Pine-tree,
"I have learned 'tis best
Not to wish for fortunes
Fairer than the rest.
Glad were I, and thankful,
If I might be seen,
Like the trees about me,
Clad in tender green."
Once again he slumbered, sad;
Once again his wish he had.
Broad his leaves and fragrant,
Rich were they and fine,
Till a goat at noonday
Halted there to dine.
Then her kids came skipping
Round the fated tree;
All his leaves could scarcely
Make a meal for three.
The Discontented Pine.
Every tender bud was nipt,
Every branch and twig were stript.
Then the wretched Pine-tree
Cried in deep despair,
"Would I had my needles;
They were green and fair.
Never would I change them,"
Sighed the little tree;
Just as nature gave them
They were best for me."
Then he slept, and waked, and found
All his needles safe and sound!
Eudora S. Bumstead.--From Fairy Land of Flower&
20. THE FIR TREE.
O UT in the forest stood a pretty little Fir
Tree. It had a good place, with plenty of
sunshine and air, and all around it grew many
larger trees--pines as well as firs.
But this little tree wished to become taller.
It did not care for the warm sun and fresh air.
When the children came to look for berries, they
would often sit down by the little Fir Tree and
say, How pretty and small that one is!" As
,the tree wished to be taller, it made it very
unhappy to hear that.
The years passed, and it grew taller and taller.
In trees, one can always tell by the number of
rings they have, how many years they have been
"Oh, if I were only as tall a tree as the
others!" sighed the little Fir, "then I would
spread my branches far around, and look out
into the wide world.
"The birds would then build their nests in
my boughs, and when the wind blew I could
nod just as grandly as the rest."
The Fir Tree.
It took no pleasure in the
sunshine, in the birds, and in
the clouds that went sailing -
over it morning and evening.
In the autumn, woodcutters al-
ways came and cut a few of the
largest trees. That was done this
year, too, and the little Fir Tree
trembled with fear as the
great trees fell crashing to the
ground. When their
branches e s
were cut Z
looked so long .
that you would -.
them. They were laid
upon wagons, and horses
dragged them away out of the
wood. Where were they going ?
What would happen to them?
In the spring, when the swallows and
stork came, the Tree asked them, Do you know
where the trees are taken ? Did you not meet them? "
The Fir Tree.
The stork said, Yes, I think so. When I
flew back from my winter home, I met many new
ships. These ships had stately masts. They
smelt like fir, and I am sure those were the
Then the Fir Tree said, "Oh, that I were
only big enough to go over the sea!"
The wind kissed the Tree and the dew shed
tears upon it, but it did not understand that.
When Christmas time came, very young trees
were cut. These trees kept their branches. They
were put on wagons, and horses dragged them
"Where are they all going?" asked the Fir
"We know that! We know that!" chirped
the sparrows. "They are all dressed up with
beautiful things. We have looked in through the
windows and seen them planted in the middle
of a warm room, with gilt apples, playthings,
stars, and candles hung on their branches."
"Perhaps I may be dressed in this way some
day," cried the Fir Tree. "That would be
better than going across the sea."
"Rejoice in us," said Air and Sunshine. But
the Fir Tree did not rejoice at all; it only grew
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The Fir Tree. 53
and grew. Winter and summer it stood there, a
The people who saw it said, That's a hand-
some tree!" Next Christmas it was cut before
any of the others.
It was very sad at parting from its old home.
It seemed to know it would never see its dear
old friends again.
Soon the Tree felt itself unloaded in a yard
with other trees, and heard a man say, "This
one is beautiful; we want only this one."
Then two servants carried the Fir Tree into
a beautiful house.
What the 'sparrows had told it came true.
On some branches the people hung little bags
of candy; golden apples and nuts hung down as
if they grew there; dolls swung from it, and a
hundred candles of all colors were fastened on
all its branches. "This is splendid," thought
How the Tree did enjoy it all! But some of
the pretty things were taken from the Tree, and
given to the happy children, who danced around
The candles burned down to the twigs, and
were put out. Then the happy people went to
The Fir Tree.
bed, leaving the poor Fir Tree quiet and alone.
In the morning the servants came and carried
the Tree upstairs to the garret, and put it in a
"What is the meaning of this? What am I
to do here?" thought the Tree.
Days and nights went by, and nobody came,
It must be winter outside," thought the Tree.
" The people cannot plant me now, so they leave
me here till spring comes. That is kind, but
how dark it is here, and how bare! I wish I
were back in the forest with the hares."
But one morning people came into the garret.
They were putting away boxes, and, seeing a tree,
brought it out. The servant dragged it to the
stairs, where the daylight shone.
Now life is beginning again!" thought the
It felt the fresh air and the first sunbeams.
It was close to the garden, and here everything
In the yard two merry children were playing,
and when they saw the Tree, one of them said,
"Look at that old Fir Tree!"
The Tree looked at the blooming flowers, and
then looked at itself. How it wished it had
The Fir Tree. 55
stayed at home in the forest with the sunbeams,
the air, the flowers, and the birds!
Soon the servant came and chopped the Tree
into little pieces.
It made a bright blaze under the teakettle,
and sighed and sighed. Each sigh sounded like
a little shot, and at last the Tree was all burned!
Adapted from Hans Andersen.
21. THE LITTLE FIR TREES.
H EY! little evergreens
Sturdy and strong!
Summer and autumn time
Harvest the sunbeams, then,
Bind them in sheaves,
Range them and change them
To tufts of green leaves.
Delve in the mellow mold,
Far, far below,
Little evergreens, grow!
Grow, little evergreens, grow!
Up, up so airily
To the blue sky,
Lift up your leafy tips
Stately and high;
Clasp tight your tiny cones,
Tawny and brown;
1 II .' i
The Little Fir Trees.
Rains will pelt down.
Chill winds will blow,
Little evergreens, grow!
Grow, little evergreens, grow!
Gather all uttermost
Hark, till I tell it now-
How Santa Claus,
Out of the northern land,
Over the seas,
Soon shall come seeking you,
Seek you with reindeer, soon,
Over the snow,
Little evergreens, grow!
Grow, little evergreens, grow!
What if the maple flare
Flaunting and red,
58 The Little Fir Trees.
You shall bear waxen-white
What if now, otherwhere
Birds are beguiled,
You shall yet nestle
The little Christ-child!
Ah, the strange splendor
The fir trees shall know,
Little evergreens, grow!
Grow, little evergreens, grow!
Evaleen Stein in St. Nicholas. By permission.
22. THE ESKIMO.
I AM a little Eskimo baby, and my name is
Boreas. I do not wear clothes until I can
walk. When I am out of doors, I ride in a skin
cradle on my mother's back. When I am in the
house, I roll upon the floor on a warm fur rug,
and play with my puppy.
When I am a man, I shall have two suits of
clothes, made of fur. The inner suit will have
the fur next to my body, and the outer suit will
have- the fur on the outside. My outer suit will
have a hood. When I put the hood on, Jack
- Lii -
60 The Eskimo.
Frost can see nothing but my eyes, nose, and
I once heard a white man tell papa, Eskimos
all dressed so much alike that he could 'not tell
girls from boys, or women from men.
Do you know what kind of a house I live in?
It is not made of wood like yours, for it is so
cold in this country that no trees can grow
My house is made of snow, and it looks like
the half of an egg-shell, only larger. We do
not heat it with a stove, for that would melt the
.snow. We warm it with lamps. These lamps
are made of stone, and look like clam-shells.
We burn oil in them, and use moss for wicks.
It must always be cold enough in the house
to freeze, or the water begins to drop from the
top, and then we know the house is melting.
One day our house was too warm, and the
snow began to melt. Some of it dropped down
papa's neck, some fell into our soup and spat-
tered it on mamma. One piece fell on me, and
I jumped. I did not like it. Papa had to mend
the melted places with fresh snow.
Our house has only one room and one door.
The doorway is low and small, so that papa and
mamma must creep through it on their hands
and knees. The door is a big block of ice. It is
used as much to keep out the dogs as the cold.
Our dogs will sleep on the hard ice and
snow, if they have plenty to eat. Papa never
feeds them oftener than every other day, and
generally about every third day.
What do you think is the best food they can
have? It is tough walrus hide, about an inch
thick. One day the dogs were very hungry,
and, as many as could, put their heads in at the
doorway. They watched mamma to see if she
would give them something to eat.
Papa has many dogs. He has one team of
nineteen. Once the dogs worked seven days
without eating. They grew very thin, but none
of them died.
Do you think you could drive dogs? Papa
62 The Eskimo.
says he never saw a white man who was a good
dog-driver. The forward dog of a team is called
the "leader" or "chief." The Eskimo dog-driver
manages the leader by speaking to him,
making him go to the right or
Sthe left as he desires. The other
4^ dogs watch the
leader, and do
as he does.
We could not live with-
out our dogs. They are our
horses and oxen for drawing loads, and
our hunting dogs, too. The dogs like
to hunt. When they are near the
game, papa slips their harness off.
Then they stand around the animal, and keep it
until papa can kill it.
Sometimes, if they go too near a bear or a
musk ox, they are killed.
One night, we heard a loud noise out doors
on the ice. Papa jumped up and went out. He
found a large bear breaking the ice to catch
Mr. Bear did not know papa was near until he
shot. Then the bear ran, and papa ran. Papa
called the dogs, too; but the bear reached the
The Eskimo. 63
ice. He went up on an iceberg, which was so
steep that no one could go after him. The
next day papa saw him up there throwing big
pieces of ice down on a seal.
23. THE ESKIMO.
SOME of our sleds are cut out of solid ice,
with fish frozen in them to make them
strong. Others are made of the bones of wal-
ruses and whales, and have ice runners.
I am very happy to-day, for mamma gave me
some candy this morning. Shall I tell you
about our candy? When papa kills a water-
fowl called a dovekie, mamma cuts off the red
feet and takes out the bones.
She then stretches and dries the skin. When
it is quite dry, she fills it with reindeer tallow,
and that is one kind of candy. The only other
kind is the marrow from the leg bones of the
reindeer. Shall I send some to you? The
reindeer comes to see us only in the summer.
That is the only time it can find moss to eat.
The reindeer is almost the color of the moss it
eats. Papa kills as many as he thinks we shall
Mamma cuts up the meat, dries it, and keeps
it to use during the winter. She dries fish also.
We eat seals, walruses, and whales.
Did you ever see a seal? They are not like
fish, if they do live in the water. Fish can
breathe in the water, but seals cannot. Fish
have cold blood, but seals have warm blood.
Fish cannot live out of the water, but seals can
live in the water or out of it. Hunters kill the
seals for food and clothing.
In summer we eat the eggs of ducks, geese,
and other birds. The birds' nests are so thick
in places, that you cannot walk without stepping
on eggs. Did you ever see an eider-duck? There
are many here in the summer.
It is not very warm here in the summer. One
day, after it had been dark day and night for
many weeks, I went with my mamma to the
top of a high hill. We saw the sun for a few
The next day he came again, and we saw him
a little longer.
Every day he came back, staying longer and
longer, until he moved higher in the sky, making
one great circle, shining all day and all night
for many weeks.
66 The Eskimo.
Then he went away again, and it was cold
and dark as before; but we like the cold as well
as a fish likes water, a bird the air, and flowers
the sunshine. We use the little God gives us,
and are happy.
24. THE SEAL.
T HE seal lives in the sea. It makes its home
in the north, where large pieces of ice float
in the ocean.
There are many kinds of seals. Some are no
larger than dogs, and are called sea-dogs. Others
are about thirty feet in length, and are called
sea-elephants, because of their great size.
The head of the seal is shaped somewhat like
that of a dog; it has whiskers like a cat, and
large, beautiful eyes.
Its feet are much like fins, and help it to
swim in the water. The skin between the toes
makes good paddles of all the feet. It some-
times crawls up on the ice and stones, but it is
clumsy out of the water. It makes short jerky
leaps, dragging along the
hind fins, or paddles.
In the water, the seal is -_li
very graceful, and can swim .
very fast. It uses its hind '~
paddles for swimming. The front ones are used
to turn itself around.
The fur of the seal is well suited to the cold
water. It is very thick, and is kept oiled by a
fat the seal has in its skin. Next the skin is a
layer of fat which helps to keep the seal warm.
Its food is chiefly fish, but it finds other food
in the sea.
Seals are easily tamed, and may be taught to
do many tricks. They know their master's voice,
and will come at his call.
The Eskimos would starve and freeze if it
were not for the seal. They use its flesh for
meat, and from the fat get oil to burn in their
lamps. Their warm clothes are made of the
seal fur; their boats are covered with sealskin.
The whips which they use in driving their dogs
are also made of the skin. The seal's bones are
made into hooks.
25. HUNTING SEALS. -
THE Eskimos spend much time
in hunting seals. Sometimes
the men go out in their boats and try to throw
their harpoons into the seals as they swim in
the water or are lying on the large blocks of
There is another way the Eskimos hunt seals.
In the far north, the ice on the ocean is very
thick; but the seal comes up under the ice and
scratches a hole through it with its sharp claws.
Then it makes a little dome through the snow
which covers the ice.
Through this snow dome, the seal makes an
opening just large enough to let in some air.
These holes are so small that the Eskimos often
pass without seeing them.
Here the seal comes to breathe. It breathes
in short gasps, which can easily be heard. If
the Eskimo hears a seal blowing, he seats him-
self on a block of ice to wait for it to come
The seal may come up at another hole to
breathe, ard then the hunter has lost him. But
if he hears a blowing, he places his spear in the
hole, and catches the seal.
Sometimes, the mother seal hunts for a breath-
ing hole under very deep snow. She makes a
much larger dome, so that the ice will form two
shelves two or three feet wide.
Mrs. Seal puts her babies on these shelves,
and brings them food. If she hears a noise, she
hurries away, leaving them on the ice-shelves.
She thinks they are quite safe, for they are
the same color as the snow.
The Eskimo, however, has learned Mrs. Seal's
place for her babies, and often carries the baby
If they are not found by the Eskimos, these
babies spend their time on the shelves until they
are old enough to swim away
with their mother. When they
can do that, they are able to
Scare for themselves.
HASSAN is a little Arab boy. He lives in
the desert where it is very hot and sandy.
The Arabs do not build houses, but live in
tents. There are no beds or chairs; they have
many soft cushions instead.
The sun is so hot on the desert, that the
Arabs stay in their tents and sleep in the day-
time. In the evening, when it is cooler, Hassan's
father sits in front of the tent and smokes his
long pipe, while the children play in the sand.
When they have their supper, Hassan's father
eats first; then his mother and the children have
theirs; and the servants eat what is left. That
would seem strange to us in this country.
The Arab's tent is pitched near a spring,
where the date palm grows. Sometimes the hot
sun dries up the spring, ..
and then the family must -
find a new home.
The camels are brought ---
up, and the loading begins. -. '
Each camel kneels until he has his burden
placed on his back. Some have large bags of
water fastened to them; some carry the cushions
and food; some are loaded with the tents and
poles. Hassan and his mother and sister ride
on camels. Hassan's father rides a beautiful
horse, with slender legs.
SThey start very early in the morning before
the sun is up.
They may travel for days and days, and not
see a palm tree or a stream. If they did not
have the bags' of water and the food, they would
die of thirst and hunger.
When a stream is near, the camel smells the
water, and will start off at a brisk trot to
How welcome the fresh dates and water are to
It does not take long to pitch the tent under
the palm trees in their new home. Here they
will stay until the water and fruit are gone;
then they will move again.
Would you like to hear how the Arabs look
They are dark-skinned, with dark hair and
eyes. They wear loose gowns, with wide trousers
_a- =:_--_:.:-_: ... -.. .-: ...- ..,.. ._ -
24 7.2 =___...._'_ -=.:_.-_- -.._- :__a --._-~-: -.--=_:= .-,.. .
- _---- _
THE ARAB'S HOME IN THE DESERT.
gathered at the ankles.
but each Arab has t
several yards of cloth.
are called turbans.
They do not wear hats,
:wisted around his head
These cloth head-dresses
27. THE CAMEL.
,'. '-" ",...., .
Si -i THERE are two kinds of
-'camels. One has two
humps on its back; the
other has only one. The home of the camel is
in Africa and Asia.
It can carry such heavy burdens over the
sandy country, that it has been called the "ship
of the desert."
The feet of the camel are large and wide.
On the bottom of each are pads or cushions,
which help the camel to tread firmly upon the
soft sand. These cushions are covered with a
hard skin, which is not hurt by the almost burn-
ing sand of the desert.
The camel's eyes are shielded from the glare
of the sun by overhanging brows and long eye-
lashes. In a sandstorm, the camel can close its
nostrils to keep out the sand.
This animal is a cud-chewer. All the animals
belonging to this family have four stomachs.
The camel uses one of these to hold water.
When a camel cannot get water for a number
of days, it uses the water from this stomach.
But it can smell water a mile away, and when
men are in need of water, they let the camel go
in the direction it wishes. If there is water, the
animal will take them to it.
There is another strange thing about the
camel, which makes it well suited for the desert.
The humps on its back 'are fat, which is taken
into its body to nourish it when the camel can
get nothing to eat. Sometimes after a long
journey, there is hardly any hump left.
The camel is taught to kneel when the men
load it. It has a hard skin on its legs and
breast to protect it from the hot sand.
Sometimes the camels and men cross the
desert in great numbers, and the company is
then called a caravan.
(Read "Jack and the Ostrich," Part III, All the Year Round.)
,,- THE PALMS.
.'' N the hot sandy country where
S",,i Hassan lives, the Arabs obtain
most of their food from the
S palm trees. These trees have
-' i..". no branches. They grow
:. .: re:t, with many green, feathery
i" 4" f l .I-- i at the top.
Th--e Arab could not live without
i'' 1 tl:_. -l:te palm. It will grow in sandy
.i'il, and drink water that would
', -",-- 1.:ill other trees.
I' I ( '"i T iri
T he trunk of the date palm
:: is very hard to climb. The
Arab climbs it by tying a
4' rope round his back and
i .--;---under his arms. He puts
S' the rope into one of the
-.-: l^ -3K notches left by a fallen leaf,
and taking hold of the trunk with his hands
and knees, raises himself a little at a time;
then he throws the rope into the next notch,
and raises himself again. He does this until he
reaches the top.
When the clusters of fruit are reached, 11 ---
are picked and thrown down. Men hold a cloth
by the corners under the tree, and catch the
dates as they fall.
Dates are pounded into hard cakes, and are
used for food in crossing the desert.
Other palms grow in other countries. The
cocoanut palm is very beautiful. It sometimes
grows to be a hundred feet high. Do you know
of any building as high as that?
The fruit of the cocoanut tree is a -rc-e
nut. It has a thick husk. The flower is not
so large as a kernel of corn, yet this '! .,;
cocoanut grows from it. \.-I. t..: huge nuts
are ripe, they fall to the ground. T--, are so
heavy, that people who have been struck '
them have been killed.
Like the date, the cocoanut palm is one of
the most useful of trees. The leaves, 4--...
fruit, shell of the fruit, and trunk of the tree
are used for m;: purposes.
There are many kinds of palm trees. Some
of them grow in Florida. Find that state on
78 The Palms.
the map, and you will see that it is not very
far from your home.
Palm trees give us dates, cocoanuts, fans, oils,
medicine, rope, and beautiful woods. We use
the leaves to make hats, fish-nets, shutters, bas-
kets, writing-paper, bedding, roofs for houses,
and many other things.
JI -~ -- --
Ii F '
29. THE PAL1VI TREE.
S it the palm, the cocoa palm,
On the Indian Sea, by the isles of balm?
Or is it a ship in the breezeless calm?
A ship whose keel is of palm beneath,
Whose ribs of palm have a palm-bark sheath,
And a rudder of palm it steereth with.
Branches of palm are its spars and rails,
Fibers of palm are its woven sails,
And the rope is of palm that idly trails!
What does the good ship bear so well?
The cocoanut with its stony shell,
And the milky sap of its inner cell.
What are its jars, so smooth and fine,
But hollowed nuts, filled with oil and wine,
And the cabbage that ripens under the Line?
The Palm Tree.
Who smokes his nargileh, cool and calm?
The master, whose cunning and skill could charm
Cargo and ship from the bounteous palm.
In the cabin he sits on a palm mat soft,
From a beaker of palm his drink is quaffed,
And a palm thatch shields from the sun aloft!
His dress is woven of palmy strands,
And he holds a palm-leaf scroll in his hands,
Traced with the Prophet's wise commands!
The turban folded about his head
Was daintily wrought of the palm-leaf braid,
And the fan that cools him of palm was made.
To him the palm is a gift divine,
Wherein all uses of man combine, -
House, and raiment, and food, and wine!
From Whittier's The Palm Tree.
HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & Co., Publ.
30. BLACK HAWK.
BLACK HAWK is the ----
name of a little In-, --
dian boy who lives in the
far west. Many years ago, when Columbus
came to America, the Indians owned all of this
beautiful country. But the white people have
driven them farther and farther west.
Black Hawk's father is an Indian chief, and a
This little boy has long, straight black hair
and a dark reddish-brown skin. He does not
live in a house, as you and I do; but his home
is made of branches of trees crossed at the top
to make a framework for the skins that are
wrapped around them.
This house or tent made of skins is called a
Black Hawk's father does not have a stove in
his wigwam in winter, but builds a fire of sticks
on the ground in the tent. An opening is left
at the top to let out the smoke.