Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 William McKinley, Commander-In-Chief...
 The story of the "Maine"
 Thrilling escape from a Spanish...
 Dewey's early morning call at Manila...
 Aguinaldo, the hero of the...
 The Cuban patriots
 The hero of Cardenas
 Cable cutting under fire
 How Hobson "corked the bottle"
 How Cervera slipped out of "the...
 Captain Evans' story
 Story of the "Texas" at Santia...
 The hero of the gallant "Glouc...
 Captain Taylor's story of the shell...
 The Oregon's grand chase
 Sketch of the Commodore Schley
 Adventures of our "Gentlemen...
 How Peter Keller rescued the...
 Colonel Roosevelt, the coming...
 Heroic deeds of Rough Riders
 Brigadier-General Leonard Wood
 Fighting Joe
 Kansas' new hero, General...
 The peaceful army of the Red...
 Hints on the pronunciation of Spanish...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: The boys in blue, or, Hero tales. Duty--valor--patriotism.
Title: The boys in blue
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086385/00001
 Material Information
Title: The boys in blue or, Hero tales. Duty--valor--patriotism
Alternate Title: Hero tales, duty-valor-patriotism
Physical Description: 236 p. : front., illus., plates (part col.) ports. (part col.) ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: J. L. Nichols & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: J. L. Nichols & Co.
Place of Publication: Toronto Ont
Naperville Ill
Publication Date: [c1899]
Subject: Spanish-American War, 1898 -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Heroes -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1899   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1899
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
collective biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Canada -- Ontario -- Toronto
United States -- Illinois -- Naperville
United States -- Georgia -- Atlanta
Statement of Responsibility: Adapted for young readers from the personal narrative of the prime actors. Carefully edited and compiled by Mrs. J. L. Nichols.
General Note: Part of the plates printed on both sides.
General Note: Imprint also notes publisher's location in Atlanta, Georgia.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086385
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001597055
oclc - 11417923
notis - AHM1185
lccn - 99005704 //r

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    William McKinley, Commander-In-Chief of the army and navy
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 12b
    The story of the "Maine"
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Thrilling escape from a Spanish mob
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 38a
        Page 38b
    Dewey's early morning call at Manila Bay
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 62a
        Page 62b
    Aguinaldo, the hero of the Filipinos
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
        Page 72b
    The Cuban patriots
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    The hero of Cardenas
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 100a
        Page 100b
    Cable cutting under fire
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    How Hobson "corked the bottle"
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    How Cervera slipped out of "the bottle"
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Captain Evans' story
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Story of the "Texas" at Santiago
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    The hero of the gallant "Gloucester"
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Captain Taylor's story of the shell that was hungry
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    The Oregon's grand chase
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Sketch of the Commodore Schley
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Adventures of our "Gentlemen Jackies"
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    How Peter Keller rescued the Admiral
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 178a
    Colonel Roosevelt, the coming man
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Heroic deeds of Rough Riders
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    Brigadier-General Leonard Wood
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 210a
        Page 210b
    Fighting Joe
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 216a
    Kansas' new hero, General Funston
        Page 216b
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
    The peaceful army of the Red Cross
        Page 226
        Page 226a
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
    Hints on the pronunciation of Spanish names
        Page 236
    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

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-GIANTS .lgo"- E R65










Joint Author of "Picture Puzzles," 'Household Guide," etc.


Publishers of Popular Subscription Books on the Exclusive Territory Plan.




goung americans
3n tle Cwentieth Centurg
2TMust Teac4 tle people of ttese Zslanbs of tle Sea,
WIVicI tfte 2oys in ~lue gave fteir lives to tin,
E4e True meaning of liberty anb
Ooob government.
2lay btey be faitthful
Io tue siG3



NAVY................................................... .
II. THE STORY OF THE "MAINE"................................ .1
VI. THE CUBAN PATRIOTS ......................... ...... ..... .. 73


VII. THE HERO OF CARDENAS .................................... 87
VIII. CABLE CUTTING UNDER FIRE ............................... 101
IX. How HOBSON "CORKED THE BOTTLE" ....................... 109
X. How CERVERA SLIPPED OUT OF "THE BOTTLE". ............... 123
XI. CAPTAIN EVANS' STORY...................................... 131
XII. STORY OF THE "TEXAS" AT SANTIAGO ...... ................. 141
XIII. THE HERO OF THE GALLANT "GLOUCESTER" ................... 149
XV. THE OREGON'S GRAND CHASE ................................. 160
XVI. SKETCH OF COMMODORE SCHLEY .............................. 164


XIX. COLONEL ROOSEVELT-THE COMING MAN ..................... 179
XX. HEROIC DEEDS OF ROUGH RIDERS ........................... 190
XXI. BRIGADIER-GENERAL LEONARD WOOD ....................... 201
XXII. FIGHTING JOE ............................................... 211
XXIII. KANSAS' NEW HERO-GENERAL FUNSTON ...................... 217
XXIV. THE PEACEFUL ARMY OF THE RED CROSS ..................... 226


OUR BATTLE CRY................................. ........ ........... 12
REVIELLE ................... ................. ............................ 2
OUR AAMERICAN WOMEN ............................ ............. 38
YANKEE DEWEY............................ ......................... 61
THE EIGHT YANKEE SEAMEN .................. ...................... 62
MCILRATH OF MALATE ............................................... 68
THE SOLDIER'S W IFE .................... ................. ........... 84
MY SOLDIER BO ................... ......................... 84
AFTER THE BATTLE..... ............................... .............. 106
THE MERRIMAC'S CREW ............................... ............... 120
THE BRIDES OF DEATH. ................. .............. ................129
THE TWELVE INCH GUN ............................................. 139
Do NOT CHEER ....................................................... 148
SONG FOR OUR FLEETS.......... ....................................... 151
FOR CUBA.................. ..... ..... ... .. .............. .......... 158
As TO WAR TAXES .................................................. 163
PEACE ...................... .............................................. 166
THE FLAG ... ...... .......................... ..... ............................ 171
ROUGH RIDERS ........................ .... ............ ................... 189
OUR SOLDIER SONG....................... ........................ 210
WHEELER AT SANTIAGO. .................. ......................... ..216
THE BANNER BETSEY MADE. .................. ...................... 224
BATTLE HYMN OF THE REPUBLIC .................................... 235

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At the close of the Spanish-American war President McKinley had
been in office only the first one-third of his term. Most Presidents are
then just getting well into their "harness" and ready to get down to
right hard work; but McKinley had made more history in those few
months than is generally accomplished in half a century. The United
States had come on to the stage in a new character, and well was it for
her that the man at the helm was ready for rough weather and storms
of any sort, and that he could meet dangers with a brave and wise heart;
well for her that the people had trusted the ship of state in the right

William McKinley, like Lincoln in 1861, seemed for some weeks to
hesitate, and who would wonder that he should shrink from calling
the nation to war while there was any hope that Spain could be
influenced to release Cuba without the force of arms? Any true man
would stop and think in order to be sure he was right before taking
a step where so much of life and death was at stake. It was easy for
hot-tempered people to say: "Let us have war;" but McKinley must
take the burden on his own shoulders; no one could bear even a part.
He alone must answer to God and his own conscience for the great
trust put in his hands by the people of the United States. If war came
hundreds and perhaps thousands of our best young men must lay down
their lives for their country.
During all these weeks, while the press and people were calling


tor war, McKinley had but one reply: "I pray God we may be able to
keep peace;" but in spite of his sincere and earnest effort for peace fate
had decreed that the Cuban knot could not -be untied, but must be cut
by the sword. When our wise President saw that war must come, he
had then to make ready for it. Our country had not been to war for
over a generation. We had only a small army, stationed in different
forts about the country. Our navy was thought to be not as good as
Spain's, though we soon showed the world that it was. We did not
know but that some of the other nations of Europe might join hands
with Spain against us. These, and many other problems much harder
to solve than anyone knows, made the President's days and nights so
full of care and work and worry that it is a wonder he did not break
down under such a severe strain. Just let us put ourselves in his place
for a short time and then say whether we would ever wish ourselves
in the President's shoes?
The excitement is over now and we can look at things more calmly,
but still no one has been able to point out a serious mistake which the
leader of our great nation made in these trying months. What higher
praise can we give him?


The first great advantage which our country secured was the
friendship of Old Mother England. Her son Jonathan had, in 1776,
left his mother's house in anger and set up housekeeping for himself
over on the other side of the ocean. He has now a large and prosperous
family, is even gray-haired himself, and has become of considerable
account in the world. Up to 1898 he had never openly made up the
quarrel with his mother England, but they were after all secretly very
friendly, and when Jonathan had this trouble with Spain the old lady
across the sea just said to the whole world: "Let them alone. Let
them fight it out. If anyone else interferes and tries to help Spain get
the best of my son Jonathan I shall give him the worst trouncing he
ever imagined; and what made it so effectual and frightened France and
Germany and all the rest away was the fact that they all knew the old
lady was as good as her word and could whip them all, too. We owe
the old lady's kindness most of all to the wise counsel, tact and wisdom
of her favorite grandson, William McKinley.
The President also succeeded in delaying actual war for several
weeks, in order to get a little bit better prepared; to raise and drill and


equip an army; to enlarge the navy; and to defend our coast more
securely. To accomplish this purpose Congress put into the President's
hands fifty million dollars, just as a little preliminary pin money to help
along the preparations; and if it takes fifty millions to just talk of war,
and if it costs several hundred dollars to fire a large naval gun once, we
can get a little idea of what war costs in money, but the suffering, grief
and mourning that follows in its cruel path can never be measured.


Thus we see that the central force, the mind that planned every-
thing, sent the right man to act and brought order out of chaos, and
victory in practically one hundred days, was in that chair before the
desk in the White House at Washington. The actual plans of war
came from McKinley, and when his plan was perfected he selected the
right man to execute it. At the very beginning of war, in fact within
twenty-four hours after war, was formally declared, the President him-
self wrote and sent that historic cablegram to Dewey, viz.: "Go to
Manila and capture or destroy the Spanish fleet." He sent this dispatch,
too, directly against the advice of every member of his cabinet except
one. The result showed his wisdom. We shall never, any of us, forget
how that glorious victory thrilled our hearts and brought the entire
American people to Dewey's feet in hero-worship. The President has
sent his personal thanks and the tribute of a grateful nation to Dewey,
at Manila, to Shafter, Sampson and Schley at Santiago, to Miles at
Porto Rico, to Watson, with his blockading fleet that never slept; but
who shall thank our wise and sleepless President, who has been the
mind, the heart, and almost the strong right arm to guide us safely
through all these dangers and difficulties to a victorious peace?
President McKinley was in the civil war, but was too young to
reach high promotion. He was elected President, not for his qualities
as a soldier, since no one then dreamed that the United States would
so soon go to war, but he was elected for his ability as a statesman, who
could solve for us some hard problems regarding money and taxation,
but in future years he will be remembered and honored as a war Presi-
What a lesson this should teach the boys of to-day. Just be true
and faithful and work hard in the place where you are and when some
high call comes, if you are fitted to answer it, you will have a chance.


Be honest, earnest and faithful in small things, and you will then be
prepared when the time comes to serve your country, or your fellow-
men, in some larger way.
All honor to Mr. McKinley, not as a Party President, but as the
People's President. He has brought us through the waters of difficulty
up to the firm hill of victory. He has planted Old Glory in the far East,
and we believe it will bring liberty and hope to those people of other
tongues and other customs. He has given us a larger America; has
lifted our whole nation to a higher place among the nations of the
earth. America will no more live selfishly to herself alone, but she has
"come of age" now, and, with the beginning of the twentieth century,
will enter upon the responsibilities and activities of mature life. She
is henceforth a world-power. Will she be faithful to her high new

Not for revenge-albeit Spain
Destroyed the Maine--
Not for her islands, near or far,
Wage we this war.
Nor solely for poor Cuba's need
Do our sons bleed;
But to solve questions which were gray
Ere to the day
She opened her sad eyes! For we,
Who scarce yet see
Wisely to rule ourselves, are set
Where ways have met,
To lead the waiting nations on!
Not for our own
Land now are battle-flags unfurled,
But for the world. -Henrietta R. Eliot.



"'fl .;






Adapted for Young Readers from Captain Sigsbee's Personal Narrative.

Years and years from now, when you and I are old; when our hair
is frosty white, and our step slow and trembling; when our grand-
children sit at our knee and beg for a story, we shall begin like this:
"Once upon a time, long, long ago, when I was quite small, the great
battleship 'Maine' lay at anchor on a quiet evening in the beautiful
harbor of Havana. Most of the sailors were peacefully sleeping in their
hammocks, dreaming of home. Those sailors and officers who were on
duty saw nothing to excite suspicion-all was quiet under the Southern
skies. Here and there about the land-locked harbor, guarded by the
old Spanish forts, like watch-dogs, grim and silent in the gloom, were
other ships at anchor, when suddenly, my children, what do you think
happened? A fearful and terrific explosion took place. It sounded
like all the guns in the United States Navy going off at the same instant,
and in ten minutes the proud ship, with most of her 328 brave boys, was
at the bottom of the harbor, never to be seen again. 'Who did it?' We
never could find out, but that was the beginning of the Spanish-Amer-
ican war, which set Cuba free from her bondage, as well as gave to the
United States the islands of Porto Rico, Hawaii and the Philippines."
The Cuban Revolution broke out in 1895 and the "Maine" was
destroyed just three years later. During these three years President
McKinley and his advisers had not once sent a warship to visit Havana
until the "Maine" was sent in January, 1898. In times of peace our bat-
tleships sail from one foreign port to another, and the ships of other
nations from time to time return these visits, but so careful had Uncle
Sam been not to do anything to offend the Spaniards that for three years
his ships had made no calls at Havana, for fear his action might be
considered an encouragement to the Cuban "Rebels," as Spain calls
them. But while the heads of Government may have flattered them-
selves that the "Maine's" visit was purely friendly, still the people con-
cerned looked upon it quite differently. It gave new hope to the Cubana;


it showed the Americans that their Government intended to protect her
citizens in Cuba more carefully, and the Spaniards resented it as a
threat against Spain-an act directly in favor of the insurgents.


But when this great warship, with her brave crew, was blown to
atoms it was an intense shock to the whole world. To the people of the
United States it served as an eye-opener. Up to that time we had tried
to feel that Cuba's wrongs and sufferings were no concern of ours. We
said to ourselves, "Let Spain go on killing and starving the brave fel-
lows who had fought a desperate fight for three years, in the hope of
setting their beautiful island free from the heel of oppression."


Like Cain, we tried to satisfy our conscience by asking, "Am I my
brother's keeper?" But when 254 of our "Boys in Blue" were called to
their long home, without so much as one farewell word to mother, wife
or sister,-killed, as many believe, by Spanish treachery, and, at least,
without question, killed because Spain was not competent to protect
the subjects of Old Glory in the Island of Cuba,-then the United
States came out of her indifference, awoke from her long nap and said:
"We will help this Little Sister of the Southern Sea; she shall no longer
be torn with civil war and martyrdom; she shall raise her head proudly
among her sisters and live in peace and plenty forever. We will not
fight unless we must, but fight we will if that cruel fellow, Spain, does
not keep hands off little Cuba forever," and fight we did.


The proud ship "Maine" and the "Texas" were the first of the mod-
ern style of battleships to be built by the United States. The "Maine"
was at first intended to be what is called an armored cruiser, with
about 7,135 square feet of canvas; later it was decided to give up the
sails, and she was called a second-class battleship. She was designed
in the Navy Department and built at the New York Navy Yards, was
launched November 18, 1890, commissioned in 1895, and started on her
first voyage November 5, 1895. She drew 22 feet and 1 inch of water
forward and 21 feet and 8 inches aft.


The "Maine" differed quite decidedly in appearance from the other
vessels of the United States Navy. In color her hull was white to the
rail, the upper part, funnels and masts, and all fittings except the pilot
house, were dark straw color. The boats and bower anchors were
white, the guns and searchlights black.
There were larger ships in the Navy than the "Maine," but, as Cap-
tain Sigsbee said, none more delightful to command or to serve in. Her
quarters were large and convenient,-with plenty of room for all the
members of the crew, whose berths were mostly in the forward part of
the ship, which fact explains the loss of so many of the crew, as com-
pared with the officers killed, as the explosion took place in the forward
part of the ship and the officers' quarters were "aft," as the sailors call
the back part of a ship.
The "Maine" had two turrets placed upon the sides, extending out
a few feet beyond the hull. In each of these were two 10-inch breech-
loading rifles; she carried besides six 6-inch breech-loading rifles, seven
6-pounders and eight 1-pound rapid firing rifles. She had four above-
water torpedo tubes. On her berth deck she was 324 feet long and 57
wide; displaced 6,650 tons; her horse power was 9,290, with a speed of
over seventeen knots.


At the close of the summer of 1897 the "Maine" joined the White
Squadron at the Southern drill ground, about twenty-five miles east cf
Cape Charles, where naval drills are commonly held, since the ocean
here is quite free from other craft, with a good depth for anchorage.
It was then the "White Squadron," but all too soon this beautiful color
was to be exchanged for the war paint-black-which is always as-
sumed by the United States' war ships before going into action.


We think of the American Navy in time of peace as cruising about
from one pleasant port to another, while the "Jackies" enjoy themselves
and make havoc among the hearts of the girls, and altogether we regard
them as having a most agreeable life. Since this war has opened our
eyes to the facts, however, we know that if they had not all these peace-
ful years been hard-working and faithful to their duties we should not
now be enjoying the fruits of a victorious peace.


After spending several weeks in hard drill, sham fighting, target
practice and searchlight drill, and all the actual business of warfare,
the "Maine" was ordered to Port Royal early in October, where she
remained until the middle of November, in order to be near Cuba in
case any further trouble should arise threatening the safety of the
Americans on that island. Returning for a short time in November to
Norfolk for slight repairs, the "Maine" was then ordered to Key West,
where she arrived December 15, and spent Christmas,-the last Christ-
mas on this bright earth for most of those brave boys. Among the
Christmas celebrations was an electric display upon the ship, which was
garlanded from bow to stern, up the masts and funnel and all around
the sides with myriads of electric lights, which delighted the inhabit-
ants at Key West, who had'never before seen such a beautiful display.


Captain Sigsbee exchanged daily telegrams with Gen. Fitzhugh
Lee, United States Consul at Havana. The telegrams were worded in
a secret code, so that no one could tell what was meant, and it was ar-
ranged between General Lee and Captain Sigsbee that at any time when
the General should telegraph the words "Two Dollars," the "Maine"
was to go at once to Havana, as this would be a sign that she was
needed there; but in order to make sure every day that a message could
go through without being stopped by the authorities at Havana, they
exchanged telegrams every day simply on ordinary subjects. For
instance, Captain Sigsbee cabled one day, "What is the price of bullfight
fans?"-these being simply a little fancy fan with the picture of a bull
fight on it which is sold as a souvenir at Havana. Such comical or
commonplace message that would excite no suspicion was sent
each day. The message "Two Dollars" never came from General
Lee, as the "Maine" was ordered by the Navy Department at Washing-
ton to go to Havana without a request from General Lee. While the
"Maine" was waiting at Key West word was received that the other
vessels of the North Atlantic Squadron, under command of Rear-
Admiral Sicard, were to come to Key West for drill. Captain Sigsbee
had made arrangements with a good pilot to take him out between the
reefs around Key West, and when he heard that the squadron had
arrived he sent for the pilot, but the pilot commissioners, through
some foolish rule, refused to let him have the one he had selected--
since he had not piloted the "Maine" in he was not to be allowed


to take her out. Captain Sigsbee appealed against this rule as being
quite unnecessary; but the pilot commissioners still refused. Captain
Sigsbee then decided to go without a pilot; so somebody, through this
obstinacy, lost $150, which remained in the treasury of the United
On Sunday night the eight vessels, including the "Maine," were at
anchor just outside the reefs of Sand Key Light. The next day they
steamed about ten miles to the southward, near the entrance of Tortu-
gas Roads. While there, a dispatch was received from headquarters that
the "Maine" was to proceed to Havana and make a friendly visit. These
were the only orders which Captain Sigsbee received, he being left to act
on his own judgment when he reached Havana. Although it might be
expected that the Spanish people in Havana would much prefer that
the "Maine" should stay away, still the situation seemed to call for noth-
ing more than a careful exchange of courtesies according to the well-
known forms for naval officers. Captain Sigsbee, it is certain, gave him-
self no concern over this delicate mission, merely being proud that he
was selected upon such a difficult and honorable errand, and declared
that he would try and make no mistakes.


The "Maine" arrived near Havana about daylight on Tuesday, Jan-
uary 25th. The vessel was slowed down, the decks put in perfect order,
the crew ordered into the proper neat blue uniform-the officers were in
frock coats-and then, in broad daylight, when the town was alive and
on its feet,.she presented herself at the harbor of Havana, the United
States Flag waving above her, and signalled for a pilot, to lead her
within the narrow gateway of the harbor. She was anchored by the
pilots in the employ of the Spanish Government in the exact place
where the Spanish Government thought best. After her arrival all the
various forms of visiting and returning visits between the officers of the
"Maine" and the Spanish authorities were gone through with as care-
fully and as courteously as though the United States vessel was an hon-
ored guest and one whom Spain would be proud to entertain. Captain
Sigsbee was very careful to appear extremely friendly to the Spanish
authorities and his civilities were returned to the letter, if not in the
most cordial spirit. He and his officers went freely about Havana, at-
tending different places of amusement and driving. He received no
unpleasant treatment from anyone, excepting when an occasional cir-


cular would be mailed to him, with threatening .words against the
United States; but he paid no attention to these, thinking they were
simply the work of. some hot-headed anarchist.


On board the vessel every precaution that could be taken against
injury or treachery was carefully taken so far as the rules of interna-
tional courtesy would allow. Said Captain Sigsbee: "If one, when
dining with a friend at home, were to test the dishes for poison, he
would not be making a friendly visit." The harbor could not be dragged
without giving offense; it could not be patrolled by our own picket
boats at night, nor could the searchlights be kept going, but every in-
ternal precaution was exercised that the situation suggested. Special
sentries and extra watches were maintained in all parts of the ship.
Steam was kept up in two boilers instead of one, as is usual, and every
precaution was taken, as though the "Maine" might be anchored in an
unfriendly harbor. The sailors were instructed to follow visitors about
at a proper distance whenever the ship was visited, to carefully watch
for any packages that might be laid down or left by visitors, on the sup-
position that they might contain dynamite or other violent explosives.
They were also required to inspect the routes over which the visitors
had passed after their departure; but until the night of the explosion
nothing whatever was developed to show that there was any particular
need of this watchful care.
The Spanish officers themselves did not of their own accord make
any visits to the "Maine," except such as were required officially, al-
though Captain Sigsbee made a special effort to have them do so-they
Sdid not manifest a cordial and friendly spirit.


SOn the night of the explosion of the "Maine," February 15, 1898,
the wind had turned her in a direction quite different from any she had
occupied since her arrival. The members of the crew, 328 in number,
were on board as usual and had "turned in," as sailors say when they
go to bed. Some of the officers were in their staterooms or in the mess-
rooms below; others on the main or upper deck. Captain Sigsbee was
in his cabin writing. He had been making up the report to the Secre-


tary of the Navy; then, finding it warm, had called for a thin coat to put'
on-he had not had this coat on for several months; in fact, since he
had left home, and in the pocket of it he found a letter, written ten
months before by his wife and confided to him to mail. The lettertwas:
Unopened and undelivered and had been peacefully concealed in this
coat for ten long months. He was engaged at the time in writing to his:
wife an apology for having carried her letter so long unmailed., At
ten minutes after nine the bugle sounded, which is called "Taps," and!
says to the sailors "Turn, in and keep quiet." The Captain paused in his
writing on this particular evening to listen to the beautiful notes of the
bugle as they sounded on the quiet, still night. The Bugler, Newton, it
is said, was given to fanciful effects, and to-night he was doing his best,
and just one-half hour later the poor fellow was dead. Captain Sigsbee
was just putting his letter in its envelope when the explosion came.
He describes his impression in these words: "To me, in my position,
well aft and within the superstructure, it was a bursting, rending,
crashing sound, a roar of immense volume, largely metallic in char-
acter; it was followed by a succession of heavy, ominous, metallic
sounds, probably caused by the overturning of the central superstruc-
ture and by falling debris. There was a trembling and lurching motion
of the vessel and a list to port. The electric lights, of which there were
eight in the cabin where I was sitting, went out. Then there was in-
tense blackness and smoke."


Captain Sigsbee did not mistake what had happened. For a mo-
ment the instinct of saving himself took possession of him, but at once
the habit of command and thought for others controlled him.. He.
groped his way out upon the outer deck and turned his attention to:
doing everything in his power to save his men. In describing this
dreadful scene, he speaks of the bravery shown by all the survivors,
how serious they all felt in the face of the dreadful disaster, how little
excitement there was, and what perfect discipline prevailed. Orders
were given to put out as many boats as could be used to save the sur-
vivors if possible. The explosion took place at 40 minutes past nine and
in a few minutes the officers were obliged to leave the vessel, as it sank
so rapidly. They were removed to the steamer --"'ity of. Washington'?
from the United States, which was anchored not far away, and many
of the-wounded and rescued sailors were also taken on board the "City


of Washington." The officers and crews of the Spanish vessels did all
that humanity could ask for the survivors.
Captain Sigsbee was the last man to leave his beloved vessel, and,
though he describes his feelings in very modest words, we can easily
imagine how crushed and desolate he must have felt to think of his
beautiful ship blown to pieces and his brave boys at the bottom of the
harbor; but he was patient and accused no one, and sent a telegram to
the Navy Department at Washington, which did more to arrest the first
feeling of overwhelming indignation that swept over the people of the
United States than anything else could have done.


Only nineteen of the crew of the "Maine" were uninjured, and
254 of the people on board the "Maine" were lost that night.
Some of the wounded men were taken up and cared for by the fire or-
ganization at Havana, some sent to the two hospitals and some to the
steamer "City of Washington." But the sad story of the wounded men
as they went down in the dreadful swirl of water and smoke can never
be told this side of eternity. It is a comfort to know that most of those
who were lost were killed instantly, and probably many of them had no
knowledge whatever of the explosion. Some of those who were saved
remembered no explosion, except that they awoke and found them-
selves wounded and in a strange place.
Reports from different officers and men described the explosion in a
different way, as each one sees it from his point of view.
Captain Frederick G. Teasdale describes it as follows. (He was
master of the British bark "Deva," which was lying at a wharf about a
quarter of a mile from the "Maine.") He said in his testimony: "I was
sitting at the cabin table writing, when I heard the explosion. I
thought the ship had been collided with. I ran on deck when I heard the
explosion. I felt a very severe shock in my head, also. I seized my head
this way (indicating). I thought I was shot, or something. The tran-
soms of the doors of the cabin are fitted in the studs on the side, and
they were knocked out of place with the shock. The first seemed to be
a shot, and then a second, or probably two seconds after the first report
that I heard, I heard a tremendous explosion; but as soon as I heard the
first report-it was a very small one-thinking something had hap-
pened to the ship, I rushed on deck, just in time to see the whole debris
going up in the air. The stuff ascended, I should


say, one hundred and fifty or one hundred and sixty feet
up in the air. It seemed to go comparatively straight
until it reached its highest point of ascent; then it
divided and passed off in kinds of rolls or clouds. Then I saw a series
of lights flying from it again. Some of them were lights-incandescent
lights. Sometimes they appeared to be brighter, and sometimes they
appeared to be dim, as they passed through the smoke, I should pre-
sume. The color of the smoke, I should say, was a very dark slate-color.
There were fifteen to twenty of those lights that looked like incan-
descent lights. The smoke did not seem to be black, as you would imag-
ine from an explosion like that. It seemed to be more of a slate-color.
. Quantities of paper and small fragments fell over our ship, and
for some time after."

Mr. Sigmund Rothschild, a passenger on board the "City of Wash-
ington," went on deck about half-past nine with his fellow-passenger,
Mr. Wertheimer. They drew chairs toward the railing. Mr. Rothschild
described the explosion in his testimony in this way: "In doing so, I
had brought my chair just about in this condition (indicating the way
it was placed) and had not sat down when I heard a shot, the noise of a
shot. I looked around and I saw the bow of the 'Maine' rise a little, go
a little out of the water. It couldn't have been more than a few seconds
after that noise that there came in the center of the ship a terrible mass
of fire and explosion, and everything went over our heads, a black mass.
We could not tell what it was. It was all black. Then we heard a noise
of falling material right where we had been, right near the smoking-
room. One of the life-boats on our steamer, which was hanging, had a
piece go through it-it made a big hole in it. After we saw that
mass go up, the whole 'Maine' lifted out, I should judge,
about two feet. As she lifted out, her bow went right
down. We stood spellbound and cried to the Captain
(of the 'City of Washington'). The Captain gave orders to
lower the boats, and two of the boats, which were partly lowered, were
found broken through with big holes. Some iron pieces had fallen
through them. Naturally, that made a delay, and they had to run for
the other boats, or else we would have been a few minutes sooner in the
water. Then the stern of the 'Maine' stood out like this, in this direc-
tion (indicating), and there was a cry from the people: 'Help' and 'Lord
God, help us' and 'help,' 'help.' The noise of the cry of human voices in


the 'Maine' did not last but a minute or two. When the ship was
going down, there was a cry of a mass of people, but that was a mur-
mur, which was not so loud as the single voices,which were in the
water, and it did not last but a minute, and by that time we saw some-
body on the deck in the stern of the ship, and it took about a few min-
utes when the boats commenced to bring in the officers, the last to come
on board. We took them to our rooms. A great many of them came
without anything on but a pair of pants and nothing else. That is
about the whole story in regard to the shot."
Captain Frank Stevens, master of the "City of Washington," testi-
fied also, in this way: "I heard a dull, muffled explosion and commo-
tion, like as though it was under the water, followed instantly by a ter-
rific explosion, lighting up the air with a dull red glare, filling the air
full of flying missiles, which lit all around us. We were struck, I think,
in four places."

Lieutenant John Hood, one of the officers of the "Maine," tells his
story in a very interesting way. He said: "I was sitting on the port
side of the deck, with my feet on the rail, and I both heard and felt-
felt more than I heard-a big explosion, that sounded and felt like an
under-water explosion. I ivas under the impression that it came from
forward, starboard, at the time. I instantly turned my head, and the
instant I turned my head there was a second explosion. I saw the
whole starboard side of the deck, and everything above it as far aft as
the after-end, of the superstructure, spring up in the air, with all kinds
of objects in it-a regular crater-like performance, with flames and
everything else coming up. I immediately sprang myself behind the
edge of the superstructure, as there were a number of objects flying ir
my direction, for shelter. I ran very quickly aft, as fast as I could,
along the after-end of the superstructure, and climbed up on: a kind of
.step. I went under, the barge, and. by the time I went up on the super-
structure this explosion had passed.; The objects had stopped -flying
around. Then Isaw. on .the starboard side there, was an immee. se mass
,of foaming water and wreckage and groaning men out there.: It was
scattered around in a circle, I should say about a hundred yards in
diameter, off on the starboard side. I immediately proceeded to lower
the gig, with the help of another man. After -I got that in the water
several officers jumped in, and one or two men. In the meantime some-
body else was lowering the other boat on the port side. I heard some


groans forward, and ran forward on the quarter-deck down the ladder,
and I immediately brought upon an immense pile of wreckage. I saw
one man there, who had been thrown from somewhere, pinned down by
a ventilator."
The Court: "May I interrupt Mr. Hood a moment? He said sev-
eral officers jumped into the gig. He does not say for what purpose or
what they did. That might leave a bad impression unless he states
what the object was."
Answer: "They jumped into the gig, commanded to pick up these
wounded men whom we heard out in the water. The orders had been
given by the Captain and the executive officer to lower the boats as soon
as they came on deck. I spoke of lowering the gig because I was on the
deck before they got up there and began to lower it anyway to pick up
these men. As I was saying a. minute ago, I found this one man lying
there on the quarter-deck in this wreckage, pinned down by a ven-
tilator. With Mr. Blandin's help we got him up just in time before the
water rose over him. The Captain and the executive officers ordered
the magazines to be flooded. We all saw at once that it would be no
use flooding the magazines. We saw that the magazines were flooding
themselves. Then the Captain said he wanted the fire put out that was
starting up in the wreckage. I made my way forward through the
wreck and debris, up to the middle superstructure, to see if anything
could be done toward putting out this fire. When I got there I found
nothing could be done because the whole thing was gone.


"When I climbed up on this wreck on the superstructure I saw sim-
ilar piles of wreckage on the port side, which I had not seen before, and
I saw some.men struggling in that, in the water; but there were half a
dozen boats there, I suppose, picking them up and hauling them oht;
and,. after pulling down some burning swings and things that were
starting to. burn aft, to stop.any fire from catching aft, I came aft again
out of the .wreckage. 'There was no living thing'up there at that:tifie.
Shortly after that we all left the ship. .There were two distinti ex-
plosions big, ones--and. they .were folo.ied by *a number .f.ismaller
explosions,. which I.took at oiice. to be.lwhiat thieywre, I suppie-ex-
plosions of separate charges of the b wn-iup imTagazlie. .ThI` Tit.t
the first explosion occurred I knew the ship was gone completely, adid
the second explosion only assisted her to go a little quicker. She began


to go down instantly. The interval between the two was so short that
I only had time to turn my head and see the second. She sank on the
forward end-went down like a shot. In the short time that I took to
run the length of that short superstructure aft, the deck canted down,
showing that her bow had gone at once.
"At the same time the ship heeled over considerably to port, I should
say about ten degrees, the highest amount, and then the stern began to
sink very rapidly, too; so rapidly that by the time I got that gig low-
ered, with the assistance of another man or two, the upper quarter-deck
was under water, and the stern was sinking so quickly that when I be-
gan to pick this man up, whom I spoke of on the quarter-deck, the deck
was still out of water. Before I got this ventilator off him-it didn't
take very long, as Mr. Blandin assisted to move that to get him up-
the water was over my knees, and just catching this fellow's head, the
stern was sinking that quickly. The bow had gone down, as I say, in-

Lieutenant John H. Blandin also tells his story. He said: "After
the third quarter-watch at nine o'clock was piped down, I was on the
starboard side of the deck, walking up and down. I looked over the side
and then went over to the port side and took a look. I don't remember
seeing any boats at all in sight. I thought at the time the harbor was
very free from boats. I thought it was about three bells, and I walked
over to the port side of the deck, just abaft the after-turret. Mr. Hood
came up shortly afterward and was talking to me when the explosion
occurred. I am under the impression that there were two explosions,
though I could not be sure of it. Mr. Hood started aft to get on the
poop to lower the boats, I suppose, and I followed him. Something
struck me on the head. My cap was in my hand. My head was slightly
cut, and I was partially knocked over, but not stunned. I climbed on
the poop and went on the starboard side, and found Captain Sigsbee
there. I reported to him. He ordered the boats lowered at once to pick
up any of the wounded. The officers were rapidly got on the poop, and
there were one or two men there, but very few.
"The barge and gig were lowered, and just then I heard a man cry-
ing out down on the quarter-deck. I went to the ladder, and I saw Mr.
Hood trying to pull a ventilator off the man's legs. He was lying in the
wreckage, jammed there. The water then was not deep. I went down
and helped Mr. Hood to pull this ventilator off, and carried the man on


the poop, with the help of Private Loftus, I think it was. It was a pri-
vate man (marine). Then the Captain told Mr. Wainwright to see if
anything could be done to put out the fire. Mr. Wainwright went for-
ward to the middle superstructure, and shortly afterward came back,
and reported to the Captain that it was hopeless to try to do anything.
Then in a very few minutes the Captain decided that it was hopeless,
and gave the order to abandon ship. Boats came from the 'Alfonso
Doce,' and two boats from the 'City of Washington,' and those, with our
boats, picked up the wounded and sent most of them, by the Captain's
order, to the 'Alfonso.' There were thirty-four sent there. We aban-
doned ship, the Captain getting in his gig after everybody had left, and
went to the 'City of Washington.' "


Naval Cadet D. F. Boyd, Jr., had one of the narrowest escapes
among the officers. His report gives all that is known of Assistant En-
gineer Darwin R. Merritt, who was drowned. He said: "About nine-
thirty, as well as I am able to judge, on the night of February 15th, As-
sistant Engineer D. R. Merritt and I were sitting in the steerage (junior
officers' mess-room) reading, when I heard a dull report, followed by the
crashing of splinters and falling of the electric light fixtures overhead.
The lights were extinguished at the first report. I was struck by a
small splinter and dazed for a moment. I grasped Mr. Merritt by the
arm, exclaiming: 'Out of this. Up on deck.' Together we groped our
way out of the steerage, and along the bulk-head in the after torpedo-
room, where we met a cloud of steam and tremendous rush of water.
The force of the i ater separated us, and as I was lifted off my feet I
caught a steam-heater pipe, and reached for the steerage ladder. It
was gone. I worked my way along the steam-pipe until I reached the
port side of the ship. Water was rushing through the air-ports, and as
I reached the side, I heard some one cry: 'God help me. God help me.'
I think it must have been Merritt. At that moment I found the two
torpedoes that were triced up under the deck-beams, and, twining my
legs around them, I worked my way inboard. The water was then at a
level of about one foot from the deck-beams. At that moment some
burning cellulose flared up, and I was able to reach the hatch-coaming
and work my way up on deck. I rushed on the poop, and there found
Captain Sigsbee, Lieutenant-Commander Wainwright, Lieutenants Hol-
man and Hood, and Naval Cadet Cluverius. The remaining boats were


away, picking up these men in the water. Lieutenant-Commander
Wainwright and I then went on the quarter-deck awning and on the
middle superstructure to help out any wounded.
"When the Captain gave the order to abandon ship, we were
brought over in the Ward line steamer 'City of Washington's' boat.
The boats present, as well as I remember, were two of our boats, two
from the 'City of Washington,' three from the 'Alfonso,' and several
shore boats."

The loss of Lieutenant Friend W. Jenkins has been a great mystery
to all. Lieutenant Holman testified that he himself, with Lieutenants
Jungen and Jenkins and Chief Engineer Howell, were in the officers'
mess-room. All were saved but Lieutenant Jenkins. Mess-Attendant
John H. Turpin was in the ward-room pantry, next the officers' mess-
room. Mr. Turpin says: "It was a jarring explosion-just one solid ex-
plosion, and the ship heaved and lifted like that, and then all was dark.
I met Mr. Jenkins in the mess-room, and by that time the water was up
to my waist, and the water was running aft. It was all dark in there,
and he hollered to me, and he says: 'Which way?' I don't know what
he meant by that. I says: 'I don't know which way.' He hollered
again: 'Which way?' I says: 'I don't know, sir, which way.' And he
hollered the last time; he says: 'Which way?' I says: 'I don't know,
sir.' Then I was groping my way, and the water was up to my breast.
Mr. Jenkins started forward, and then the whole compartment lit right
S up. The whole compartment where the torpedoes were lit right up, and
I seen Mr. Jenkins then throw up both hands and fall, right by the
steerage pantry. Then I groped my way aft, and got to the Captain's
ladder-the ladder coming out of the ward-room-just as you come out
of the ward-room to go up in the cabin. When I got there the ladder
was carried away, and somehow or other the manrope kept fast upon
the deck, but the ladder got adrift from it down below in the water. By
that time the water was right up even with my chin. Then I com-
menced to get scared, 'and -in fooling around it happened that a rope
touched my arm, and I commenced to climb overhand andgot on deck."
-These extracts refer to those whdo escaped-from that partof the ship
which -as not destroyed.; It was not-iere'that'thei most fearful Idss of
*lifef'tok dd place '- Tis'~railitat only two men'escaped-in th-e-forward part
of the ship, where t'he principal sleeping-quarters of the crew were.
These men were Charles Bergman, boatswain's mate, and Jeremiah


Shea, a coal-passer. Mr. Shea was sleeping below the great pile of
wreckage, and when asked afterwards how he could account for his
miraculous escape, replied: "I think, sir, I must be an armour-piercing

Bergman was asleep in his hammock. In his testimony he says:
"I heard a terrible crash, an explosion I suppose that was. Something
fell, and then after that I got thrown somewhere in a hot place. Wher-
ever that was I don't know. I got burned on my legs and arms, and got
my mouth full of ashes and one thing and another. Then the next thing
I was in the water-away under the water somewhere, with a lot of
wreckage on top of me that was sinking me down. After I got clear of
that I started to come up to the surface of the water again, and I got
afoul of some other wreckage. I got my head jammed in, and I couldn't
get loose, so I let myself go down. Then it carried me down farther. I
silppose when it touched the bottom somewhere it sort of opened out a
bit, and I got my head out and started for the surface of the water
again. I hit a lot of other stuff with my head above the water. I got
picked up by a Spanish boat, one of the shore boats, I think."
The next day, after passing a very restless night, Captain Sigsbee
spent in caring for the wounded, providing for the comforts of the sur-
vivors and in answering and forwarding telegrams. The President sent
the following dispatch through his secretary: "The President directs
me to express for himself and the people of the United States his pro-
found sympathy with the officers and crew of the 'Maine,' and desires
that no expense be spared in providing for the survivors and caring for
the dead."

The responsibility and weight of care and sorrow that rested upon
Captain Sigsbee during the sad days following can well be imagined.
He had lost his vessel and most of his crew in a foreign harbor, at least
politically unfriendly to the United States. He could not command
what was needed, but must ask in a very careful way his favors. -- The
recovery of the dead was reported to him one by one, hour after hour;
.yet still more were d6wn ii the wreck. Divers must be sent down into
the wreck to recover state papers, the vessel must be protected, the
dead must be buried. He must think of the bereaved families and


friends at home, who would not be satisfied unless everything possible
was done for their dear ones. There were telegrams, private and official,
to answer and to write, and reports to gather from the wreck. Yet in
all these difficult and trying duties, Captain Sigsbee showed himself to
be wonderfully just, thoughtful and diplomatic.


General Blanco and the Spanish authorities at Havana asked per-
mission to publicly bury the bodies of the "Maine's" crew. This offer
Captain Sigsbee thought best to accept, although he did not know that
it would meet with the approval of the friends in America; but, consid-
ering all things, it seemed the best thing to be done. So, on the after-
noon of February 17th, funeral services were held over nineteen bodies,
the first that had been recovered. The officers of the "Maine" attended
as mourners for the dead. The actual burial services were conducted by
Chaplain Chidwick from the "Maine," although all arrangements were
taken charge of by the Spanish officials. It was a very imposing scene.
In addition to the hearses, there were many carriages and also a large
military, naval, and civic escort, provided by the Spaniards. Even the
poor Cubans were in line. No such demonstration had been made in
Havana for many years. The Bishop of Havana went to the cemetery
in person, which, it is said, is a very special mark of unusual sympathy.
Thus they passed to the Colon Cemetery, where the burial took place.
The ground where the American soldiers were buried is given for
all time to the United States without expense.
After these first nineteen men were buried, there was no further
official demonstration, Chaplain Chidwick taking charge of the services
which were held over the other bodies as fast as they were recovered
from the waters of the harbor.
The martyred boys who went down with the "Maine," though they
were never permitted to fight for their country, yet their cruel death
was not in vain, for it will always be remembered as the prime cause
which sent a wave of popular indignation and national enthusiasm
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from the President down to the small-
est schoolboy, and which ended in teaching Spain a lesson which she
will not forget in a hurry. North, South, East and West all joined in
one grand chorus of applause when the wires flashed the news that the
"strong man" was to fight for the weak "little sister."
May the record of the brave deeds of the heroes in this holy war


inspire each one of us to be brave in duty, true in temptation, and pure
as the white stars in our beloved banner.


The morning is cheery, my boys, arouse!
The dew shines bright on the chestnut boughs,
And the sleepy mist on the river lies,
Though the east is flushing with crimson dyes.
Awake! awake! awake!
O'er field and wood and brake
With glories newly born,
Comes on the blushing morn.
Awake! awake!

You have dreamed of your homes and your friends all night;
You have basked in your sweethearts' smiles so bright:
Come, part with them all for a while again-
Be lovers in dreams; when awake, be men.
Turn out! turn out! turn out!
You have dreamed full long I know,
Turn out! turn out! turn out!
The east is all aglow.
Turn out! turn out!

From every valley and hill there come
The clamoring voices of fife and drum;
And out on the fresh, cool morning air
The soldiers are swarming everywhere.
Fall in! fall in! fall in!
Every man in his place.
Fall in! fall in! fall in!
Each with a cheerful face.
Fall in! fall in!
-Michael O'Connor.



*See Chapter XI.


---~--- --




As Told by Wm. McIntyre of the New York Volunteers.

For two years I have been employed in the crushing mills of Don
's sugar plantation, ten miles south of Colon and about fifty miles
southeast of Matanzas. Don -- was one of the few planters who
continued grinding all through the rebellion, and his position was the
more difficult as the estate was situated upon the very debatable
ground between the government and the insurgent forces.
Early in 1896, Gomez raided the whole countryside, and a good
deal of skirmishing took place on the plantation; but later in the year
the Cubans retreated into Santa. Clara province, and the ground was
occupied by the Spanish regulars. Our employer always made a point
of royally entertaining any Spanish officers that happened to be near,
and on one occasion we had General Weyler and his staff at the
During all this time I continued working about the place, making
no secret of my nationality, and I could not see that this made the
slightest difference in the way I was regarded. In fact, it was not until
some time later that the anti-American feeling grew to any strength in
the country districts of Cuba.
In the latter part of 1897, however, agitation against the United
States began to run wild, and there were constant rumors of war to be
declared. I could perceive a distinct change in the way I was regarded
in the neighborhood, and on a visit to Cienfuegos in November I was
very nearly mobbed by an excited rabble. But I fancied that this ex-
citement would blow over in a few months.
It was on the 17th of February, 1898, that we received the first
news of the disaster to the "Maine." It was a mere rumor, coming no one
knew whence, that the American battle-ship had fired upon Havana,
and had been sunk by the forts. Another report had it that she had
been destroyed by a torpedo-boat, after firing on the Morro. Mails came
irregularly to the plantation, and it was not until the 25th that we re-


ceived letters and newspapers from Havana, giving the official Spanish
account of the catastrophe-that the "Maine" had blown up her maga-
The tone of the newspapers was altogether of thinly veiled rejoic-
ing, and excitement seemed to be intense. I had seen the emotional
Spaniard worked up before, however, and I did not anticipate really
serious consequences. Isolated as we were, it was difficult to get at the
exact state of international affairs, and after three years of rumors of
wars we had grown hardened.
On the 2nd of April a large body of troops came through, marching
eastward on the Camino Central-the great central turnpike-and they
brought the report that war had been declared against the United
States, that the Spanish fleet had sailed to bombard New York, and
that the Vizcaya had sunk an American cruiser off Key West.
The soldiers seemed wild with enthusiasm, and kept up a continual
chorus of patriotic songs, mingled with shouts of "Viva Espana! Viva
Cuba Espanola!"
Though I did not wholly credit these reports, yet I began to be con-
scious that my position in case of war would be far from pleasant. I
was trying to hit upon a suitable course, when my indecision was cut
short by Don -- discharging me from his services and advising me
to leave the country at once. He declared that war was a certainty, and
that he would be unable to protect me, much as he would so desire; and
he paid me a month's salary in advance and shook hands with me as he
hurried me off. It has always been my belief that he was in the habit of
secretly aiding the insurgents with supplies.
On the 5th of April I walked over to Colon, where I took the train
for Havana, intending to get a steamer for Key West. There were a
good many officers on the train, and one car was completely filled with
soldiers, besides the usual armored box-car and its garrison. A good
deal of excitement seemed in the air both on the train and at the differ-
ent stations we passed, but no one paid any attention to me until we
arrived at Isabel.
The train stopped here for a few minutes, and I rather imprudently
got out to buy fruit at a stall on the platform. Something in my accent
or manner must have betrayed me to the big quadroon who managed
the business, for he stared inquisitively and exclaimed: "Yanqui lechon
(American swine). Ve tu!" (get out)-and waved me away.
I discreetly retreated; but the usual crowd of depot loafers had
already scented the possibility of a row, and were hurrying up. They


Closed around me, and gave way but slowly as I pushed toward the
train, assailing me with foul language, taunts, and threats, while the re-
enforced quadroon kept up his objurgations from the rear. There was
no physical violence offered, however, till a rough suddenly stopped in
front of me and deliberately spat in my face!
My temper gave way at this atrocious act, and I knocked the fellow
sprawling. There was a shout of rage. from the mob. Somebody cried,
"Matalo! Matalo!" (Kill him! Kill him!) I was struck heavily on the
head from behind and beaten to my knees, from which posture I was
speedily leveled. Everybody then trod upon me or kicked me at ran-
It was like a Rugby scrimmage, in which I represented the ball.
Fortunately most of them were unshod, or I should never have escaped
In the midst of this melee, I perceived dimly through the panorama
of legs that surrounded me that my train was in the act of leaving the
At last I contrived to pull myself up by grasping at the men who
tramped over me, and then I was able to hold my own with my fists.
As the mob gave way, I burst through, and ran for dear life down
the railroad track, with the chase in full cry behind.
The Spaniards, however, stopped to pick up stones, with which
they missed me, and in a few moments I was out of range. But I did
not stop running till I was well clear of the town.
Finally I stopped to overhaul myself and to reflect, for I was by no
means out of the woods yet-that is to say, out of Cuba. My head was
still ringing from the blow I had received, and my nose had covered my
face with blood. My clothes were badly torn, and I was bruised from
head to foot, but, worst of all, when I felt for my purse, which I carried
in an inside pocket, it was gone. My railway ticket had also disap-
peared in the scuffle.
In any case, however, I should have hesitated to do any further
railway traveling, and without ticket or money it was impossible to
reach Havana. Matanzas, however, lay not more than 40 miles distant
on the north coast, and it was probable that I could get a ship from that
There was, of course, nothing for it but to tramp, and I hoped to
arrive in less than two days. The scarcity of food, however, and the ne-
cessity of avoiding Spanish patrols made it almost three.
The desolation of the country through which I passed cannot be


imagined. There was no profitable thing growing except what had
sprung up wild. Here and there a roofless and half-burned building
stood up forlornly from the rank vegetation, and in such places I some-
times found patches of vegetables wherewith to appease my hunger.
Such unsatisfying food was the only nutriment I obtained during the
whole tramp. I saw no human being save some bodies of Spanish sol-
diery at a distance.
I had the greatest difficulty in finding food enough to avert actual
starvation, and I was exhausted and weak enough when, on the after-
noon of the third day, I sighted the blue sea from a hill overlooking
The town seemed much excited. As I entered the streets I found
the cafes and saloons crowded with loud-talking men, many in uniform.
Squads of soldiers were moving through the streets, and from the fort
at the harbor-mouth bugles were faintly blowing. Everything spoke
eloquently of war, and I greatly feared that I had been too late in at-
tempting escape.
Naturally I wished first of all to reach the American consulate, and
as I had no idea where to find it, I began to stroll through the streets
as unobtrusively as possible, looking for the familiar eagle and shield.
I did not see it; but I presently encountered a mob of men and boys
dragging an American flag through the gutter, and shrieking out belli-
cose sentiments. I escaped this demonstration by turning down a cross
street, but as I neared the river I was struck sharply in the back by a
stone, and accosted as, a "Cursed Yankee!"
I have never ceased to marvel at the discernment of the fellow who
thus saluted me. What of the American he saw in me I am utterly at a
loss to conjecture, for I was as brown, as ragged, and as famished as
any Cuban beggar in the streets. At that moment, however, I did not
stop to wonder, but incontinently bolted.
It was amazing to see how swiftly a small mob was at my heels.
Several stones struck me lightly in the back, but I knew that I had not
the strength for a long run. I doubled like a haie, with the idea of
throwing my pursuers off the track, turned down three or four -side
streets, crossed the Yumuri bridge, and suddenly saw the harbor gleam-
ing before me. I came out upon the docks, deserted and almost lifeless,
as they have been ever since 1896, and made for a shed whose half-open
doors seemed to offer a hiding place. But at the entrance I recoiled in
horror, so shocking was the sight and smell that assailed me.
About the floor lay forty or fifty persons, men, women and children,


in the midst of the most indescribable filth. Many were stark naked,
and all were emaciated almost to the degree of skeletons, every bone
showing under the leaden, sunken skin. Some of them seemed to be
dead, and from the odor I was convinced that there was at least one
corpse in the place; but most of the poor creatures raised their heads
feebly and looked at me in a sort of piteous silence. I was irresistibly
reminded of pictures of rescued blacks from the slave-ships, and many
of these were negroes; but I knew that these must be Weyler's wretched
victims, the "reconcentrados."
There was no time for repulsion. I heard the cries of the rabble
behind, and I entered the building, stepping over the prostrate bodies,
and concealed myself behind some loose planks in the extreme corner.
The noise of the mob approached the shed, and after a time several
men came and looked in at the doorway, but retreated-repelled, I sup-
pose, by the horrible stench.
Even for some time after all seemed quiet I dared not leave my re-
treat, but remained looking and breathing through a crack that showed
the harbor. In the bay were anchored several fish-smacks, a dirt-col-
ored gunboat, a ramshackle coasting-brig, and a good-sized black
steamer flying German colors. It was upon this last vessel that I fixed
my hopes.
In about half an hour I crept out and ensconced myself in the shel-
ter of a pile of hogsheads, where I was free of the reeking shed, and
watched the steamer. My only fear was that she would sail before I
could get aboard. I could not, of course, hire a boatman; she lay too far
out to be hailed; and to attempt to swim in that shark-infested harbor
would be plain suicide. So I could only wait for her to send a boat
All the afternoon, however, she made no sign of life, and after
nightfall I skulked through the streets again in search of the consulate.
In this I was unsuccessful, though I heard the noise of some disturbance
in the distance, which must have been the rioting around the house of
the American consul on the night of the 7th. These sounds somewhat
alarmed me, and I returned to the docks and spent some time in looking
for a small boat in which to gain the steamer, without-finding one. I
was suffering cruelly with hunger, and would have searched the streets
for even eatable refuse had not the swarms of starving creatures that
slunk about in the darkness told me how useless such an attempt would
be. The wretched beings seemed to be everywhere, with their dying
and their dead. I came to regard them with a strange horror, for I had


a presentiment that if I failed to escape in a few days I would be like
Most of the next day I spent in watching the ships. I heard con-
tinued sounds of rioting in the town, without speculating much upon
them. In fact, I was so nearly dead with exhaustion and fasting that
nothing seemed of any importance in my eyes except the German
steamer; sometimes the whole harbor seemed to waver before my sight,
like a vast mirage. Late in the afternoon I observed smoke issuing
from the funnels of the vessel, and this discovery threw me into a
strange state of excitement; but there were no further signs of sailing
while daylight lasted.
As evening advanced, the furious noises of rioting increased,
though it was all too far away for me to see what was going on. About
nine o'clock, however, it sounded vastly louder, and seemed to be com-
ing nearer. I could distinctly hear shrieks of "Viva Espana! Muerte a
los Americanos! Matalos! Matalos!" Then a strange procession grad-
ually rolled out upon the wharves, some hundreds of yards from me.
At first sight it was a mere disorderly mob, brandishing sticks and
canes, with now and then a flash of some more deadly weapon. Every
one was yelling discordantly, and the mass was moving slowly toward
the water. I was presently able to discern, however, that the propul-
sive force came from a central body. This I was unable to see clearly,
except that it was composed of a dozen or so men, against whom the
fury of the rabble seemed to be directed.
When they came near the edge of the wharf, the mob halted and
swayed tumultuously round its nucleus, and just then I observed a boat
dart out from the steamer and approach the shore. In an instant I real-
Tzed what was going on, and the. necessity inspired me with new
They were Americans, and possibly the consul, in that crowd, in
the act of leaving the island, and Cuba Espanola was speeding the part-
ing guest.
They were standing not two hundred yards from my hiding-place,
and I sprang up and ran toward them as fast as I was able.
This was no great rate of speed, and the boat had reached the shore
and was taking in its passengers in the midst of much confusion before
I had covered half the distance. A dreadful horror possessed me of
being too late. I strained every nerve, but when I reached the skirts of
the mob the boat was already pushing off, with volleys of stones falling
around it.


"Help! I am an American!" I yelled despairingly, and, springing
out as far as I could, I splashed into the foul water of the harbor. As I
came up gasping through the filth, I was gripped by the collar and
dragged into the boat, which at once struck a racing pace for the ship.
As I had surmised, it was the consul, Mr. Hance, and thirteen Amer-
ican residents who were leaving the island, after being almost besieged
in their houses for several days. Not one had been able to bring more
than the most portable of hand-baggage; even some of- the consular
papers had to be abandoned.
The steamer turned out to be the tramp Jarisburg of Bremen, for
New York, and I was very well treated aboard her, being given a pas-
sage at the expense of the Government.
After lying up to recuperate in New York for a couple of weeks I
enlisted in the -th New York Volunteers, and as you see I was sent
down here. Now, I only hope that I'll have a chance to get back at
some of those Spaniards for all the worry and strain that they made my
nervous system undergo.


God is shaping the great future of the islands of the sea;
He has sown the blood of martyrs and the fruit is liberty;
In thick clouds and in darkness He has sent abroad His word;
He has given a haughty nation to the cannon and the sword.

He has seen a people moaning in the thousand deaths they die;
He has heard from child and woman a terrible dark cry;
He has given the wasted talent of the steward faithless found
To the youngest of the nations with His abundance crowned.

He called her to do justice where none but she had power;
He called her to do mercy to her neighbor at the door;
He called her to do vengeance for her own sons foully dead;
Thrice did he call unto her before she hearkened.

She has gathered the vast Midland, she has searched her borders round;
There has been a mighty hosting of her children on the ground;
Her searchlights lie along the sea, her guns are loud on land;
To do her will upon the earth her armies round her stand.

The fleet at her commandment to either ocean turns;
Belted around the mighty world her line of battle burns;
She has loosed the hot volcanoes of the ships of flaming hell;
With fire and smoke and earthquake shock her heavy vengeance fell,


O joyfulest May morning when before our guns went down
The Inquisition priesthood and the dungeon-making crown,
While through red lights of battle our starry dawn burst out,
Swift as the tropic sunrise that doth with glory shout!

Be jubilant, free Cuba, our feet are on thy soil;
Up mountain road, through jungle growth our bravest for thee toil;
There is no blood so precious as their wounds pour forth for thee;
Sweet be thy joys, free Cuba-sorrows have made thee free.

Nor thou, O noble nation, who wast so slow to wrath,
With grief too heavy laden, follow in duty's path;
Not for our ourselves our lives are; not for thyself art thou;
The star of Christian ages is shining on thy brow.

Rejoice, O mighty mother, that God hath chosen thee
To be the Western warder of the islands of the sea;
He lifteth up, He casteth down, He is the King of kings,
Whose dread commands o'er awe-struck lands are borne on eagles'
-George E. Woodberry.


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"It is a triumph in a just cause, by the Grace of God."-Wm. McKinley.


Admiral George Dewey was born in Montpelier, Vermont, Decem-
ber 26, 1837. He inherited the staunch and sterling qualities of the
Vermonters. The town of Montpelier itself embodies all of our best
ideas of industry, thrift and their natural consequence, comfortable
wealth. The city is bright and clean; the homes are solid and tasteful,
built in an old-fashioned and comfortable style from substantial brick
and stone and set well back behind broad shady lawns. The wide
streets are beautified by magnificent elms, and the green hills of Ver-
mont make an inspiring background to the scene. The town is situated
in the narrow valley of the Onion, as it used to be called; now called the
Dr. Dewey, the Admiral's father, did much for the city of Mont-
pelier, and founded some of its most flourishing business corporations.
The city, like most of our New England towns, believes in education,
and the public library, art galleries and fine schools; the beautiful ar-
chitecture of its homes and public buildings, all give evidence that it is
a good place to come from, and, indeed, it is a better place to stay in.
The motto of the family of Dewey seems very appropriate for our
Admiral, it being the words: "A crown the conqueror is due." The
family of Dewey is an old and respected one, having come to this coun-
try in 1633 from Sandwich, England. The grandfather of the Admiral,
Simeon Dewey, was born in Hanover, N. H., and removed later to Ver-
mont, near Montpelier. The family is long-lived, notwithstanding a
story which is told of the Admiral's brother, Mr. Chas. Dewey. When
in England some time ago, he happened to hear an Englishman ad-
vancing the theory of the supposed short life of the American race.
"Americans," said the critic, "are undersized and die early because they
live upon pork and ice water." Mr. Dewey hastened to explain to the
gentleman by telling him that it had always been a mystery to him why


his grandfather, Simeon Dewey, had been cut off at such an early age,
he having died at the green age of ninety-three, and never having been
able to get along without pork and ice-water.
The Admiral's father, Dr. Julius Dewey, was born in Berlin in
1801. He settled in Montpelier in 1822, and married in 1825 Miss Mary
Perrin. Their family consisted of four children, Charles, Edward,
George and Mary.

There are two sorts of heroes: those who go abroad and win fame
for themselves or their countries in victories of war, or of mind, or in
business, and those who remain at hdme in the little circle where God
has placed them, fighting each day with their trials and temptations,
winning their fights without praise, and many times without the knowl-
edge of their nearest friends. Dr. Julius Dewey was one of these home
heroes, and he gained beautiful victories in the little town where he
lived. The life of the country doctor, indeed, offers many chances for
noble and unselfish actions. He was a self-made man; very religious
and broad in his views. He was the founder of Christ Episcopal Church
in' Montpelier, where his son George was baptized, went to Sunday
school and was confirmed. The Admiral lost his mother when but five
years of age, but his father proved to be both mother and father in
every sense of the word, bringing him up to be fond of all the good
things in life, to dislike evil, and checking in him all the natural mis-
chief of the youngster. The Admiral has often said that of all the great
and public men he has met in his wide experience in the world his
father's character stands first to him.


The Doctor's pet name for his son George seems like a prophecy of
what has come to him in his mature years. He always called him his
"little hero," and while he could not foresee what a great hero he would
become, yet before his death he had the satisfaction of hearing the
great Admiral Farragut say to him: "Sir, your son George is a worthy
and a brave officer. He has an honorable record and some day will
make his own mark."
The cottage where the Dewey family lived is still standing, though
it has been moved from the ground opposite the white-columned State
House, where it used to stand. In olden times it was covered with vines


and behind it ran the beautiful river next to the steep hills which rose
on the other side. We can well imagine how little George loved that
river and that his bare little feet have pressed every stone. His sister
Mary, two years younger, was his constant companion; on his fishing
expeditions she felt highly honored when allowed to trudge patiently
after him, mile after mile, carrying the tin full of worms, and was de-
lighted with the privilege of baiting his hook. Together they often
played Robinson Crusoe on some island in this river, Mary always tak-
ing the part of the man Friday. The Life of Hanover, after a few years,
became George's ideal book. He lived in imagination over the cam-
paigns of this ancient conqueror.
Rev. Mr. Wright, a prominent clergyman of Montpelier, person-
ally remembers the Admiral at this period very well, as he was a
schoolmate of his. He says "George was always a fighting boy," and
also recalls going upon different occasions to "nigger minstrel" shows
in George Dewey's barn, where George was business manager, stage
manager, and is said to have taken all the leading parts besides. Little
Mary always preferred a back seat in the audience anid never wished
to perform, but one day the regular leading lady (ten years old), being
absent, Mary was commanded to come forward and take part. "But
I don't know it all, George," she objected. That made no difference.
George was to fire his pistol at the awkward crisis, and so Mary carried
out the matter, on the whole, very creditably. But this pistol shooting,
which proved a great attraction to the children and drew such crowds,
proved the means of putting an untimely end to the plays, for upon
the Doctor being informed of the matter the shows were from that time

His first experience in water happened in this way: The story is
told that he started one day in his father's buggy, with his friend Will
Redfield, to drive across the river and bring the cows home; but when
they came to the Dog River, which flows into the Winooski a little
above town, they found it higher than it had ever been known to be
before, the ford being impassable from heavy rains. William urged
him to turn back, but this our young hero would not do.
"What man hath done, man can do," said he, and he whipped up
his horse and started rashly in. We need hardly say that he found no
bottom. His frail craft floated swiftly away towards Lake Champlain,
while our young hero, not a bit frightened, and the very much scared


William climbed on board the horse and managed to reach the shore
in safety. Upon going home, George thought it more prudent for him
to go to bed and wait for his father's return without any supper.
When his father came he pretended to be asleep, but the old doctor
was not easily deceived. He began to reprove him for his rashness,
when the boy replied from the depths of the covers: "You ought to
be thankful that my life was spared."


George first went to the grammar school in Montpelier, and did
not bear a very high reputation for studiousness. One day, having a
new teacher, the boys had decided that they had had such good suc-
cess in making their former teachers behave that they would try it
with this one. George was first called upon for examination, but the
spirit of mutiny being in all the boys, he flatly declined to go. The
teacher thereupon seized him by the collar with one hand and took his
whip with the other. The future Admiral took his whipping without
a murmur, and it was a more severe one than had ever been served
out in that district before. He was then sent home, the teacher and
the rest of the boys at his heels. Dr. Dewey, standing at the door, took
in the situation, sent the boys home, and took George and the school-
master into the house.
"What is it, my son?" he asked.
George stripped off his clothes and showed his father the red
marks across his back, but the Doctor, while a very kind man, was
also a very, very just one. He saw that George was not as repentant
yet as he should be, and immediately hinted that unless he was sorry
for what he had done he should be obliged to add to the school-master's
punishment. This hint was enough, and George was ever afterwards
a firm friend of this same school-master, who was not afraid to whip
him when he needed it. A year or so later he went to a private academy
at Johnson, Vt., which this same teacher had established.
At fifteen years of age he was sent to Norwich Military Academy
and there gained his taste for military life. His father was opposed
to sending him to Annapolis, to be trained for the navy, but finally
gave his consent. He entered the class of '54 at the age of seventeen.
At that age he was a strong, active boy of medium height, broad
shoulders, an expert in all outdoor sports. He went through Annapolis
with the usual success, passed a creditable examination and was grad-


uated in 1858. He was not naturally a student, but excelled in the
study of seamanship.
Admiral Dewey is said to be a natural and logical result of the
system of education at the Annapolis Academy. None but the best
boys ever get through. Every boy knows that if he fails, he fails for
all, and the discipline and hardship is more rigid than that of the
actually enlisted man on board ship. His teachers knew no such thing
as favoritism.
George Dewey was said to have always had a wholesome hatred
of lying. He went into service with this feeling more intense, and in
all his experience as an officer at sea he could forgive Jack Tar any-
thing but a lie.
What the boy was that the man proved to be in after life-daring,
indomitable and honest.


A great deed like that of Dewey's at Manila,- that thrilled the
whole world, is seldom the result of the accident of the hour. It means
that he who did it was ready; had long been prepared; had perhaps
done something heroic before, that had not been much noticed in the
world. So we see our Admiral had his schooling as long ago as the
Civil War. Then he was only a young fellow; not old enough to win
great fame, but his chances for brave deeds came to him, and he seized
them just as promptly as lie did his chance to capture and destroy the
Spanish fleet.
When we read of the daring exploits of the great commander of
the Civil War, Admiral Farragut, we shall find mentioned there one
George Dewey serving in the Navy. When Fort Sumter was fired
upon by the South it took George Dewey but little less than a week
to enter the service of his country. He was commissioned as Lieuten-
ant of the "Mississippi," one of the Gulf of Mexico squadron commanded
by Farragut.
On that memorable night when the fleet ran the gauntlet of the
batteries; and passed up the Mississippi River, Dewey was steering
the ship, "Mississippi," through the inky darkness, and up on the high
bridge he stood there as cool at twenty-four as he was at Manila when
time had somewhat tinged the hair of the "little hero" with gray.
"Do you know the channel, Dewey?" Captain Smith asked anx-
iously, more than once as he paced from port to starboard. He knew the


Lieutenant was young, and it was a task that would have tried a
"Yes, sir," replied Dewey with confidence each time. But he
admitted afterwards that he expected to run aground any moment.
This is how Chief Engineer Baird, U. S. N., who was there, remem-
bers him: "I can see him now in the red and yellow glare flung from
the cannon-mouths. It was like some terrible thunder-storm with
almost incessant lightning. For an instant all would be dark and
Dewey unseen. Then the forts would belch forth, and there he was
away up in the midst of it, the flames from the guns almost touching
him, and the big shot and shell passing near enough to him to blow
him over with their breath, while he held firmly to the bridge rail.
Every time the dark came back I felt sure that we would never see
Dewey again. But at the next flash there he stood. His hat was blown
off and his eyes were aflame. But he gave his orders with the air of
a man in thorough command of himself. He took in everything. He
saw a point of advantage and seized it at once, and when from around
the hull of the "Pensacola" the rebel ram darted, Dewey, like a flash,
saw what was best to be done, and as he put his knowledge into words
the head of the "Mississippi" fell off, and as the rain came up alongside
the entire starboard broadside plunged a mass of iron shot and shell
through her armor and she began to sink. Her crew ran her ashore
and escaped. A boat's crew from our ship went on board, thinking to
extinguish the flames which our broadside had started, and capture her.
But she was too far gone. Dewey took us all through the fight, and
in a manner which won the warmest praise, not only of all on board,
but of Farragut himself. He was cool from first to last, and after we
had passed the fort and reached safety and he came down from the
bridge his face was black with smoke, but there wasn't a drop of
perspiration on his brow."


About a year afterwards, when things up the river again required
the attention of Admiral Farragut, he and his fleet once more ran up
to settle matters. The shoals and currents near Port Hudson are as
dangerous as those anywhere in the river; and it was here while run-
ning the forts that the "Mississippi" was lost. The fleet consisted of the
"Hartford," "Albatross," in the lead; then came the "Monongahela" and
"Kineo;" next the "Richmond" and "Genesee," followed by the "Missis-


sippi" alone. The "Monongahela" and her partner both ran aground, but
they managed to get off. But directly opposite the Port Hudson battery
the "Mississippi" struck and remained a fine mark for targets; shot
after shot was poured into her until she was completely riddled, and
had to be left. She was hit two hundred and fifty times in half an
hour. Lieutenant Dewey had the task of getting the men safely off.
Twice he went to the "Richmond" and twice came back, until at last he
and Captain Smith stood alone on the deck: She was set afire in five
places. "Are you sure she will burn, Dewey?" the Captain asked, and
the young Lieutenant risked his life to go to the ward-room for a last
look, in order to see if the vessel would be completely destroyed, instead
of falling into the hands of the enemy. Then Lieutenant Dewey sor-
rowfully left without his coat-tails, and with the shot and shells splash-
ing all around him.


After this he was promoted to First Lieutenant of one of the gun-
boats which was used by Farragut as a dispatch boat. The story is
told that the Admiral often used to come on board and steam up near
the levee to take observations, and that he took a great liking for
the quiet, unassuming Lieutenant. The Confederates had a way of
rushing a field cannon to the top of the high bank, firing point-blank
at the gunboat and then backing down out of sight. Upon one such
occasion the Admiral saw young Dewey dodge the shot. He said:
"Why don't you stand firm, Lieutenant? Don't you know you can't
jump quick enough?" A day or so after this the Admiral dodged a
shot. The Lieutenant smiled, but held his tongue, but the Admiral
had a guilty conscience. He cleared his throat once or twice, shifted
his attitude, and finally said: "Why, sir, you can't help it, sir. It's
human nature, and there's an end to it."
Dewey afterwards commanded the "Monongahela," and was in the
thickest of the fight all the way through the war. When he was First
Lieutenant on the "Colorado" at Fort Fisher in December and January
he gave another striking proof of his bravery and good judgment.
Toward the end of the second engagement, when matters were moving
the right way, Admiral Porter signalled Commodore Thatcher to close
in and silence a certain part of the works. The ship was already con-
siderably damaged and her officers remonstrated. But Dewey, who
was dashing and brave and had acquired a fine judgment now, was quick


to see the advantage to be gained by the move. "We shall be safer in
there," he said, "and the works can be taken in fifteen minutes;" and
it was. The New York Times, in writing up this occasion, spoke of it
as one of the most beautiful duels of the war. When Admiral Porter
came to congratulate Commodore Thatcher the latter said, generously:
"You must thank Lieutenant Dewey, sir. It was his move." It won
for both of them further honors and promotions. In March, 1865, Lieu-
tenant Dewey was rewarded by a commission as a Lieutenant-Com-

After the war Dewey served on the "Kearsarge," and then on the
"Colorado." In 1870 he received his first command, that of the "Narra-
gansett." As a commander, he-has always been noted for his ability to
deal with "Jack Tar." The story is told of a sailor who refused to obey
an order of the First Lieutenant, because, he said, it was outside the line
of his duty. The Lieutenant finally reported the matter to Captain
Dewey, who sauntered out on deck and looked his man through and
through with his piercing eyes, which appeared to make the man very
uncomfortable. But he remained stubborn. "What!" said the Cap-
tain, "you refuse! Do you know that this is mutiny? When you
entered the service you swore to obey your superior officers." The
man was silent, and the Captain very quietly told the Corporal to call
the guard, stood the obstinate fellow on the far side of the deck, and
told the marine to load. Then he took out his watch. "Now, my man,"
said he, "you have just five minutes in which to obey that order," and
he began to count the minutes. At the fourth count the sailor moved
off with considerable alacrity, and has since been one of the strongest
friends of the "Old Man," as his men lovingly call him. He advises
all the young fellows not to tamper with him.
From the "Dolphin" Captain Dewey went to the "Pensacola," then
flagship of the European squadron. He has in the meantime occupied
various positions on shore, such as a member of the Lighthouse Board
and chief of the Bureau of Equipment. It is said that he objected to
being placed on the Asiatic squadron, where he went at the beginning
of the year '98; he regretted being sent so far away, as he feared that
he would not be able to take part in the war with Spain, which was
then looked upon as a very probable event. But as it turned out, he
went as usual into the very thick of the fight, and the Government at
Washington surely put the right man into the right place.


The characteristics of this Admiral whom the whole world is
praising are well worthy of these admiration. He is a man that does
that duty which comes to him with all his might. He has the habit of
looking on the bright side of everything. He makes no parade of
religion, but his Bible and his devotional books are hid in his cabin
where none can see them, but they are there. He has won fame,
because it came in the line of duty. He did not seek it. But he had
the habit well formed from boyhood of doing things well.
He has a love for music and has an excellent voice. He is pecu-
liarly fond of children, and tells children's stories to perfection. He
is very particular in regard to personal appearance, and believes that
the commander of the man-of-war should be as spick-and-span as he
requires the sailors to keep everything on the ship. His sailors are
devoted to him, while they know he cannot be trifled with.


A bluejacket who made a cruise with him tells this characteristic
story in the New York Sun. I give it in his own words, that the flavor
may not be lost: "We hadn't been to sea with him long before we got
to know how he despised a liar. One of the petty officers went ashore
at Gibraltar, got mixed up with the soldiers in the canteens on the hill,
and came off to the ship paralyzed. He went before the Captain at the
mast the next morning. He gave Dewey the 'two-beers-and-sunstruck'
'You're lying, my man,' said Dewey. 'You were very drunk. I
myself heard you aft in my cabin. I will not have my men lie to me.
I don't expect to find total abstinence in a man-o'-war crew. But I do
expect them to tell me the truth, and I am going to have them tell me
the truth. Had you told me candidly that you took a drop too much
on your liberty, you'd have been forward by this time, for you, at least,
returned to the ship. For lying to me you get ten days in irons. Let
me have the truth hereafter. I am told you are a good seaman. A
good seaman has no business lying.'
"After that there were few men aboard who didn't throw them-
selves on the mercy of the court when they were waltzed up to the stick
before Dewey, and none of us ever lost anything by it. He'd have to
punish us in accordance with regulations, but he had a great way of
ordering the release of men he had to sentence to the brig before their
time was half worked out."



The time when war broke out between this country and Spain Dewey
was at Hong Kong, and he found himself in a singular and trying posi-
tion; for our ships were not allowed to lie at anchor in the harbors
cf other nations, for fear it might be considered that they were receiv-
ing assistance from these neutral nations, who might thus be drawn
into the fight. Thus, he was forced to leave British waters, and could
find refuge in no harbor where he could get coal and supplies nearer
than Honolulu.
It is impossible to carry coal and supplies enough on board a ship
to last through such a long journey, so it became necessary for him to
fight for a harbor and take it away from Spain, in order to have food
for his sailors and coal for his engines. His squadron consisted of the
"Olympia," the flagship or ship occupied by the commander-in-chief of
the fleet, being commanded by Captain Gridley, who died on his way
home soon after the battle. There were beside the "Petrel," the "Bos-
ton," "Concord," "Raleigh," "McCulloch," and the "Baltimore," who ar-
rived barely in time to receive her war paint and prepare to join the fleet;
besides two small steamers purchased at Hong Kong to serve as colliers
and tenders. The ships had had a thorough house-cleaning, and had all
been painted a dull-greenish color to look as near as might be like the
waters of Manila Bay in color. This paint was described as a "Wet
Moon" color by the Spanish Admiral, who tried to imitate it, but too
late to escape by its help. In steaming out of the harbor of Hong
Kong, as they passed the British fleet, they could not keep from show-
ing their enthusiasm and sympathy by cheering our boys with round
after round of hearty hurrahs. Our own boys were cheerful and confi-
dent; eager to be at work; ready to trust their guns, their ships, their
commander-in-chief, and themselves.


The object of the cruise could not be doubted. The President had
cabled to Dewey in the following words: "Proceed to the Philippine
Islands. Commence operations particularly against the Spanish fleet.
You must capture or destroy the vessels. Use utmost endeavor."
Never was an order more speedily and literally carried out. Dewey
did not then know the enemy's plan. Had they divided their fleet or
tried to dodge us, the result might have been different.


Two restless and impatient days and nights were spent in Mirs Bay
getting everything in fighting order and awaiting the latest dispatches
from home. During these days the newspapers at Manila were sarcas-
tically asking "how long we would hide our fleet on the coasts of China,
and did we intend to waste coal and save gunpowder until the war
was over?" Soon these over-impudent fellows had reason to wish that
the American fleet had kept on wasting coal and saving bullets to the
end of the chapter. The Spaniards were foolhardy and over-daring,
without having the discipline and preparation to make good their

An incident is told which shows the feelings of the enlisted men
for the commander-in-chief. The Commodore, after leaving Mirs Bay,
was walking up and down on the starboard side of the upper deck, and
noticed that one of his petty officers-an old man whose duty did not
call for his presence there-was making a pretense of finding something
to do on the port side, but was also keeping a careful lookout on the
Commodore. This man's record of nearly forty years of service in the
navy and army of the United States had caused him to be regarded with
special interest by the officers of the "Olympia," and he was, to a certain
extent, a privileged character. So the Commodore, being familiar with
the manners of seamen, and seeing that the old man "had something
on his mind," said to him:
"Well, Purdy, what is it?"
"I hope, sir," replied Purdy, straightening up and saluting, "ye
don't intend to fight on the 3d of May."
"And why not?"
"Well, ye see, sir," said Purdy, with the most serious air possible,
"the last time I fought on the 3d of May I got licked." And then he
went on to tell of the ill-fated day of Chancellorsville, when he had
carried a gun in the army, and had gone to defeat under "fighting Joe"
"All right, Purdy," said the Commodore, "we won't fight on the 3d
of May this time; but when we do fight, Purdy," he continued, with an
air of friendly confidence, "you'll have a different kind of a May anniver-
sary to think about. Remember that, Purdy."
"Aye, aye, sir," replied Purdy, as he saluted and scuttled off. And
a little while later I heard him telling a group of the other bluejackets
that "we'll lick hell out of the Spaniards if there was ten times as many


of them." And probably to this day Purdy believes that it was due to
his timely hint that Dewey went into Manila Bay at once, so as to avoid
the "hoodoo" that was hanging over May 3d.
It might have seemed natural that the officers should call their
crews together and make an address to them to arouse their enthu-
siasm as Americans, and to urge them to put forth their best energies,
many of them never having been in battle before; but, fortunately,
the enemy saved us the trouble of doing this. Every public authority
in Manila had burst out into eloquence after the declaration of war.
The chorus of these addresses were all the same--abuse to the Amer-
icans: "They oppressed Indians, they hated religion, they lacked cour-
age." And these bitter words were enough for our warriors. A Span-
ish general described the squadron as men who were preparing to come
to these islands with the ruffianly intention of "robbing us of our
means, life, honor, and liberty." Whatever the effect of these words
may have been in Manila, among the sailors it aroused an excellent
fighting spirit.

On the "Olympia," at least, nothing more was needed except a quiet
lesson from Captain Gridley to the thirty men who were to point the
guns. At dusk on Saturday evening he reminded them that they were
at war with Spain. That it was the duty of every man to do his best;
not to waste ammunition, but to take good aim and to keep it up until
the enemy was taken. And nothing more was needed to prepare them
for their Sunday morning's work.
The distance from Mirs Bay to Manila was 630 miles, and the speed
they maintained was about eight knots an hour, going slow enough so
that the smaller and slower vessels might not be left behind. The fleet
consisted only of cruisers. There were no ironclads and no torpedo
boats. The sea was smooth and the sail from China to Luzon was
undisturbed. On the third night, in the dark hours of the morning,
we made out a light near Bolinao. The "Boston" and the "Concord" were
sent ahead to see if the way was clear and that there were no Spanish
fleets concealed in the harbor.
The ships were meanwhile clearing for action-that is, they were
throwing overboard all their extra furniture and woodwork that might
endanger them when it came to the firing of shells upon the decks.
In the afternoon, as we rounded the southwestern cape of the
Island of Luzon, we found the "Boston" and "Concord" were lying near


in the harbor, which was unoccupied by warships. Our enemy was not
After a final consultation Captain Gridley was directed to lead the
squadron through the wide channel into Manila Bay.


Picture to yourself on this dark night these ships stealing silently
along; all lights out except a single lantern on the back of each ship
to guide the one behind. The night was dark, with only once in a while
a faint light from the moon which tried to break through the clouds.
Light showers, once in a while, dampened the hundreds of suits of
white duck worn by the sailors, but none appeared to notice this.
During the long hours of that night they must have begun to realize
that they were preparing for a very trying and dangerous fight, and
to many it would be their first experience in actual war.
No welcome lights flashed from the dark. At 10 o'clock all hands
were at the guns ready for service, ready for anything during the next
twelve hours. Yet there was nothing to show that any of them were
nervous or fearful. The Commodore and Captain Gridley consulted
and kept constant watch. As they entered the channel leading into the
bay a clear signal light flashed from the shore. Later a light shone
from the Fort of Corregidor. This proved that the approach of the
American fleet was known; in fact, there was no question but that they
knew it, for the cable had informed the Spaniards of the movements
of our fleet, and they must have been expecting the attack for several

Their course lay past a huge rock called El Fraile. Just as the
"Olympia" glided by this rock a shrill shriek was heard overhead and a
loud report.
The first gun had been fired at the American fleet. Other shots
followed this from the south. Sooner than thought the "Raleigh," "Bos-
ton" and "Concord" made answer. The "Olympia" was too far ahead
to join in the firing, but they all passed on without changing their
course in the least.
When daylight came eager eyes were turned to the water of the
harbor, and all were looking toward the Spanish squadron. It was



after 5 o'clock when the enemy was sighted; a long line of gray and
white vessels stretched to the east of thebay by Sangley Point.
As the "Olympia" turned to face them a white cloud of smoke and
fire rose from Sangley Point, and the shells swept toward our line.
Thus, so early in the morning, it seemed that they were ready for
us and ready to fight, but their shells went wide of the mark and it
appeared that they were aimed with trembling and unguided hands.
The column of ships swept slowly past the city in perfect and
majestic order. The "Olympia" in the lead, passing the Spanish fleet
fve times-it remaining meanwhile in the same place.


As each ship in succession turned into line the thunder of its guns
added to the noise. From hundreds of guns on ship and shore the
Spanish answered. Our vessels passed along majestically, firing as
rapidly as the guns could be loaded. On they went in perfect pro-
cession and single line-a mighty duel of shell and shot. When the
"Olympia" had passed Sangley Point, each time she turned sharply
about and proceeded down the course again, a little nearer to the shore,
which brought her starboard guns into action. Each ship, as it came
to the point where the "Olympia" had turned, swung around, following
in line, and again we passed. Each time the distance was slightly
lessened, and all the time they kept up a sharp, rapid fire upon the
enemy with sure aim and deadly results. The Spaniards were not slow
in returning the fire. It was after passing for the fifth time that our
vessels turned away and started slowly across the bay out of reach of

A story has gone the round of the newspapers that the fight
stopped for breakfast. This is an interesting story, but it is not, after
all, the whole truth.
After two hours' fighting the Admiral, knowing that he did not
have all the ammunition he should have had before leaving Hong
Kong, sent to the powder room to inquire how many rounds remained
for the five-inch guns. The answer came back, "Fifteen." This gave him
much concern, and the smoke being so thick that he could not signal
the other ships and inquire how they were in this respect, he decided
to withdraw from action in order to learn how much ammunition was


left in the other ships, and to add to his own supply from theirs if
possible. After the ships had retreated he found that his question had
been misunderstood and that there had been fifteen rounds fired from
each of the five-inch guns, leaving a considerable amount in the ammu-
nition rooms. Having withdrawn, however, the Admiral decided to
give his men a rest and some breakfast. When the fleet withdrew our
men were not able to see that their firing had done any real damage,
but it was soon seen that two of the Spanish ships were on fire and
the sound of explosions from the shore showed that the battle had gone
badly for the enemy. At 11:20 the battle was once more begun and
lasted only about an hour, when our victory was complete. The Span-
ish flags came down; the Spanish ships were sunk, and the enemy
And this was how the Commodore won the great victory which
thrilled the whole world by its daring. It gave the boys and girls of
America a new hero to place close beside Washington and Lincoln in
the shrine of their young hearts; it destroyed, completely, eleven Span-
ish ships of war and gave us control of these great islands in the far
East; and will be the means of bringing peace and plenty to those poor
natives so long kept down by "old-world tyranny."


Dewey had become, in a few days, one of the world's great admirals.
It remained to be seen whether the victorious seaman was also a com-
mander in the widest sense of the word, and at the same time possessed
of the needed powers of statesmanship and diplomacy. There were
still many perils to be met. He was 7,000 miles from home, with the
enemy holding the city in front of him. He had no land troops to help
him, and he knew that unfriendly eyes were watching him narrowly,
and he did not yet know that England had taken sides boldly with the
United States against the rest of Europe.


Mr. Stickney describes the reports of the officers commanding the
ships immediately after the battle as being one of the most amusing
incidents of the battle. The commanding officer of each ship was sent
for to come on board the "Olympia" and report to the Commodore the
killed and wounded. Each one having passed through such a fearful


hail of bullets that escape seemed a miracle, every captain seemed to
feel it almost a sign that he had not been in the thick of the fight,
because he could report none killed. Each one was eagerly asked,
"How many killed?" as he clambered on board the flagship. And each
one answered in quite a mixed state of mind. Glad, of course, that
none of his brave men were gone, yet anxious to prove that it was
owing to no lack of danger.
"Only eight wounded," replied Captain Dyer of the "Baltimore;"
"none seriously. But six shells struck us, and two burst on board with-
out hurting any one."
"Not a dashed one!" was the rollicking way the next captain
"None killed and none wounded," was the apologetic reply of the
next one; "but I don't yet know how it happened. I suppose you fel-
lows were all cut up?"
"My ship wasn't hit at all," was the next report, made with a sort
of defiant air, as if the speaker would like to hear it insinuated that he
had had any part in keeping his men in a safe place.
When the "Boston's" captain came alongside it was feared that he,
for certain, would have a serious list of casualties, for it was known
that his ship had been on fire. And when he announced neither killed
nor wounded the news quickly spread through the flagship, and the
men cheered enthusiastically.


The Spaniards were very poor shots, and yet the "Baltimore" was
pierced by a shell which passed through one inch of steel, ripped up
the deck, broke a heavy deck beam, and bulged a shield about one inch
out of its ordinary shape. It crossed the ship from starboard side to
port, and back to starboard again, and yet hit none of the men at work
at the guns so near. It did, however, cause two three-pound shells
lying on deck to explode, which wounded two officers and six men.
But it is said to hold the record among shells for a wild and peculiar
Admiral Dewey was very proud of his ships, and still more proud
of his men. While still maintaining the blockade to Manila, after the
battle, he was seated one day on board the "Baltimore" talking to a
friend. As they sat watching the sailors lounging about at ease, in
their white duck suits, amusing themselves with reading, smoking,


sleeping or playing games, the Admiral's eyes lit up with pride as he
watched his men. He knew their temper and he had tried their work.
And he would not have been George Dewey if he had not been proud
of them.

"Just look at those men," exclaimed the Admiral. "Aren't they a
fine lot? See the condition they are in, in spite of all the work of the
summer. They haven't been off the ship for three months, and you
know what hard work they have had. See that big fellow leaning
against the rail. Isn't he a magnificent specimen? Suppose some sud-
den emergency should arise, do you know how long it would take to
have the ship ready for action? Less than four minutes. I've a good
notion to try it just to show you how quickly they would be ready. And
it is just the same on the other ships. Naturally I am proud of the
work of the squadron. I should not be fit to command it if I were not
proud of its work; but I am proudest of my men. They are splendid
fellows. They have done their work well. The people haven't real-
ized how good their navy was. I would rather have command of this
squadron than hold any office any people could give me."


The talk drifted back to the first of May, and some one spoke of
some of the captains who declared it was the hand of God that turned
aside the Spanish shells on that morning and left our ships and men
without injury. "I believe it, I believe it," exclaimed the Admiral.
"Oh, yes, I believe it. It is easier.to believe that than to believe that
so many shells could have missed us from simple human inaccuracy of
fire. I would stand there and see the smoke and fire from the Spanish
guns and know that the shell was coming directly at the "Olympia." I
would say, 'Surely that must hit us;' and yet it didn't. God knows
where all the shells went."


After a few moments of silence, looking down at the deck, lost in
the memories of that morning's fight, he continued: "If I were a
religious man"-he hesitated a moment-"well, I hope I am a religious


man-yes, I am a religious man-but if I were a religious man in the
sense in which that term ordinarily is understood-if I were the good
Presbyterian some persons have said I am-I should certainly say that
the Lord meant to punish Spain for her years of wickedness and mis-
rule in these islands. Why, look at it!" Springing up he swung his
hands around in a broad, sweeping gesture that took in Manila and the
beautiful country around it. "We have taken an empire and have lost
scarcely a man."
Standing for a. moment with his hands resting on the rail, looking
out toward the mountains where the sun was setting in beautiful rose
color, he said, half to himself: "It was the judgment of God, the judg-
ment of God." Then, as his eye caught the starry flag that he had
given to the city on the day when it was dedicated to freedom by his
act, he turned to resume his chair, and looking at the flag and waving
his hand toward it, he said: "I hope it floats there forever."
Commodore Dewey maintained the blockade at Manila Bay unsup-
ported from May 1 until almost the first of July, and was absolutely
master of the situation.


The gathering of so many foreign battleships seemed unnecessary
and almost a menace to the United States. But none of them was in
any way offensive, excepting the Germans, who were there with heavy
armored battleships, and made themselves in many ways extremely
International courtesy demanded from them as neutral powers
that they should not help, encourage, or furnish supplies to our ene-
mies. They had persistently broken all these unwritten laws, and
gone just as far in every annoying action as they dared without actually
opening hostilities. When a ship appeared in sight in the harbor the
Germans would run out and meet her "almost," as Commodore Dewey
said to one of the German officers who happened to be on board the
"Olympia" on one of these occasions, "as though the Germans were
blockading Manila." The unwary German officer thought the suave
voice of the Admiral meant that he was in a good humor, but when
Dewey begins to speak smoothly and sweetly then is the time to look out
for squalls. Often the German launch would steam suddenly toward us
at night, evidently trying to see if the Spanish torpedo boat could not
approach us without being seen. They even notified the insurgents


that they would not permit them to attack the Spanish troops off
-Subig Bay.
At another time a German ship tried to sneak into the harbor with
all lights out and in an unusual course. A shell was promptly fired
across her that stopped her course suddenly. Thus in a hundred
ways were they annoying, but the Admiral was just waiting his chance
to put an end to the whole thing with one of his characteristic "crush-
ing blows," and at last the opportunity came.
He learned, definitely, that the Germans were landing provisions
at Manila, thus violating neutrality. He then promptly ended the

"Orderly, tell Mr. Brumby I would like to see him," said Admiral
Dewey on this afternoon.
"Oh, Brumby," he continued, when the Flag Lieutenant made his
appearance on the quarter-deck, "I wish you to take the barge and go
over to the German flagship. Give Admiral von Diederichs my compli-
ments, and say that I wish to call his attention to the fact that the
vessels of his squadron have shown an extraordinary disregard of the
usual courtesies of naval intercourse, and that finally one of them has
committed a gross breach of neutrality in landing provisions in Manila,
a port which I am blockading."
The Commodore's voice had been as low and as sweetly modulated
as if he had been sending Von Diederichs an invitation to dinner. When
he stopped speaking Brumby, who did not need any better indication of
the Commodore's mood than the unusually formal and gentle manner
of his chief, turned to go, making the usual official salute, and replying
with the customary "Aye, aye, sir."


"And Brumby," continued the Commodore, his voice rising and
ringing with the intensity of feeling that he felt he had repressed about
long enough, "tell Admiral von Diederichs that if he wants a fight he
can have it right now!"
Brumby went with his message, and the Commodore paced the
quarterdeck in silence for a considerable time, evidently working off
some of the high pressure that had brought forth his emphatic message
to the German Admiral. The latter sent back the extraordinary reply


that he had not known anything about these actions of his captains,
and that they would not be repeated. When one considers the rigidity
of discipline that is supposed to exist in the German navy, the character
of Admiral von Diederichs' apology is all the more incomprehensible.
But whatever may have been the new methods adopted by Admiral
von Diederichs to prevent his captains from violating neutrality and
showing bad manners, they were entirely efficacious. There was never
the least further need to refer to the possibility of giving Commodore
Dewey the job of disciplining them.


The British people broke the rules of neutrality in a very different
manner; that is, in being too friendly with the United States.
Every week the little merchant ship "Zafiro" was sent to Hong
Kong with dispatches and to receive mail and dispatches from home.
She was commanded by Lieutenant Walter McLean, who is another
of those heroes of the war of whom we have not heard much, but who
had quietly been doing a wonderful amount of good solid work for
American success, without any special reward of honor or promotion.
Of course, at Hong Kong they were not allowed to assist the Amer-
cans openly, in any way, but they managed to be of a vast amount of
assistance all the same. It was managed in this way: The last thing
before leaving Manila for Hong Kong the Lieutenant always went to
the Admiral for his dispatches and final instructions, and always as he
left the Admiral would say, in his most emphatic manner:


"Now, don't you bring a thing back from Hong Kong, sir; not a
thing; not a pound of anything, sir; not a single package."
And McLean would say, "Aye, aye, sir," and obey absolutely. He
never brought back a pound of anything or a single package. There
were always many pounds and many packages.
Paymaster Smith generally accompanied McLean on these trips
to Hong Kong. It was curious how it happened that he always had a
leave of .absence "to -see some friends for a few days" whenever the
"Zafiro" happened to be going..out.
When they reached Hong Kong Lieutenant McLean always went
ashore with his dispatches, leaving strict orders that in his absence not


a thing of any description, particularly coal, should be taken on board.
How in the world it happened nobody ever knew exactly; but as soon
as McLean and Smith were fairly away men would come from all sorts
of places, in all sorts of boats, with all sorts of bundles, boxes and
packages. None of the ship's officers ever saw any of these things come
aboard; no one ever saw the coal lighters alongside; no one, in fact,
knew anything about what was going on; but in some way the ship
received coal and even supplies for the fleet, sometimes coffee and hard
bread, for instance. The fact was that anybody could go to the little
ship and put anything he liked aboard, and nobody would question or
stop him. It is a wonder that the Spaniards did not load her
up with dynamite. No examination was made of anything
taken on board until the dispatch boat was well on her way back
to Manila. Sometimes queer things were discovered. Once Lieuten-
ant McLean found that the Hong Kong people had put the Spanish
mail on board. He could not throw it overboard, and he could not eat
it, so he took it along and the Admiral had it delivered through the
British squadron.


Once when the German incident was at almost its most critical
stage the "Zafiro" got nearly back to Cavite before Lieutenant McLean
discovered thirteen sacks of potatoes addressed to Admiral von Died-
erichs. There was no telling who put them aboard the "Zafiro," nor,
in fact, did Lieutenant McLean care very much. The question with him
was how to get rid of them. He knew he couldn't send them to the
Germans without the Admiral knowing it, and he didn't want to keep
them or to throw them overboard. He kept them for several days after
reaching Cavite, hoping that something would turn up which would
enable him to get rid of them, but nothing did, and at last they were
in danger of spoiling. So he put on a bold front and appealed to Dewey.
It was about nine o'clock in the evening when he went to the Admiral
with the trouble. The Admiral was sitting in a chair tilted back
against the bulkhead at the rear of his cabin, smoking a cigar, and look-
ing out through an open-port at the lights of Manila twinkling across
the bay.
"Sit down, McLean, sit down," he said, as the "Zafiro" commander
came in.
McLean sat down, and began to talk, At first the conversation


was of a general character, but McLean watched his chance, and finally
got around to the potatoes as diplomatically as he could. The Admiral
heard him through, and then began in his softest and suavest and' most
dangerous voice:
"Mr. McLean, when you came in I was sitting here looking across
the bay at those lights shining over the city, and I was thinking of the
thousands of innocent women and children, of sick and non-combatants,
whose lives are in my hands; I was thinking of the terrible destruction
of life and property which would result from the bombardment of that
city, which it is within my power to begin at any minute. I was think-
ing of the tremendous responsibility that rests upon me in this situa-
tion; and, I was thinking, too, of the soldiers who were here, dependent
upon this squadron and upon me for support, thousands of miles from
home as they are. And I was thinking of the responsibility laid upon
me for their sakes-" His voice was rising and his gesture growing
emphatic, and McLean knew he was in for something lively. The chair
which had been tilted back against the bulkhead dropped forward on
the deck with a click, and the Admiral went on-"and I was thinking
of the two thousand splendid fellows under my care in this squadron
and of the responsibility resting upon me for their sakes; and while I
am thinking of such things as these, sir, you come in here and interrupt
me with a nasty little question about potatoes." The voice had reached
the top notch of pitch and force, and the Admiral got out of his chair
and started toward McLean, shaking his finger at the Lieutenant and
shouting: "I don't care what you do with those potatoes. By George,

But McLean had fled. The instant the Admiral stood up McLean
got out of his chair also, and when Dewey started toward him McLean
started for the door. He went on the run, too, standing not at all upon
ceremony, and slammed the door behind him as he went out. The Ad-
miral saw him go with amusement and amazement. When the door
slammed, he stopped short in his advance and in his talk, and stood for
a minute in silence and motionless. Then he turned to Captain Lam-
berton, who was sitting on the other side of the cabin, and said, with a
chuckle, "Well, I scared him."
But that was of course farthest from his mind at the time,
there was no responsibility resting upon him in the matter of the pota-
toes, for he had made no decision. The next meaning a German launch


came down to Cavite, and Lieutenant McLean sent the potatoes to Von
Diederichs by it. That afternoon signal was made from the "Olympia"
to the "Zafiro": "Commanding officer will repair on board at once."
Lieutenant McLean went, wondering what was up. As he came up the
gangway of the flagship the watch on deck told him the Admiral
wanted to see him at once on the quarterdeck. He climbed down from
the superstructure, and the Admiral came toward him, saying: "Young
man, what did you do with those potatoes?"
"I sent them to the German admiral, sir," replied McLean.
"Well, it's lucky for you, you did," said the Admiral.


Yankee Dewey went to sea,
Sailing on a cruiser,
He took along for company,
Of men and guns, a few, sir.

Yankee Dewey; Ha! Ha! Ha!
Dewey, you're a dandy;
With men and guns and cruisers, too,
You're certainly quite handy.

He sailed away to the Philippines,
With orders for to snatch them,
And thrash the Spaniards right and left,
Wherever he could catch them.

And Yankee Dewey did it, too,
He did it so complete, sir,
That not a blooming ship is left,
Of all that Spanish fleet, sir.

Oh, Yankee Dewey, you're a peach,
A noble, gallant tar, sir;
You're "out of sight," you're out of reach,
We hail you from afar, sir.

We greet you with three rousing cheers,
For you and your brave crews, sir;
For the deeds you've done and the victory won,
For Yankee Doodle Doo, sir.


Yankee Dewey, keep it up,
You certainly are handy,
With men and guns and cruisers, too,
Oh, Dewey, you're a dandy.
-0. H. Cole.


We have read of the noble six hundred
Who rode to the gate of hell;
How cannon roared right and left of them,
And many a noble man fell.

They were ordered, and each did his duty;
A soldier must always obey-
But the volunteer eight Yankee seamen
Have eclipsed the six hundred to-day.

There was death both below and above them,
Torpedoes and bullets and shell;
They steamed from our fleet in the midst of it,
And their comrades wished them farewell.

God guarded these kings of the ocean,
He honored the brave and the true;
The nation salutes to their honor;
The enemy honored them, too.
-Edward G. Draper.



*-- T









The way we know that Aguinaldo is a hero, or at least a man of
great ability, is because one side abuses him and the other praises him.
The praises and the abuse divide the whole world about evenly, and
thus, we see that he is making history which will make his name one
long to be remembered. The history may not be to his credit, but fame
he will have and that is one quality of a hero.
So we will now place the name of Aguinaldo in the list of the
heroes whom we admire but do not love-along with Napoleon and
Bismarck and the others.
It is hard to understand a man who belongs to quite another race
and color, whose national life is quite strange to us.
In appearance he is a mixture of Spaniard and Chinese. He be-
longs to a people who have been in a worse slavery than the Cubans-
a slavery to the Spanish people and to the priests most of all.


In character, he is intelligent, ambitious, far-sighted, brave, self-
controlled, honest, moral, vindictive, and at times, cruel. His friends
call him wise-his enemies, crafty. Those who like him call him pol-
ished, courteous, thoughtful and dignified-those who do not, name
these qualities insincerity, vanity and arrogance.
Both sides admit him to be social, generous, popular and possess-
ing ability. His enemies accept him as one of the greatest men of his
race, while his friends claim for him world-wide greatness.
Aguinaldo's parentage is uncertain; his career began at the age of
four, when he was house-boy to a Jesuit priest at Cavite. He was
very precocious and, being well treated and educated as far as his sur-
roundings permitted, he soon outstripped boys of his age. At fourteen
he was entered in the medical department of the Manila University.
He was a bright student, but his college career is not known. Soon
after this he joined the Order of Masons, which is an unpardonable.sin


in the Philippines, both in the eyes of the State and the Church, and
could in olden times cause a man to be put to death by torture.


In 1888 he first left his home-went to Hong Kong, where he took
military training and learned much of the outside world, and studied
the art of war from beginning to'end.
In 1896 the people of the Philippine Islands began to revolt against
Spanish rule, just as the Cubans did in 1895, and from that time until
Dewey appeared in the bay that morning they had been trying to throw
off their bondage to Spain.
The immediate causes of the revolution was the unearthing of an
old law which condemned any one who did not have the money to pay
the extremely high taxes laid on him, to be put to forced labor by the
Government and even by the church officers, too. No excuse would let
them off-neither sickness, age, storm nor flood. They must toil like a
galley slave with only the scantiest food and shelter.


A certain Dr. Rizal protested openly against such an inhuman law
and circulated printed leaflets among the people, urging them not to
bear such abuse. As a result of his boldness the Doctor was taken out
into the public square and shot down like a common murderer.
We, in America, do not appreciate our good luck in living in a land
where if the people do not like the laws or those who administer the
laws, they can change them to suit their own taste.
So in these provinces where their inhuman slavery had been en-
forced the revolt broke out and the first to feel the torch and the sword
were these spies and friars who had ground down the people in this
The revolution grew so rapidly and extended so far that it was im-
possible for Spain to quiet it, and Aguinaldo was prime leader in it from
the first.

Spain therefore decided that the oLly way to quiet this rebellion
was by trickery and bribery, since her soldiers were so much needed in
Cuba and their treasury was getting decidedly empty. So emissaries


were sent to the insurgent leaders, who proposed that if the rebels
would lay down their arms and return to their homes and the leaders
leave the country, the Government would pay all the expenses in con-
nection with it, the wages of the soldiers, and would grant them rights
for which they were fighting. Among these reforms were the abolition
of forced labor for unpaid taxes; the friars were not to be allowed the
right to arrest, torture, try, imprison or execute citizens; the taxes were
to be reduced and the right of immediate hearing and trial after arrest
was to be granted; the power of the district governors was also to be
These are rights which have belonged to the people of all civilized
countries for centuries, but these poor, downtrodden people of the Phil-
ippines did not understand the meaning of such a word as liberty.
Some of the natives were in favor of accepting these terms, while
others wanted to keep on fighting and drive the Spaniards into the sea.
A third group, under the leadership of Aguinaldo, urged them to accept
the condition, provided the Spaniards would guarantee in writing that
these promises would be carried out. At last they came to an agree-
ment and accepted the terms. Peace was declared and an agreement
entered into between the Government and the rebels. The insurgent.
army conducted themselves very manfully and laid down their arms,
and the leaders left the country according to their promises, but the
authorities at Manila broke their part of the contract in almost every
They did not pay the money they agreed to pay, excepting a. small
amount which was paid to Aguinaldo, and the remainder was put in
their own pockets. They then published a report and pretended that
the entire sum had been paid to Aguinaldo personally, in order to turn
the people against him as having stolen their share of the money.


The old abuses were kept up just the same and if possible were
made more unbearable. Torture and execution without trial was a
common occurrence. The homes of the people were searched and the
women and children were beaten and the men were killed wherever
they suspected them of sympathizing with the insurgents.
Things went from bad to worse until Admiral Dewey appeared in
Manila Bay and destroyed the Spanish fleet.
Aguinaldo had foreseen these events and had prepared for them in


a very wise and far-sighted manner. He aroused the sympathy of the
people, although he had been exiled in Hong Kong. His influence at
this time was wonderful. His whole soul was in the work; he stated to
one of the American naval officers in Hong Kong: "There will be war
between your country and Spain, and in that war you can do the great-
est deed in history by putting an end to Castilian tyranny in my native
land. We are not ferocious savages. On the contrary, we are unspeak-
ably patient and docile. That we have risen from time to time is no
sign of bloodthirstiness on our part, but merely of manhood resenting
wrongs which it is no longer able to endure.
"You Americans revolted for nothing at all compared with what
we have suffered. Mexico and the Spanish republics rose in rebellion
and swept the Spaniards into the sea, and all their sufferings together
were not equal that which occurs every day in the Philippines. We are
supposed to be living under the laws and civilization of the nineteenth
century, but we are really living under the practices of the Middle

"A man can be arrested in Manila, plunged into jail, and kept there
twenty years without ever having a hearing or even knowing the com-
plaint upon which he was arrested. There is no means in the legal sys-
tem there of having a prompt hearing or of finding out what the charge
"The right to obtain evidence by torture is exercised by military,
civil and ecclesiastical tribunals. To this right there is no limitation,
nor is the luckless witness or defendant permitted to have a surgeon, a
counsel, a friend, or even a bystander to be present during the opera-
tion. As administered in the Philippines, one man in every ten dies
under the torture, and nothing is ever heard of him again.
"Everything is taxed so that it is impossible for the thriftiest
peasant farmer or shopkeeper to ever get ahead in life. The Spanish
policy is to keep all trade in the hands of Spanish-merchants, who come
out here from the peninsula and return with a fortune. The Govern-
ment budget for education is no larger than the sum paid by the Hong
Kong authorities for the support of Victoria College here. What little
education is had .n the Philippines is obtained from the good Jesuits,
who, in spite of their being forbidden to practice their priestly calling
in Luzon, nevertheless devote their lives in teaching their fellow-coun-
trymen. They carry the same principles into the Church, and no mat-


ter how devout, able or learned a Filipino or even a half-breed may be,
he is not permitted to enter a religious order or ever to be more than an
acolyte, sexton or an insignificant assistant priest. The State taxes the
people for the lands which it says they own, and which as a matter of
fact they have owned from time immemorial, and the Church collects
rent for the same land upon the pretext that it belongs to them under
an ancient charter of which there is no record. Neither life nor limb,
liberty nor property has any security under the Spanish administra-

Aguinaldo became very intimate with the American Consul, Mr.
Wildman. Through his frequent talks with this representative of the
United States, he claims to have received the impression that the Amer-
icans intended giving the Filipinos their liberty and an independent
Immediately after the battle of Manila, Aguinaldo returned to the
Island of Luzon and soon re-organized his army upon a very large
scale. He seemed to have unlimited money at his call and organized
his army on a much larger scale than ever before. All this time he
promised the people that America was going to give them their free-
Where he got this impression is not known; in fact, it is not known
whether he really believed it himself, or whether he took this way of
deceiving the people and making them believe that the United States
was not dealing fairly with them. He told them that the Americans
were intending to leave after the battle of Manila and that they were to
be a free and independent people.
He organized a complete military government, with each depart-
ment provided with an able head. He showed a great deal of ability in
these appointments, for instead of having himself appointed as Presi-
dent or King, he was simply made the head of the Revolutionary Army.
The men selected by him were well educated and men of ability in
their particular line.
The question is often asked, how the Filipinos ever became the
enemies of the Government of the United States. How can we explain
the fact that they were once our friends and now are our enemies? The
only explanation must lie in the fact that, like Napoleon, Aguinaldo
allowed his own personal ambition to become first, regardless of the in-
terests of the people. He first made them sympathize with him and


then he told them that the American people were worse than the Span-
iards. He turned the entire country against us; told them that they
would be made slaves by the United States and that the American
people had killed and enslaved all the Indians who originally owned
this country. And that they were in fact just jumping from the frying-
pan into the fire.


We must confess that the Americans were partly to blame for all
this, because the army in Manila was obliged to wait six months before
the treaty with Spain was ratified, but these six months were well em-
ployed by this wonderful man Aguinaldo, in educating the people
against the United States. He published pamphlets that were eagerly
read by every man, woman and child in all these islands, picturing the
tyranny that they would receive from the hands of the Americans.
And, having suffered so severely from the hands of the Spaniards,
it was no wonder that they were.persuaded to believe almost anything
about us, especially when he had made them believe that our ships were
going away immediately and they afterwards found that we had no in-
tention of leaving.
So we can see that all this fighting and loss .of life and bloodshed
were the results of the desire of one person to gratify his ambition.
What the result will be time only can tell, but since we have begun
this work we cannot stop until it is finished. It is possible that all this
could have been prevented, and the Generals in our army honestly tried
to prevent further fighting, but their efforts were useless and now they
cannot turn back.
The campaign so far has been promising, and it is expected that by
the next dry season peace and quiet will reign in these beautiful islands.


Acting Sergeant J. A. McIlrath, Battery H, Third Artillery (Regulars); enlisted from
New York; fifteen years' service.

Yes, yes, my boy, there's no mistake,
You put the contract through!
You lads with Shafter, I'll allow,
Were heroes, tried and true;


But don't forget the men who fought
About Manila Bay,
And don't forget brave McIlrath
Who died at Malatd.

There was an act to sing about-
An eighteen-carat deed,
To shine beside the sister gem
Of Switzer Winkelried!

Yes, I was with him, saw him-well,
You want to hear it all-
It is a braver story than
A mighty city's fall!

The night was black, save where the forks
Of tropic lightning ran,
When, with a long deep thunder-roar,
The typhoon storm began.

Then, suddenly above the din,
We heard the steady bay
Of volleys from the trenches where
The Pennsylvanians lay.

The Tenth, we thought, could hold their own
Against the feigned attack,
And, if the Spaniards dared advance,
Would pay them doubly back.

But soon we mark'd the volleys sink
Into a scattered fire-
And, now we heard the Spanish gun
Boom nigher yet and nigher!

Then, like a ghost, a courier
Seemed past our picket toss'd
With wild hair streaming in his face-
"We're lost-we're lost-we're lost."

"Front, front-in God's name-front!" he cried:
"Our ammunition's gone!"
He turned a face of dazed dismay-
And thro' the night sped on!


"Men, follow me!" cried McIlrath,
Our acting Sergeant then;
And when he gave the word he knew
He gave the word to men!

Twenty there-not one man more-
But down the sunken road
We dragged the guns of Battery H,
Nor even stopped to load!

Sudden, from out the darkness poured
A storm of Mauser hail-
But not a man there thought to pause,
Nor any man to quail!

Ahead, the Pennsylvanians' guns
In scattered firing broke;
The Spanish trenches, red with flame,
In fiercer volleys spoke!

Down with a rush our twenty came-
The open field we pass'd-
And in among the hard-press'd Tenth
We set our feet at last!

Up, with a leap, sprang McIlrath,
Mud-spatter'd worn and wet,
And in an instant, there he stood
High on the parapet!

"Steady, boys! we've got 'em now-
Only a minute late!
It's all right, lads-we've got 'em whipped.
Just give 'em volleys straight!"

Then, up and down the parapet
With head erect he went,
As cool as when he sat with us
Beside our evening tent!

Not one of us, close sheltered there
Down in the trench's pen,
But felt that he would rather die
Than shame or grieve him then!


The fire, so close to being quench'd
In panic and defeat,
Leap'd forth, by rapid volleys sped,
In one long deadly sheet!

A cheer went up along the line
As breaks the thunder-call-
But, as it rose, great God! we saw
Our gallant Sergeant fall!

He sank into our outstretched arms
Dead-but immortal grown;
And Glory brightened where he fell,
And Valor claim'd her own!


The maid who binds her warrior's sash
With smile that well her pain dissembles,
The while beneath her drooping lash
One starry tear-drop hangs and trembles,
Though Heaven alone records the tear,
And Fame shall never know her story,
Her heart has shed a drop as dear
As e'er bedewed the field of glory!

The wife who girds her husband's sword,
Mid little ones who weep or wonder,
And bravely speaks the cheering word,
What though her heart be rent asunder,
Doomed nightly in her dreams to hear
The bolts of death around him rattle,
Hath shed as sacred blood as e'er
Was poured upon the field of battle!

The mother who conceals her grief
While to her breast her son she presses,
Then breathes a few brave words and brief,
Kissing the patriot brow she blesses,
With no one but her secret God
To know the pain that weighs upon her,
Sheds holy blood as e'er the sod
Received on Freedom's field of honor!
-Thomas Buchanan Reed,





~--- -~- -


t:'A k~T



45y irNI





For thirty years brave little Cuba has been trying at different times
to drive the Dons out of her island.
One of the three "George Washingtons" of her struggle for freedom
is General Calixto Garcia, and to him these poor people owe the lib-
erty, which through the help of the strong right hand of Uncle Sam, they
have at last received.
These three brave, true friends of their country-Garcia, Maceo
and Gomez-are most truly the fathers of Free Cuba.


General Garcia lived to see the lifelong foes of his beloved island
driven out-lived to grasp the hand of President McKinley and hear
him repeat the welcome promise that Cuba should be free, and then it
being in the severe winter season and not being used to the Northern
climate, he took pneumonia and died while at Washington, D. C., De-
cember 11, 1898.
Having survived three wars fought for Cuba, many, many times
wounded, many times put in prison, many times in want, in numberless
dangers-the brave old patriot laid down his life, with those sweet
promises of the President of the United States still echoing fresh in his
ears-his heart's desire fulfilled at last.
Love of liberty was born with this stern old warrior, and he started
the revolution of 1868, known as the Ten Years' War. At first they had
wonderful success; one town after another fell into their hands.
Garcia's great courage gained for him the rank of brigadier-general
in the army. After capturing several important cities he was made
commander-in-chief after General Maximo Gomez was retired.
In the battle of Santa Maria in 1869, with a force of less than a
third that of the Spaniards, he defeated them.
His fortunes were first up and then down until at last in 1873 he


was surprised by 400 Spaniards with a force of only twenty men, and
when he saw he was going to be captured he shot himself rather than
be taken prisoner. He was taken to a town near by, supposed to be
dead, but finally recovered-was taken to Spain and confined in dun-
geons until after the close of the war.
But Garcia well knew that Spain would never keep the promises
which she had made in order to get the Cubans to lay down their arms,
so he came to America and, collecting a few followers, went back to
Cuba and began what is called the "Little War." But ill-fortune met
them from the first and they soon had to give up again, Garcia being
once more sent to a Spanish dungeon.


The Spaniards seemed after all to admire the man's spirit for, find-
ing his health was poor, they let him out and gave him a place in a bank
in Madrid and later he taught French and English, always being closely
watched by the police. When war broke out in 1895, he slipped
across the border line of Spain with his son, Carlos, and soon reached
New York, and later went to Cuba and was placed in command of about
1,500 men and held complete possession of the interior provinces until
the army of the United States landed at Santiago in June, 1898, when
he gave valuable help to our forces in capturing Santiago.
After the Spanish surrendered, he was elected chief of the commis-
sion appointed to confer with the President of the United States, and it
was while there that he died.
He tells the story of his attempted suicide thus:


"When, on that Monday morning of September 3, 1873, I found my
little reconnoitering party of twenty suddenly cut off and surrounded
by four hundred Spanish guerrillas, I felt that my time had come, as
there could be no quarter between us, and we determined to sell our
lives as dearly as possible. They gradually closed in. My men fell
rapidly under the murderous close-range fire, but it soon became ap-
parent that they intended to take me alive. This meant torture and
disgrace unthinkable, and to defeat their purpose and end it all I placed
my heavy revolver beneath my chin and fired the last shot upward.
Evidently the barrel of the revolver was too close to my breast, or the


ball would have killed me instantly, as was intended. I knew nothing
more until some hours after, when voices as from another world seemed
to be talking upon surgery, antiseptics, and vitality. Two young Span-
ish surgeons from Madrid, owing t6 the peculiarity of the wound, had
taken a professional interest in the case before them, and were discuss-
ing with each other the chances of my living or dying. Cuba needed
me, and I lived to fight for her again. That is all."
Garcia's friends describe him as a strong, magnetic man, with a
clear, resonant voice, indomitable courage, yet not afraid to be merci-
ful to a foe whom he had beaten; popular and beloved among all classes.
Ambitious-but not for himself-always for Cuba. Stern, yet for-
giving. A fond and devoted father, his family life was ideal.
Garcia's home was his Heaven, free Cuba was his creed, and inde-
pendence the altar upon which he sacrificed his life.


Another of the heroes of the Cuban Revolution was the mulatto,
Antonio Maceo. He was born in the province of Santiago de Cuba in
the year 1840, in an obscure corner of the country. In his early years
he was an ordinary farm laborer, but when the revolution of 1860 began
he suddenly awoke to life. He took nothing with him into the revolu-
tion except his own fearless bravery, for his origin was very humble and
the prejudice against his negro blood was very high at that time. He
had no education, no preparation for war and not until after he enlisted
did he learn how to read and write.
He was promoted rapidly during the Ten Years' War. Was always
in the thick of battle, and often wounded, yet still escaped death.
In the year 1870 he took part in the invasion of Guantanamo, under
the command of General Gomez. At the entrance of this valley was
situated a coffee plantation, which it was necessary for the Cubans to
take. It had been attacked in vain several times and excellent Cuban
officers had fallen in the attempt.


The General ordered Maceo's brother, Jose, to lead the assault.
"General," cried Antonio, "send me, send me! I know they will
kill my brother." "Captain Maceo," said Gomez, "I have given the
order that Lieutenant Maceo go; if he falls, you may go; if you fall, I


will go myself." The assault was made. Maceo's brother was struck
by a bullet full in the breast as he successfully mounted the parapet of
the fort and he fell back into his brother's arms. This was the eighth
brother of Maceo's who had fallen on the field of battle.
In 1871 he assumed command of the forces of the Orient and was
successful in many battles and continued to fight even after the peace
of "Zanjon" had been declared, which fell upon him like a thunderbolt
while he was winning successes in the field.
He had grown in influence and knowledge during these long years
of fighting. War is a terrible school and it had prepared his spirit for
great things. He had improved every opportunity for self-education
*and refinement. He had all the qualities of a great captain, and,
besides this, he held to a blind faith in the triumph of the cause of Cuba.
No undertaking was impossible to him. In his career as a soldier there
had twenty bullets entered his body, and his whole life is adorned with
instances of bravery, any one of which would be enough to build a sol-
dier's reputation.

Maceo refused to accept the conditions of the treaty and entered a
protest and rejected the brilliant promises of reward which were made
to him by the Spanish general, Campos. He fought almost without sup-
port for three months, he and his immediate followers were alone in
arms. He was offered bribes of money and honors if he would make
peace. After three months he was sent abroad to secure aid from the
Cubans in America, but he failed in this on account of the extreme pov-
erty of the Cubans.
It was a great disappointment to the Spaniards when they failed
to induce Maceo to sign the treaty of peace in the Ten Years' War,
which had been intended to end all trouble in Cuba forever. But Maceo
was inflexible in his decision and there were tears in the eyes of the old
Spanish warrior when he realized that his mission was fruitless, and
prepared to continue and fight against men who wanted only independ-
Maceo frankly told him that he had great confidence in him person-
ally, but "Spain will repudiate the promises she has authorized you to
make to the Cubans, and after inducing us to lay down our arms she
will ignore every clause in that treaty you wish me to sign. I would not
trust her in anything, for she has proven herself unworthy of it."
War having ended in 1878, he lived for a few years in Honduras,


but never forgot the cause of Cuba, nor ceased to think of a new revolt.
He was the leader in the "Little War" in 1885. After this failed, he ob-
tained a grant to colonize certain lands in Costa Rica.
He returned to Cuba in 1890, but was expelled from the city of San-
tiago, as the Government of Spain suspected that he had returned to
Cuba to inspire a new revolution. He returned again to Costa Rica
until the outbreak of 1895, begun by Marti, when he again returned
to Cuba, and began the third and most brilliant stage of his remarkable

From the time of his landing until his death there was not a single
act that was not worthy of praise. He landed with only twenty-one fol-
lowers in a little sail-boat, with only eleven firearms in the party.
The landing was made on the coast of Baracoa in the month of
March in the year 1895, and within an hour he had fought his first en-
When General Campos was informed of this uprising he asked for
the names of the leaders. He showed no concern until Maceo's name
was mentioned. Then he sprang from his chair, exclaiming excitedly:
"Carramba! This means serious trouble for Spain." Maceo was the
one man whom the Spaniards feared more than any other leader in the
insurgent cause.
The Spaniards made every effort to arrest Maceo's march toward
the center of the province of Santiago, where the rebel forces were the
strongest. But the skill and physical endurance of Maceo dashed her
hopes to pieces by marching fifteen days over mountains and through
dense forests, almost without food and pursued by terrible guerrillas.
He reached his destination with only a third of his company left, and
began his campaign.


Maceo then marched through Holguin, spreading the revolution
wherever he went. He routed General Campos at Peralejos, and also
fell upon Colonel Canalla at Sao del India, driving him thirty miles in
retreat until he took refuge in Guantanamo. By this time General
Gomez had arrived and the Provincial Government was started. Maceo
was then ordered to form a division to invade the western provinces
and was named Lieutenant-General of the army of liberation. He


started out on October 22, 1895, upon his famous military march known
as "La Invasion," which was to end at Cape San Antonio, and traversed
the entire length of the island.
He was successful during this march, in one fight after another, in
spite of the efforts of the Spanish commander, with his 70,000 soldiers
and all the railroads and towns in their possession, to stop them.
After being joined by General Gomez and receiving considerable
reinforcements they arrived on the 7th of January, 1896, at the gates of
Havana. There Gomez and Maceo separated, Maceo marching the en-
tire length of the province of Pinar del Rio. Fight after fight was won
by him, conquest after conquest was made, and on the 22nd of January
he occupied the town of Mantua, which is at the extreme western end of
the Island of Cuba, and this most wonderful plan of invasion had been
successfully carried out. During these months General Maceo was in
battle more than thirty times.
General Weyler made every effort to crush Maceo in the province
of Pinar del Rio. For this purpose he planned to imprison him there by
building a famous trocha from Mariel to Majana. With 40,000 men in
the narrow limits of this province he prepared to crush Maceo.
Military history has no record in its pages which is parallel to this
conflict between Maceo's handful of half-armed men and the trained
army of 40,000 Spaniards.


A notable event in Maceo's march across the Island of Cuba in 1896
was the successful attack, March 11, on a formidable post-Batabano.
The march had been made stealthily through a swamp, and the
Spaniards had no knowledge of the approach of the Cubans. No time
was lost in making the assault; but the Spanish garrison had field-guns
and were within entrenched lines, and the Cubans wavered. Then their
commander, a man of herculean stature, flung himself from his horse,
and, seizing a flag, pressed to the front of his line. A shout went up
of "El Bandera." It was heard by the Spanish, and was repeated in
their lines and in the town in tones of terror. Other Cubans advancing
upon the town-from other directions under the negro brothers, Ducasse,
heard the cry and, repeating it exultantly, moved on in the attack.
In the western outskirts, where the cry was started, a sharp hand-
to-hand fight occurred. The tall figure of the Cuban brigadier, with the
one-starred and tri-colored flag in his hand, was seen in combat with a


Spanish officer. Their machetes crossed, and the Spaniard fell. The
Cubans swept forward with shouts of "El Bandera," and their com-
mander's flag was soon waving triumphantly in the plaza.
This cry, "El Bandera" (the flag), indicated the presence of one of
the most noted fighting Cubans-a black man of great strength, cour-
age and fighting skill.
Quinton El Bandera is a native African, who was kidnapped as a
babe by a slaver in the late "Forties." Slaves thus obtained were name-
less, and, as sold off to plantations, were usually known by numbers or
by the names of simple objects. The black child grew lusty and rest-
less. When near manhood he took to the Cenega region and formed a
band that made occasional raids on the near-by slave plantations.
Early in 1869 the young negro joined the Cuban army, fought
nearly through the Ten Years' War, and was captured before its close
and sent to Ceuta, the African prison, to which Spain consigns political
Even then he had gained a famous name, though unable to read or
write. A Cuban with some classical learning had called him "Quinton,"
and the soldiery acclaimed him "El Bandera."
At Ceuta he became the object of absorbing love to a handsome
half-breed Moorish girl, daughter of a Spanish officer. She aided him to
escape to English Gibraltar, where, joining him soon after, they were
married. The African-Cuban negro learned rapidly to read and write
in several languages fluently, and accumulated a moderate fortune in
But when Jose Marti's movement for another struggle for liberty
began "El Bandera" did not hesitate. In April, 1895, he returned to
participate with Maceo in the struggle and has lived to see the cause

Maceo held his own at Pinar del Rio until he was ordered by the
commander-in-chief to recross the trocha, since it was absolutely neces-
sary for them to be in other parts of the island.
The Spaniards thought this trocha was impregnable, but he suc-
cessfully recrossed it early in December; but fate had written that this
faithful life should close, and at the gates of Havana, in a skirmish with
one of the Spanish under-officers, this most wonderful of Cuban heroes
was killed. The joy of the Spaniards over the news of his death was the
highest tribute to his power and fame.



During the famous invasion many negroes from the cornfields
joined his army and were exposed to the fire of battle for the first time.
Naturally they tried to dodge the bullets that generally came close to
their heads. One old colored veteran, noticing this, rebuked them by
saying: "What fur do ye try to dodge those bullets? If you are afraid
get right behind General Maceo and you will be safe, because there
hain't any bullet made that can hit him. They dodge his vitals and go
right through him, and I am sure they wouldn't stop to fool with any
cheap nigger after leaving the body of that hero!"
The Spanish Government published an account of his death regu-
larly-about every sixty days.


The story is told of an incident that occurred near Holguin when
Maceo, tired of the false reports from the Spaniards of his death, de-
termined to teach these people a lesson. Near the end of a skirmish in
which the retreating officers were firing a few shots, Maceo was seen to
throw up both arms and fall from his horse. The enemy paused a mo-
ment and then rushed into the city to carry the news of the General's
death. The next morning quite a body of people from the city came to
learn if the news was true. Sure enough near the city was found a
mound of fresh earth and at its head a cross on which were the letters
A. M. They began digging with their machetes until they reached a
pile of stones, from under which was to be seen the sleeve of a coat.
"He is there. Dig him out!" they cried, and like so many hungry wolves
they began to throw out the stones. Suddenly there was a fearful ex-
plosion. A Cuban in the thicket near by had touched an electric button
and twenty grave-robbers were hurled into eternity.
Maceo possessed a remarkable magnetism, which seemed to draw
people to him and bind them to him with bonds of admiration and affec-
tion. His temper was genial and he was absolutely unselfish.


Maceo was afflicted with a habit of stuttering, as were nearly all of
his brothers. It annoyed the young Captain very greatly, and when pro-


moted for special bravery to the rank of Colonel he decided that "No
Colonel in the army of Cuba should stutter." Through pure force of
will he conquered the habit, but was always obliged to speak very
slowly and distinctly.
He could forgive anything but deceit, even physical fear; for, while
knowing no fear himself, he often encouraged some poor fellow when
under fire for the first time by kind words or a gentle rebuke. As a
natural result he was idolized by his men, who followed him through
love and not because of fear.


As the sunrise of peace dawns over our poor little sister, Cuba, and
the Spaniard has folded his tent and stolen into the past, one solitary
hero of all who gave their lives in this long struggle remains to see the
fruits of his sacrifice.
Of the group of heroes who took the field to fight for liberty in 1895
only General Gomez remains. He is said to be a man of great integ-
rity, stern and somewhat peculiar in manner, yet without any selfish
ambition. He has given his life to the cause of liberty for his oppressed

He was born on the Island of San Domingo, is of Spanish ancestry,
and served in the Spanish army in his early life in fighting against the
revolution upon his native island.
He did not learn until after this war in San Domingo that he could
not believe in the promises or honesty of Spain, but he had his eyes
opened at this time and his brave, honest spirit rose in revolt against
the methods of Spain. He resolved never to submit to it again. He
had not served in the Spanish army long before he learned to bitterly
hate the three leading faults of the Spanish national character-cor-
ruption, cowardice and laziness. Any one of these faults in one of his
officers or men would secure the sternest rebuke from Gomez.
Having learned how rotten was Spain's policy toward her colonies,
Gomez turned against the mother country more completely than he
could have done had he never been her servant in war.
He has been in the field of battle most of the time during his life
and is now 68 years of age, but he does not claim to.be a statesman or
a political leader.


When asked if he would accept the office of President of Cuba he
replied: "In the first place I would refuse it, and in the second place
I would say that the Cubans displayed very bad judgment in nomina-
ting me. I am a military man,-not a politician." His answer proves
:him td be entirely unselfish in his devotion to his country. Her welfare
is more to him than his own success. He holds the admiration and
respect of all Cubans and his service to his country has won the warm-
est admiration from men who are well fitted to judge.


At the beginning of the revolution many of the people of Cuba
were rather inclined to be on the fence, to occupy a safe middle ground
-thinking that if the revolution was a success they could claim to have
been friendly, and if it failed then Spain would not punish them as
rebels. So Gomez was obliged to take very stern measures to induce
the people to declare themselves and go to work.


One thing he demanded of his men that they must be willing to
fight and anxious to make a fight. To do anything, so that the Span-
iards should have no rest. A few days of quiet would make him restless
and irritable. He would ask his officers: "Are all the Spaniards on the
island killed off? Do you think that we can gain independence by sit-
ting still like old women?"
After landing in Santiago in April, 1895, Golmez had command of
one of the three main divisions of the army. At the battle of Dos Rios
on the 19th of May, one of the leaders, Jose Marti, was killed. Maceo
kept on fighting, and made a feint to cross the line into the province of
Puerto Principe on the north, and the Spaniards, under General
Campos, concentrated their forces to meet Maceo and prevent his ad-
SGeneral Gomez marched to the south and crossed over into the cov-
eted province, thus outwitting the Spaniards.
After reinforcements had arrived, Gomez planned and executed a
series of brilliant maneuvers. He encircled the province and captured
many large towns and a large supply of ammunition. Thus, fighting
inch by inch, they worked their way by surprise and ambush toward the
city of Havana, month by month drawing a little nearer to the coveted


We must remember that the Cuban army had in this long fight no
base of supplies; no supply of ammunition except what they succeeded
in capturing from the Spaniards; and no food except what was fur-
nished them by the people of the country who were friendly. It was
under these conditions that they continued their march across the
The army was divided into three divisions, Antonio Maceo being at
the head of the center, Gomez at the south, and Quinton Bandera at the
north. These divisions sent out small bodies of cavalry to ride ahead
and confuse and deceive the Spaniards as to the real direction of the
army behind.
Then the insurgents never marched in a straight line, but always
"zigzagged." While the skirmishes were kept up by the advancing cav-
alry and seemed to show that the army was coming from a certain direc-
tion, the Spaniards would start to head them off in that direction and
swift couriers would in the meantime ride back to the main column, and
while the Spaniards were headed pell-mell toward the south, the in-
surgents would safely pass by on the north.
They kept these maneuvers up all across the island and were so
successful that nothing checked them. They knew the country thor-
oughly and always fought from ambush whenever possible, and this
was the way that this brave old Cuban General, with but 6,000 men,
kept General Campos, who has 50,000 men in the field, in constant hot
water, and finally obliged him to retire to Havana and admit that he
could not keep the insurgents back, and after this he centered all his
efforts upon the province immediately around Havana.
Gomez had thoroughly outwitted the Spaniards by this zigzag
marching. They tore up railroads and tore down telegraph lines all
along this march. After this remarkable success large numbers of vol-
unteers joined him who before this had not sympathized with the revo-

We cannot follow all his campaigns, but this man is acknowledged
to-day to be the greatest living master of ambush and guerrilla warfare,
as well as of strategy.
Underneath the stern manner his friends find a tender and loving
heart and deep affection for his family and friends.
His boy, Francisco, was killed while attempting to assist General


Maceo after he was wounded. The General, Francisco, and the Gen-
eral's horse fell together in a lifeless heap.
There is not a man in all Cuba to-day who is able to make himself
more useful in readjusting the affairs of that island than General
Gomez. He is looked up to by all and will always exercise a wide
influence over the destinies of Cuba as long as he lives.


He offered himself for the land he loved,
But what shall we say for her?
He gave to his country a soldier's life;
'Twas dearer by far to the soldier's wife,
All honor to-day to her!

He went to the war while his blood was hot,
But what shall we say of her?
He saw himself through the battle's flame
A hero's reward on the scroll of fame;
What honor is due to her?

He offered himself, but his wife did more,
All honor to-day to her!
For dearer than life was the gift she gave
In giving the life she would die to save;
What honor is due to her?

He gave up his life at his country's call,
But what shall we say of her?
He offered himself as a sacrifice,
But she is the one who pays the price;
All honor we owe to her.
-Elliott Flower.


When night comes on, when morning breaks, they rise,
Those earnest prayers by faithful lips oft said,
And pierce the blue which shrouds the inner skies:
"God guard my boy; God grant he is not dead!"
"My soldier boy-where is he camped to-night?"
"God guard him waking, sleeping or in fight!"


Far, far away where tropic suns cast down
Their scorching rays, where sultry damp airs rise
And haunting breath of sickness holds its own,
A homesick boy, sore wounded, suffering lies.
"Mother! Mother!" is his ceaseless cry.
"Come, mother, come, and see me ere I die!"

Where is war's glory? Ask the trumpet's blare,
The marching columns run to bitter strife;
Ask of the raw recruit who knows as yet
Naught of its horrors, naught of its loss of life;
Ask not the mother; weeping for her son,
She knows the heartaches following victories won.

) p

I 1







.V, .



The engagement at Cardenas May 11, 1898, between the Spanish
gunboats and three American vessels was not one of great importance
in bringing to an end the war, but it will always be remembered as the
place where the first men were killed in the war with Spain, and it was
one of the hottest little engagements of the war.
Cardenas is situated on a shallow bay on the north shore of Cuba,
about east of Havana. There are several entrances to the bay, but the
Spaniards had mined the best one and it could not be entered without
danger. It is about nine miles across the bay from north to south, and
the town is about three miles from the entrance. The little town and
surrounding country looked that day as hazy and lazy and- utterly
sleepy as the sky and sea. It has three or four good-sized stone wharves
and perhaps a dozen wooden ones. The water-front shows some well-
built store-houses. Back toward the hills lies the quiet old town. The
country around is thickly wooded and covered with canebrakes. Up
higher the hills are dotted here and there with country houses. On an
elevation, about a mile and a half from shore, stands a large, strongly
built barracks. The wharves were quite hidden, as well as the Spanish
gunboats, by tier on tier of fishing-smacks and schooners, moored
thickly along the water front.


The story of the fight, as told by the "Hudson's" men, is as follows:
"The 'Winslow,' 'Hudson, 'Machias' and 'Wilmington' were sta-
tioned outside of this harbor, as links in the chain of blockade which
the United States was maintaining around Cuba. On the morning of
May 11th all was quiet and- beautiful in the still, heavy air, which
refused to be seen through even with the very best field-glasses. The
water was smooth and glassy, but as gray and somber in color as the
sky. We had discovered that these Spanish gunboats were hidden in
the harbor, where our heavy draft ships could not go. In fact, these


boats had steamed out two or three times a day, challenging and
threatening us in a very irritating way, which the hot-blooded Amer-
ican Jacks could ill endure. So when, on this morning, the 'Wilming-
ton' had arrived to our assistance, we resolved to teach these impudent
gunboats a lesson, but we found to our sorrow that they could shoot
better than most of the Spaniards, and before the sun had set the men
of our little fleet had heavy hearts for the boys who had fallen. Indeed,
it was a brave, and even a rash, deed for these little boats to enter this
harbor in face of such odds, and it showed another phase of that reck-
less daring and cool effrontery displayed so many times during this
eventful summer.
"The 'Machias' lay about twelve miles out and did not join in the
fight. The others were stationed close in, on what is called the inside
line. At a quarter to nine o'clock the 'Hudson,' under Captain F. H.
Newton, was taking soundings just outside Cardenas, so close to shore
that the vessel grounded, but it floated off easily into the shallow water.
At half-past eleven the 'Wilmington' spoke the 'Hudson' and the 'Win-
slow' and assigned them to duty, the 'Winslow' to start along the east-
ern shore of Cardenas Bay and the 'Hudson' to the western shore, while
the 'Wilmington' took its station in mid-channel.


"This work occupied two hours. Nothing was discovered on either
shore, and the boats were approaching each other on their return when
a puff of smoke was observed on shore at Cardenas, and a shell whistled
over them. The 'Winslow' was on the inside, nearer the shore. The
'Hudson' and the 'Winslow' reported to the 'Wilmington,' and
orders came promptly to go in and open fire; but the Spaniards had
not waited for a reply to their first shot. The Cardenas harbor had
already become one dense cloud of smoke, shot with flashes of fire and
an avalanche of shells bursting toward the little 'Winslow.'
"This was at five minutes past two o'clock, and for twenty minutes
the firing continued from the shore without cessation, but none of the
shots had at that time found their mark, though they were striking
dangerously near. Meanwhile the 'Hudson's' two six-pounders were
banging away at a terrific rate. How many of the torpedo boat's shots
took effect is not known. The first two of the 'Hudson's' shells fell
short, but after these two every one floated straight into the smoke-
clouded shore. The Spaniards' aim in the meantime was improving

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