Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Queen Paris
 Along the Mediterranean coasts
 Through the land of the pharao...
 A trip through England and...
 Through the Emerald Isle
 Northern France and Belgium
 A glance at Holland
 A tramp through Germany
 The land of the midnight sun
 Glimpses of Russia
 In brilliant Vienna
 Among the alps of Switzerland
 In Spain
 Sunny Italy and classical...
 Algiers and Tunis
 In darkest Africa
 Western Asia
 Iran or Persia
 Thibet, or the roof of the...
 Among the stately chieftains of...
 China, or the celestial empire
 The Philippines and other East...
 The Fiji Islands and the Samoan...
 In South America
 East and west of the Andes
 Venezuela and her neighbors
 Cuba and the Cuban war
 The United States of America
 Washington city
 Greater New York
 New Orleans
 San Francisco
 Yellowstone National Park
 Alaska and the Klondike
 The dominion of Canada
 Back Cover

Title: Cities and peoples of the old and new world
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087381/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cities and peoples of the old and new world containing charming descriptions of the countries visited by Prof. Glee and his class of young people ; covering the cities and interesting places of Europe, Asia, Africa, South America, Australia and the islands of the Pacific ; including special chapters on Spain, Cuba, the Philippines and our own country with its great cities and beautiful scenery
Physical Description: 417 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scull, William Ellis, b. 1862 ( Copyright holder )
John C. Winston Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: John C. Winston Co.
Place of Publication: Chicago ;
Philadelphia ;
Publication Date: c1898
Subject: Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Voyages around the world -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
World history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
Canada -- Toronto
Statement of Responsibility: profusely illustrated with over 150 fine engravings.
General Note: Imprint inferred from copyright statement on t.p. verso: "Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1898 by W.E. Scull," Scull was the vice president of John C. Winston Co.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087381
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223115
notis - ALG3363
oclc - 262616601

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Table of Contents
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
    Queen Paris
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Along the Mediterranean coasts
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Through the land of the pharaohs
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    A trip through England and Scotland
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Through the Emerald Isle
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Northern France and Belgium
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    A glance at Holland
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    A tramp through Germany
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    The land of the midnight sun
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Glimpses of Russia
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    In brilliant Vienna
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Among the alps of Switzerland
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    In Spain
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Sunny Italy and classical Greece
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    Algiers and Tunis
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    In darkest Africa
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    Western Asia
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
    Iran or Persia
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
    Thibet, or the roof of the world
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
    Among the stately chieftains of Native India
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
    China, or the celestial empire
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 272a
        Page 272b
    The Philippines and other East Indian Islands
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
    The Fiji Islands and the Samoan Islands
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
    In South America
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
    East and west of the Andes
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
    Venezuela and her neighbors
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
    Cuba and the Cuban war
        Page 310
        Page 310a
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
    The United States of America
        Page 317
        Page 318
    Washington city
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
    Greater New York
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 370a
    New Orleans
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
    San Francisco
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 386a
        Page 387
        Page 388
    Yellowstone National Park
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
    Alaska and the Klondike
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
    The dominion of Canada
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


....... ......
. . . .

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- .-..




'~ ''








Entered according to Act of Congress in the year x898, by
in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
All rights reserved.


(Height 555 feet.)


HERE was a time when a man could hope to see for
himself all the world. When all the civilized coun-
tries were grouped along the coasts of the Mediter-
ranean, a noble Roman might set out in his chariot,
Sand in the course of a year or two see the world, and
if he journeyed continuously in any given direction
8 he soon reached the borders of civilization, and
dared go little farther.
I All this has long since changed. The world is
bigger than it seemed to the Ancients. We travel
more, we travel many times more rapidly, but, except for the icy barriers
which nature has erected about the poles, the inhospitable laws and
customs of two or three half-civilized peoples, and excepting a con-
stantly contracting area of unexplored savage country, the direction and
the extent of one's journey are matters which he may decide for himself.
But if one spent his life in travel he would still be able to see but a
small part of the whole world; the area is too great, the places and ob-
jects of interest are too many, to be explored within the space of a single
life. If one would see the world he must see most of it through the eyes
of other people; he must come to know that which it is physically im-
possible for him to behold, through what others have written about it, or
through the pictures they have made.
The world is full of interest. In the older civilized lands we see with
delight what has been accomplished by generation after generation; the
records they have left in libraries, in pictures, in statues, in buildings
and in cities; records which tell us how they lived, in what they suc-
ceeded, in what they failed; records which enable us to compare ourselves
and our own time with the people and the time of the past. In newer


countries, we see with admiration and astonishment what men are
achieving; how they are building new cities, tunneling mountains, caus-
ing the desert to blossom as the rose; how in every country and under
every circumstance a new difficulty only brings a new increase of zeal,
and the harder the task, the more eager are men to accomplish it. In
savage lands the strange and the grotesque excite our wonder, and the
ignorance, the superstitioit and the misery of the people give rise to
emotions of pity, of philanthropic sympathy or of missionary zeal. And
in all the corners of the earth, the works of God in Nature exceed in
beauty and in interest all the works of man.
It is the purpose of this book to gather from all over the world pic-
tures of whatever is interesting, or curious, or beautiful, or strange, and
to present with each picture such a description as shall put the reader
in possession of the facts and give him a thorough acquaintance with
the subject. The engravings are by well-known artists, most of them
drawn from photographs taken on the spot, and the text has been pre-
pared by writers who are personally familiar with the scenes and objects
and places described, and who, in many cases, have spent years in the
study of the localities, their history, archaeology, and all pertaining to
them that can interest or instruct. The descriptions are therefore ac-
curate, and the pictures true to life.
In Paris, Queen City of. Civilization, with which the book very nat-
urally begins, material was at hand which might well fill volumes, and
the selection was indeed a matter of difficulty. It is believed, however,
that such choice has been made as will give to those who have never
traveled some idea of the magnificence of the great French capital, while
those who have had that privilege will welcome the admirable pictures of
those places in Paris which most pleased them, and the delightful word
pictures by Mr. Augustus J. C. Hare will increase the pleasure and profit
to be derived.
The views of Egypt will take the reader to that land of mystery, will
show him the Country of the Nile, the ruins of temples and. cities under
whose walls the Children of Israel toiled at making bricks without straw,
while in Alexandria he will be astonished and delighted to see a thriv-
ing, bustling, beautiful modern city. We are fortunate in having a
chapter on this most interesting country, written for us by Henry Harts-


horne, M. D., LL. D., of the University of Pennsylvania, who recently visited
this land of the Nile.
Not only has, due space been given to these well-known countries; not
only have busy England, picturesque Scotland, unhappy Ireland, the
countries and cities of modern Europe, been presented in characteristic
pictures and appreciative descriptive matter, Germany in particular
being "most happily described by Charles F. Brede, A. M., recently of Johns
Hopkins University, whose extensive travel and long residence in that
country have so specially fitted him for the task; not only have the won-
ders of the Land of the Midnight Sun been pointed out by Professor
Lonnkvist, with the grace and completeness which can only be attained
by residence in the scenes described; not only have Russia, and Austria,
and France, and Spain contributed their share, but care has been taken
to include the results of the ,most recent discovery, and the reader will
be delighted to turn even from the pictures of semi-civilized countries of
Asia, from the wonders of Persia or China, to the description of Thibet
and the views from photographs taken by Prince Henry of Orleans during
a journey through absolutely unexplored portions of that Land of Lamas,
that Roof of the World.
While Darkest Africa is adequately represented and a proper place is
found for those portions of that continent where the white man's face
has been seen but once or twice, prominence has been given to civilized
Africa, in the belief that the results of the latest explorations have be-
come very widely known through the many books and lectures upon that
An example of the interest to be found in the most remote parts of the
world will appear in the picture of the Harbor of Apia, in the Samoan.
Islands, and the account of the heroic conduct of American sailors in the
hour of peril in that far-off place, as well as in the review of the relations
of our government with those islands.
Neither care nor expense has been spared to fulfill the purpose of this
volume in a manner at once generous and complete. The engravings
speak for themselves, while the variety, as well as the high character of
the collection, the exceptionally complete and graphic descriptive matter,
no less than the elegant manner in which the typography, presswork.
and binding have been done, will be apparent to every reader,

Queen Paris.
Many remnants of past times-History of France centred in its capital-" Paris not a city, but a world"
-The chief charm of the city-Paris before 1870-The Louvre-The collections of the Louvre-
The isle of the city-The Pont-Neuf-The Cathedral of Notre Dame-Place de la Concorde-Ter-
rible memories-The Obelisk-Les Champs Elys6es-The Arch of Triumph-Interesting phases of
Parisian life-A visit to the Opera House .. . . . . 13

Along the Mediterranean Coasts.
The "Pillars of Hercules "-A nook of sweet tranquillity-Tangier in Africa-An unequalled picture of
Oriental life-Malaga, a place of fabulous antiquity-History of the city--Marseilles, the first sea-
port of France-Greek quickness and Hellenic wit-The toilers of the sea-A lively scene-Genoa
the proud-A magnificent bay-Palermo, the capital of Sicily-Pola, the most important naval
station of Austria-The glory of Pola-In the city of the Doges-History-A motley collection-
Alexandria-The place of Mehemet Ali-On holy ground-M-ount Carmel .. .. 27

Through the Land 6f the Pharaohs.
By Hen y Harttshorne, M. D., LL. D.
In a new world-A Babel in miniature-Modern Egypt-" The donkey, the nightingale of Egypt"-
Cleopatra's Needle-The Catacombs-The Palace of the Khedive-Along the Nile-Cairo--Donkeys
and donkey boys-The tombs of the kings-The bazaars of Cairo-The mosques-The pyramids-
The Sphinx--The character of the population-A trip up the Nile-Snake-charmers-The animals
of Egypt-Nile boatmen-Wonderful remnants of ancient civilization-Imposing ruins-A history
in stone and colors-Kom Ombo-The overflow of the Nile-" The Nile is Egypt" .. 47

A Trip through England and Scotland.
No land of greater interest to Americans-Triumphs of engineering skill-Berwick-on-Tweed-History-
Newcastle-" The coaly Tyne '"-Barnard Castle-Salmon weirs-Venerable history-Bourton-upon-
Trent-Hull, a flourishing river port-History-An interesting feature-Bristol, a home of prehis-
toric ages-The Scottish capital-Liverpool, the gateway of the nation's commerce-Liverpool of
old-Liverpool.of to-day-London. the largest city in the world-Remarkable buildings-St. Paul's
Cathedral-Houses of Parliament-Westminster-The mighty Fingal's Cave . .. 57

Through the Emerald Isle.
Beautiful scenery-Dublin-History-The port-A fine thoroughfare-The commercial capital of Ire-
land-Belfast-Limerick, a prosperous city-Cromwell'sBridge-Magnificent scenery-Sorrowful and
perplexing troubles-A complicated question, still unsolved-The Giants' Causeway, a celebrated and
peculiar formation , ... 78


Northern France and Belgium.
Art, history and legend on every ihand-Rouen, the capital of Normandy-" Le Gros Horloge"-
One continuous village-The River Meuse-At Freyer, Belgium-The Battle, of Sedan-Liege,
the Belgian Birmingham-A horrible tragedy-The picturesqueness of the houses-Ghent--Bel-
fries-Bruges-The tower at Bruges, an elegant Gothic structure . . .. 93

A Glance at Holland.
The three enemies of the Dutch-" A country that draws fifty feet of water"-Bergen-op-Zoom-
The Hague-" The largest village in Europe"--Many works of great masters-A typical Dutch
scene ............. ..... .............. 102

A Tramp Through Germany.
The united Germany-In the Rhine valley-Hildesheim-History-Lordly castles-The unfortunate
King Louis II., and Neu Schwanstein-Characteristic beverage-A region of beauty and romance-
Strassburg-A great cathedral-A wonderful clock-The Trappist monks-Gay festivities-The
Stork's Day-the ." Gullertanz "-A wedding in Germany-A German country scene-Evidences of
piety and devotion on all sides . . . .... .. . 107
A flat country-Copenhagen-The "Dyrehave"-Agriculture the main resource of the people-Consid-
erable crops-The Government and the Legislature-The Flr6 Islands . . 122

The Land of the Midnight Sun.
Norway-Particular features-Grand natural scenery-A piece of geology-The fjdrds and rivers-Cas-
cades and waterfalls-The Skjaeggedalsfos-A never-to-be-forgotten scene-Beauty and grandeur-
Saebo-North fjord-A mighty cliff-A mythical story-Scandinavians, a simple-minded and relig-
ious people-A glance at Sweden-Lapland and the Laplanders-Stockholm and Gothenbiirg, the
two chief cities of Sweden . . . . . 125
Glimpses of Russia.
Wide contrasts-A fishing village in Northern Russia-The system of police-St. Petersburg-Neva
Perspective-Religion and Education-The Cathedral of St. Izak-The centre of aristocratic life
-The Winter Palace-An interesting ceremony-A .great court ball-Tsarsko6-S41o-Peterhof 143

In Brilliant Vienna.
Diverse fragmentary race elements-The City of Vienna-An ancient Celtic settlement-The character
and manners of the people-" Gemiuthlich"-The central caf6-Tolerancy-The Ring Strasse-
The grand old Gothic Cathedral of St. Stephen .... . .. 151

Among the Alps of Switzerland.
A view with no rival in the world-A glorious sunrise-Illustrious places-The Hole of Uri-The Valley
of Andermatt-The heart of the Alps-The valley of Chamounix-An ascent of Mont Blanc-
An. ingenious contrivance . ...... 157


In Spain.
Take Spain as you find her; she is not likely to improve-Travel in Spain a constant movement from
one town to another-" The beautiful old cities "-Spanish courtesy . . 161

The Portuguese language-Lisbon-History-The great earthquake of 1755.
CORSICA. "The most beautiful island in the Mediterranean "-Diversity of Climate-A rough-and-
ready plan of Corsica-Cape Corso . . . ... 165

Sunny Italy and Classical Greece.
Arrival at the Eternal City-Peculiarity of the great cities of Italy-In Florence-The most beautiful
of all fountains-" The lone mother of dead empires "-The Roman Forum-The residence of the
Pope-The gardens of the Vatican-The Palatine andthe "Palace of the Caesars "-A pretty story-
'Greece-The modern Greek-Classical names-Monasteries-Olive culture-The miniature princi-
pality of Monaco--Beauty of Monaco-Naples . . ... .. 171

Algiers and Tunis.
Algiers, a pearl set in emeralds "-A fertile region-Algiers, or the City of the Deys-Unique, inde-
scribable, incomprehensible-Oriental life in perfection-In Tunis-The customs of the people-
Beautiful walks ............................. ]89

In Darkest Africa.
An unknown land-Physical features-Stupendous natural highways-Strange peoples and strange
animals-The elephant-Ivory at the bottom of the woes of Africa-Beaten tracks everywhere-
The African footpath a bee-line-The heart of Africa no desert-Jaded and sunstricken forests-
Primeval man-A fine-looking people-Curious gardening-How to produce fire-Living man the
commercial currency ................. .... ...... 197

Western Asia.
Memorials of the past-The foundation of the Turkish Empire-The Hedjaz in Arabia-The central
city of all Islam-" The sick man "-Cities long ago doomed to destruction-Asia naturally a rich
part of the world-The Turkish port by no means the poorest-The Kara-Kum, or the Black Sands
-The Merv Oasis ... . . . . . 215

Iran or Persia.
A land with famous past-A waste streaked-with green-The Persian woman-The Persian peasantry-
Ruin and desolation-Teheran-The climate of Persia-A lovely spring-The poor-Engineering and
architectural skill-A show of gems-The population . . 227

Thibet, or the Roof of the World.
A great fable-land--Beasts of burden-The dwellings-Legendary ancestors-The wife the head of the
house-Praying a mechanical performance-Great number of monks-A curious bridge .. 239


XX .
Among the Stately Chieftains of India.
Bombay-A world of peoples and races-A magnificent procession-The old capital of the Asiatic world
-Benares, the holy city-The Monkey's Temple-Calcutta, the great Indian metropolis-A bloody
'custom ............ .... .. ..... 251

China, or the Celestial Empire.
Vast extent of territory-Numerous Pagodas-Marriages-Impressive ceremonies-The great wall of
China ..... ***............. ............ 265

The East Indian Islands.
Picturesque houses-Funeral ceremonies-An amusing incident-Idleness regarded as a vice-An
obnoxious habit . . .... . .. 273

The first settlement-A new Colony-Marvelous animals and strange trees-Cannibals-The principal
business of Australia-A busy life-A view of Brighton-New Zealand . ... 280

The Fiji Islands and the Samoan Islands.
A visit to a native village-A Fijian's hair-The Samoan Islands-A long-to-be-remembered Yankee
cheer .... ***.......... ................. 293
In South America.
In the sub-Antarctic zone-In Argentina-The Athens of South America--A perilous subject 297
East and West of the Andes.
Bolivia-An arid tract-Rich silver mines-Products-Peru-Disappointing to the traveler-Sandy and
rocky shores-Lima ................... .... .. 301

Great extent-The largest political part of South America-Plant and animal life-Agricultural products 305
Venezuela and her Neighbors.
Ecuador-Quito, the capital-A remarkable city-Theelovely valley of Chillo-Poor natural highways
-Venezuela-A misnomer-The gold mines . . . . 307
Cuba, the "Queen of the Antilles."
Extent-Products-The city of Havana-The struggle for liberty-Cuban patriots .... 310
The United States of America.
Home again to America, The Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave "-The wealth and
resources of our country , .. .. ,. 317


Washington City.
The hands,:mest city. in all the world-Promiinent institutions-Mechanic.al and manufacturing
industries-History of-the region-The plan ofrthe ciiy-Fine buildings-The 'ashington 319
Monument'-The social centre of distinguished Americans . .
Greater New York.
Creation of Greater New York-The growth of New York--History of the city-A' coismipolitan
c-it- Great buildings-The-art centre of the country-The Brooklyn Bridge-General Grant's
tomb . ... .. '. . 329'

Philadelphia, the City of Independence.
Philadelphia prior to 1825-Its situation-An acknowledged leader' in educational& matters-Gifard
C(ullege-A city of' morality and religion-Places of historic interest-Modern architectural piles.
-The City Hall-The Washington Monument .. .. . 345
Chicago, the Magic City of the World.
Marvelous rapidity of its growth-The centre of transportation-The terminal point of great trunk-
lines of railnway-The great conflagration of 1871-Big and substantial buildings-Attractive
pleasure grouinds-C'hicago)' great industries-The parks and public grounds . 360
New Orleans, the. Metropolis of the South.
History-The largest cotton mart in the wprld-The quaint appearance of New Orleans-Practically
two cities-Climate and subtropial vegetation .... . 371
SSan Francisco, the Metropolis of the Pacific Coast.
History-Giold discovery starts a new era-Its fine buildin_--The city of. Oakland-Popular sights
-Chief imports and expprts-The climate .. .......- ,377
Niagara, the Greatest Waterfall of the World.-Yellowstone National Park.
SOne of the wonders of the earth-The vast volume of water passing over the falls every hour-How
to gain' a proper impression of Nia-,.ra-General -iiew- rhril'll g -o.ries-The falls in wittil--
Tlhe wonlerlaind o1f Am reera-Presered n its natural wildnesi--'l'he muwwnuth Hot Spring--A cliff
of natural glass-The real home of the genus geyser-The cation of the lYllotsto.)e 383
Alaska and the Klondike.
Arctic land of wonders and gold-Its hitLory-The vastness of the land-A surprising climate-
-Strange Indian villages and curious "Totem Poles"-Surprising vegetable and animal life---The
gold-bearin interior 396

The Dominion of Canada.
A vast country-Feder.l Government-- Marvelous progress-The population-Province of Quebec-
Cities-Province .f Ontario-Cities-Ot her pruvinces-Natural scenery-The sportsman's para-
die-Great mep of the Pominion -102

i. 31P*.." .


(Statue of President Garfield in foreground.)



LMOST all travelers visit Paris, yet few really see it.
They stay at the great capital to enjoy its shops
and theatres and to drive in the great park, the
Bois de Boulogne, and they describe it as a charming
modern city, from which the picturesqueness of an
historic past has been utterly obliterated. But,
whilst it is true that much has perished, those who
take the trouble to examine will be surprised to find how
many remnants of past times still exist, more interesting
than those in any provincial town, because the history of
France, more especially of modern France, is so completely
centred in its capital.
Peter the Great said of Paris that if he possessed such a town he
should be tempted to burn it down, for fear it should absorb the rest of
his empire; and the hearts of all Frenchmen, and still more of all French
women, turn to their capital as the wished-for, the most desirable of
residences, the most beautiful of cities, the intellectual, commercial, and
political centre of their country.
Long ago Charles V declared that Paris was not a city, but a world,"
and now it covers an area of thirty square miles, and is the most cosmo-
politan town in Europe, the city to which members of every nationality
are most wont to resort, for interest, instruction, and most of all for
pleasure. Every day brings throngs of strangers to its walls. To most
of these the change from their ordinary life, which is to be found in the
"distraction" of Paris, forms its chief charm, and foreigners delight in
the excess of its contrast to all they are accustomed to. But to French-
men Paris is far more than this: the whole country looks to it as the


mother city, whilst those who are native there can seldom endure a long
separation from it.
However long a stay may be made in Paris, there will always remain
something to be discovered. All tastes may be satisfied, all pleasures
satiated, and to the lovers of historic reminiscence its interest is abso-
lutely inexhaustible.
Those who visit Paris now, and look down the avenues of the Champs
Elysees and gardens which lead to nothing at all, or mourn over the un-
meaning desolate space once occupied by the central facade of the Tuileries.
can scarcely realize the scene as it was before the Revolution of 1871.
Then, between the beautiful chestnut avenues, across-the brilliant flow-
ers and quaint orange trees of the gardens, beyond the sparkling glory
of the fountains, rose the majestic facade of a palace, infinitely harmo-
nious in color, indescribably picturesque and noble in form, interesting
beyond description from its associations, appealing to the noblest and
most touching recollections. All its surroundings led up to it, and were
glorified by it; it was the centre and soul of Paris, the first spot to be
visited by strangers, the one point in the capital which attracted the
sympathies of the world.
It is all gone now. Malignant folly ruined it; apathetic and narrow-
minded policy declined to restore and preserve it.
But the Louvre still remains to us. On the site of a hunting lodge
which Dagobert had built in the woods which then extended to the Seine,
Philippe Auguste, in 1200, erected a fortress, to which St. Louis added
a great hall which was called by his name. As the Louvre stands to-day,
it is the joint achievement of all the great monarchs and great architects
of France. Charles V added towers and a moat; Francis I in part
demolished and rebuilt it; Henry IV united it to the Tuileries. The
great Cardinal Richelieu planned to double its dimensions, and Louis
XIV built the east facade, adorned with twenty-eight Corinthian pillars,
called the Colonnade du Louvre. The first Napoleon shared in the work,
but it remained for Napoleon III to bring it,to its present perfection.
The collections of the Louvre are of various kinds-paintings, draw-
ings, engravings, ancient sculpture, sculpture of the middle ages and
renaissance, modern French sculpture, Assyrian, Egyptian, Greek and
Etruscan antiquities, Algerine museum, marine, ethnographical museum,


collections of enamels and jewels, everything that is beautiful, everything
of historic or artistic interest.
The principal island in the Seine, which in early times bore the name
of Lutece, was the cradle of Paris. The city began to spread beyond
the boundaries of Lutece from Roman times onward. The rays emerging
from this centre have absorbed all the villages in the neighborhood, and
for many miles in every direction all is now one vast and crowded city.
But the island, where the first palaces were grouped around the fisher-
men's huts, has ever been, as it were, the axis of the kingdom, the point

whence the laws were disseminated, and where the metropolitan cathe-
dral has existed for fifteen centuries. In early times two islets broke the
force of the river beyond the point of the Ile de la Cite; they were arti-
ficially united to it, when Androuet du Cerceau was employed to build
the Pont-Neuf, in the reign of Henry III.
The bridge, with its twelve round-headed arches and massive cor-
nice, is most. picturesque, and with the varied outline of tall houses and
the gray cathedral behind it, and the feathery green of its island trees
glittering against the purple shadows in the more distant windings of
the river, it forms the most beautiful scene in the capital. So central


an artery is the Pont-Neuf, that it used to be a saying with the Parisian
police, that if, after watching three days,-they did not see a man cross
the bridge, he must have left Paris.
After the bridge was finished, when Henry IV was at the height of
his popularity, it was decided to erect his statue on the central plat-
form, which was formed by the islets recently united to the mainland.
Franqueville, first sculptor to the king, was employed to make a model
to be sent to Florence for casting by John of Bologna; but when the
great sculptor received the model he began with the horse and died in


Statue of Henry IV. The Louvre.

1608, before he had proceeded farther. It was not till 1635 that the
whole was placed on a magnificent pedestal, guarded at the corners by
four'chained slaves.
The feeling about Henry IV was such that, from the death of the
Grand Dauphin, the people used to carry petitions of complaint to the
foot of the king's statue, and leave them there. In 1789 the people
forced those who passed in carriages to descend and kneel before Henry
IV; this genuflection was inflicted on the Duke of Orleans.
But the great Revolution of 1789 melted down horse and rider alike.


to make cannon. The existing statue, by Lemot, only dates from the
Restoration in 1818, and is made from the bronze of the destroyed
statues of Napoleon in the Place Vendome at Boulogne-sur-mer, together
with that of General Sesaix which stood in the Place des Victoires.
One of the inscriptions on the pedesta" is a copy of that belonging to
the original statue. The reliefs represent Henry IV entering Paris, and
his passing bread over the walls to the besieged citizens.
The Cathedral of Notre Dame.
Of all the noble structures upon the Island of the City, the first in
importance is the cathedral church of Notre Dame, one of the finest
Gothic monuments in existence. The date of this church is variously
given, or rather it has been achieved, like most ancient cathedrals, at
different epochs, beginning in the eleventh century.': The high altar was
consecrated in 1082, and the western front built by Bishop Maurice de
Sully in 1223, the name of the architect being preserved on. the walls; as
Maitre Jehan de Chelles.
The plan of the church is that of a regular cross, with double aisles
surrounding both the choir and the nave, and an octagonal apse east. of
the choir. At the western extremity are two fine and perfectly similar
towers, which form conspicuous objects from most parts of the city, and
were evidently intended to support spires.
By the gradual demolition of the buildings with which it was origi-
nally surrounded-the adjoining palace of the Archbishop of Paris hav-
ing been destroyed by the revolutionary mob so lately as 1831-the
cathedral now stands perfectly detached, and: may be viewed to advan-
tage on all sides, the area caused by the latter event having been re-
cently levelled and planted with trees as far as the river. The space in
front of the cathedral, called the Parvis de Notre Dame, formed on the
demolition of many mean houses by Maurice de Sully, was, till the year
1748, so much elevated above the pavement of the church, that a flight
of thirteen steps was necessary to descend into it. But the ground has
since been lowered to its present gentle slope.
The length of Notre Dame is nearly 400 feet, and the height of the
towers 204 feet, the western side being 128 feet wide. The architecture
is of the purest pointed order, and executed with the greatest care and


delicacy. The three retiring arches of the magnificent portals in the
western front are singularly beautiful in design and rich in statuary.
The rose-windows, retaining
their ancient stained glass,
are also specimens of exquisite
art; but perhaps the most
striking feature of the exterior
Sof Notre Dame, except the
western front, is to be found in
the vast flying buttresses,
fronted by crocketed pinnacles
which spring from the out-
ward walls of the chapels.
To enter minutely into the
history and description of
Notre Dame would fill a vol-
ume. Michelet, the historian
of France, and Gibert, author
of the history of Napoleon,
have done much to illustrate
the metropolitan church; but
of late years the attention of-
the public has been drawn to-
-, .wards it, in a far more inter-

mance of Victor Hugo, Notre
Dame de Paris," -th descripi
tions contained in which are'
as acculatte as they are strik-
ing and picturesque.
It was:.the reception of the
Crown of Thorns front Jean de
Brienne, Emperor of Constan-
tfiipol)le, aid a great portion of
the; True Cross froi-im his successors, Baidoui, which made St. LoUiis detef-
mine to build a shrine worthy to contain them. Pierre de Montereau



was employed as an architect, and the Sainte Chapelle, begun in 1242,
was finished in 1247.
The great height of the building, without visible aisles or transept, is
very striking. The lower part of the north side and part of the chevet
are hidden by modern buildings. The buttresses, which sustain all the
weight of the vaults, rise to the full height of the building between the
windows, and terminate in rich foliated pinnacles. Between them,
gables, richly sculptured, surmount the windows of the upper chapel.
Beneath the fourth window is an oratory, constructed by Louis XI, that
he might hear imiss without, being seen, arid beneath this an oratory
formerly dedicated" to St. Louis. The steeple;is a modern restoration of
one erected by Charles VIII, and burnt in 1630. The-potal is on the
west, facing the buildings of the Ht el du Prefet de Police. Above the
platform over the porch is the great flamboyant rose-window which was
added by Charles VIII, in 1495, surmounted by a balustrade of fleurs-
de-lis, and by turrets on either side of the gable, which contains a
miller rose-wid iow. On the balustrade two anicels crown the chiffre
of King Charles. On the pinnacles hangs the Crown of Thorns.
Thle chapel is a nave with narrow aisles. Forty pillars sustain the
vii1lting, of which the keys, in sculptured chestnut-wood, are very
ire niik atble The windows are cur-ed triangles. The wall decorations
are restorations: from traes of ancient, work. The floor is paved with
thiri't;-fur curious gravestones, chiefly of Canons of the Sainte Cliapelle.
Boileau was buried amongst them. The tombstone of his brother
Jacques still remains here, but the reniains of the poet were removed,
after the Revolution, to St.: Germanin des Pres.
No external stair leids6 t.t the -upper chapel, because it was the royal
oratory opening froer the palace. We ascend, by an inner staircase, to
the platform of the upper porch, a. vast, covered balcony, foriiinig the
real approach, by which the royal .family entered, and counm unicating
on the north with the palace galleries.

Place de la Concorde.
Where the Rue Royale opens towards the Madeleine, we pass the De.
apartment of the Marine and of the Colonies, built (1760-68) by Gabriel,
and reach the Place de la Concorde, stately and beautiful with its


obelisk, fountains and statues, its delightful views down green avenues
to the Louvre on the east and the Arch of Triumph on the west, and
towards the magnificent church of the Madeleine on the north, and the
Chamber of Deputies on the south. The square was made under Louis
XV, and was decorated with his equestrian statue by Bouchardon,
placed on a pedestal surrounded by bas-reliefs and allegorical figures of
the Virtues by Pigalle.
The Legislative Assembly demolished the statue in the Place Louis
XV (1792), and replaced it by a. statue of Liberty. Soon, however, the


square took the name of Placede la Revolution, and, under the Reign
of Terror; the scaffold was permanently established: there;. Thus. the
.most terrible memories of the great Revolution are concentrated on this
spot, where 2,800 persons perished between January 21, 1793, and May
3, 1795. The fountain on the south side, decorated with figures em-
blematic of Marine Navigation, marks the exact spot where Louis XVI
died, January 21, 1793.
The king was taken to death in a carriage, the queen in a cart. On
October 31, 1793, the weird death procession of the Girondins reached
the Place, Even in that cruel time,.sympathy was aroused by.the.


death of Madame Roland, on November 10, 1793. May 9, 1794, saw
the execution of Madame Elizabeth. On July 28, 1794, Robespierre
paid the penalty of his crimes.
The Obelisk of the Place de la Concorde, brought from Luxor, Egypt,
and given. to France by Mehemet Ali, was erected here by Louis
Philippe, in 1836. It is covered with hieroglyphics celebrating Rame-
ses II, or Sesostris, who reigned in the Fourteenth Century before Christ.
The history of its transport from Egypt is represented upon the pedestal.
It was at the foot of this Obelisk, on the spot where Louis XVI died,
that Louis Philippe and Marie Amelie, flying on foot by.the gardens

before the popular invasion of the Tuileries, on February 24, 1848, waited
in agony for their carriages.
Two groups of sculpture by Guillaume Coustou, known as Les Che-
vaux de Marly, decorate the entrance to the noble promenade originally
called "Le Grand Cours," but which has been known as Les Champs
Elysees since the time of Louis XV. It extends from the Place de la
Concorde to the Arch of Triumph, and is the favorite afternoon walk of
the fashionable world of Paris, where the badaud, or Freinch cockney, is
seen in perfection,



Behind the :principal avenues are ranges of exhibition booths, and
caf6-concerts, which attlnact an humbler crowcd. Here idolizing parents
will stand for hours to watch their petit- bons homes caracoling on
wooden horses, while the maid in a snowy cap holds the babies.
On the left of the Champs
Elysees is the Palais d'in-
dustrie, built (1852-55) for
the great Exhibition, and
used since for the annual
a bExhibition of Painting and
n :' .Sculpture.

Sis7 The Largest Triumphal Arch
in the World.
It The Champs Elysoes are:
Closed by the huge Arch of
Triumlph, one of the four
triumphal arches which NTa-
p oleon I intended to erect
in comnmemoration of his:
( victories, and-which he be--
I : gi in fromi- designs. of Chal-
grin, in 1806, though th;e
work was not c)nlom-lletedl till
18 36, lonw after founder and
architect. had passed away.
It. is the largest. tiiin.,hail
arh: in the world, the arch
itself bei ng90 feet high and
........45 feet widcle. The groups of'
THE GENIUS OF WAR -SUMMONING THE NATIONS TO sCll.,tlre which a(lorn itf are
Sby Rude; Col'tot, and, Etexi:
that by Rude, of the Genius of War summoning tlhe nations to arms, is
the best. There is, however, nothing fine about thle arch except its size.
It is far too narrow for its height, and the fripl:,ery ornament along the
top of the structure destroys' all grandness of outline.f: The hugeness of


the building is in itself a disfigurement, and like the giant statues in St.
Peter's at Rome, it puts all its surroundings out of proportion.
There are many points in Paris, many facts and phases of Parisian
life, which interest strangers, whilst they pass unnoticed by those who
live amongst them, for differences always excite more attention than
similitudes, and no one thinks it worth while to describe what he sees
every day-mnnuers, customs, or appearances, with which he has been
familiar from childhood. To a foreigner, especially to one who has never

"1814." NAPOLEON.
From a Painting by J. L. E. Meissonier.

left his own country before, half an hour spent on the boulevards or on
one of the chairs in the Tuileries. gardens has the effect of an infinitely
diverting theatrical performance, whilst, even to a customary observer,
it will seem as if the great object of French men and women in every
class were to make life as easy and pleasant as possible-to ignore its
present and to forget its past troubles as much as they can.
An old proverb says that "Paris is the paradise of women, the pur-


gatory of men, and the hell of horses." But however true the first of
these dictums may be, its bad reputation in the last instance has long
been a tale of the past..
Nowhere is existence cheaper than at Paris for those who know how
to manage. A bachelor who does not mind mounting five pairs of stairs
may have a charring little apartment for about five dollars a week.
At the smaller private hotels an admirably furnished room, with. break-
fast, lights, and attendance, seldom comes to mIore than sevie or eight
dollars. At the admirable restaurants which are scattered everywhere
over the town, an excellent dinner with coffee costs from forty t.o fifty
cents. Carriages are'reasonable, omnibuses ply in all directions, upon
the most. admirable and equiittable of systems, and a complete circle
of railways co(nnetts the city with its environs, containing a thousand
charming spots, which the Parisian of the middle classes can choose for
the point of the Sunday excursion which he almost invariably makes
into the country. :
But if one would see the rest of the world lie must not linger too long
in Paris.
A visit, to the Opera House, to climb its magnificent marble staircase,
and loiter in its stately vestibule; an excursion to Versailles; and yet
a few intoxicating days, that ever tend to grow to weeks, in exploring
the historic or modern city; and so-Farewell. Queen Paris.


HE "Pillars of Hercules!" The portals of the An-
eient World! To how many a traveler just begin-
iing to tire of his few days' journey from England,
or but slowly recovering, it may be, in his tranquil
.voyage along the coasts of Portugal and Southern
Spain, from the effects of thirty unquiet. hours in the
Bay of Biscay, has the nearing; view of this mighty
landmark of history brought a passage of new life!
That distant, point ahead, at which the narrowing
waters of the Strait. that bear him disappl:ear en-
tirely within the clasp of the embracing shores, is for many such a
traveler the beginning of romance. He gazes upon it from the westward
with some dim reflection of that mysterious awe with which antiquity
looked upon it from the East. The progress of the ages has, in fact,
transposed the centre of human interest and the human point of view.
Now, as in the Homeric era, the Pillars of Hercules form the gateway of
a world of wonder; but for us of to-day it is within, and not without,
those portals that that world of wonder lies. To the eye of modern poetry
the Atlantic and Mediterranean have changed places. It is to the basin
of the Mediterranean, fringed with storied cities and venerable ruins, with
the crumbling sanctuaries of a creed which has passed away, and the
monuments of an art, which is imperishable, that man turns to-day.
The genius of civilization has journeyed far to the westward, and has
passed through strange experiences; it returns with new reverence and
a deeper a.we to those shores in mid-Europe which are its birthplace,


and which are hallowed with the memories of its glorious youth. Let us
enter the historic gateway! let us delight in the choicest beauties of the
Mediterranean coasts!
A Nook of Sweet Tranquillity.
There are few more enchanting sights than that of the Bay of
Tangier, as it appears at sunrise to the traveler whose steamer has
dropped down the Straits of Gibraltar in the afternoon and evening,
hours of the previous day, and cast anchor after nightfall at the nearest
point off shore to which a vessel of any draught can approach. No-

where in the world does a nook of such sweet tranquillity receive,
and for a season quiet, the hurrying waters of so restless a sea. The
blue waters of the bay, now softly flushing at the approach of sun-
rise, break lazily in mimic waves and tender, curving lines of creamy.
spray" upon the shining beach. To the right lies the city, spectral in
the dawn, save where the delicate pale ivory of some of its higher houses
is warming into faintest rose; while over all, over sea and shore and city,-
is the immersing crystal atmosphere ofAfrica, in which every rock, _very
ripple, every housetop, stands out as sharp and clear as the filigree work
of winter on a frosted pane,


Nothing in Tangier, it must be honestly admitted, will compare with
the approach to it by its incomparable bay. In another sense, too, there
is nothing here or elsewhere which exactly resembles this "approach,"
since its last stage of all has to be performed alike, foreman and woman,
unless man is prepared to wade knee-deep in the clear, blue water, on
the back of a sturdy Moor. The traveler will find that the pictur-
esqueness of Tangier diminishes rather than increases on a nearer view.
The point to which every visitor directs his steps is the Bab-el-Sok, the
gate of the market place, where the scene to be witnessed at early
morning presents an unequaled picture of Oriental life. Crouching
camels with their loads of dates, chaffering traders, chattering women,
sly and servile-looking Jews from the city, fierce-eyed, heavily armed
children of the desert, rough-coated horses and lank-sided mules; with-
ered crones squatting in groups by the wayside, tripping damsels ogling
the "yashmak" as they pass, and the whole enveloped in a blinding,
bewildering, choking cloud of such dust as only Africa can produce. Let
the reader piet teic to himself such a scene with such accessories, and he
will know what spectacle awaits him at early morning at the Bab-el-Sok

A: Place of Fabulous Antiquity.
Malaga as a seaport and place of settlement can clainiw almost
fabulous antiquity. It was first fhonded by the Phenicians, three
thousand years ago, and- a continuous, existence of thirty, centuries
fully plroves the wisdom of their choice. Its name is said to be
Phoenician, and is differently derived from a word meaning salt, and
another which would distinguish it as "the king's town." From the
earliest ages Malaga did a thriving business in salt fish; its chief product
and export were the same anchovies and the small boquerones, not unlike
an English white-bait, which are still the most. highly prized delicacies
of the Malaga fish market. Southern Spain was among the richest and
most valued of Phoenician possessions. It was a mine of wealth to
them, probably the Tarshish of Biblical history, from which they drew
such vast supplies of the precious metals that their ships carried silver
anchors. Hiram, King of Tyre, was a sort of goldsmith to Solomon,
furnishing the wise man's house with such stores of gold and silver
utensils that silver was "accounted nothing therein," as we read in the


First Book of Kings. When the star of Tyre ,aid Sidon; waned, and
Carthage became the great commercial centre of the Mediterranean, it
controlled the mineral wealth of Spain and .traded largely with Malaga,
\Later, when Spain: passed entirely into Roman hands, this, southern
province of Boetica grew more and more valuable, and the wealth of
the country passed through its ports eastward to the great marts of the
world. Malaga, however, was never the equal either in wealth or'com-
mercial importance of its more eastern and more happily placed neighbor,
Almeria. The latter was the once famous "Portus Magnus" or Great

---. --- ..
_II i .i-


Port, which monopolized most of the maritime traffic with Italy and the
more distant East. But Malaga rose in prosperity as Roman settlers
crowded into Boetica, and Rouman remain s excavated in and around the
town attest the size and importance of the place under the Romans. It
was a municipium, had .a fine amphitheatre, the foundations of which
were laid bare long afterwards in building a convent, while many bronzes,
fragments of statuary, and Roman coins found. from time to time prove
the intimate relations, between Malaga and the then Mistress of the



At the First Seaport of France.'
Except the view of -Montreal and the St. Lawrence Rapids from
Mont Royal, hardly a town view in the world equals, for beauty arid
variety, that of Marseilles from Notre Dame de la Garde, on a clear
spring morning.
Close at our feet lies the city itself, filling upithe whole wide valley
with its mass, and spreading out long arms of faubourg, or roadw-ay, up
the lateral openings. Beyond rise the great white limestone hills, dotted
about like mushrooms, with their glittering bastides. In front lies the
sea, the blue Mediterranean, with that treacherous smile which has so
often deceived us all the day before we trusted ourselves too rashly, with
ill-deserved confidence, upon its heaving bosom. Near the shore the
waves chafe the islets and the Chateau d'If; then comes the Old Port and
the busy basins; and beyond them all, the Chain of Estaques, rising,
grim and gray, in serrated outline, against the western horizon. A beau-
tiful prospect, though barren, and treeless, for nowhere in the world are
mountains barer than those great white guardians of the. Provencal
In every town, however, the best of all sights is the town itself: and
nowhere on earth is this truism truer than at Marseilles. After one has
climbed Notre Dame,. and explored the Prado, and smiled at the Chateau
d'Eau, and stood beneath the frowning towers of St. Victor, one returns
once more with real pleasure and interest, to the crowded Cannebiere,
and sees the full tide of human life flow eaigeily on down that picturesque
boulevard. That, after all; is the main picture that Marseilles always
leaves photographed on the viisitor's memory. How eager, how keen,
how vivacious is the talk; how fiery the eyes; how emphatic the ges-
ture! With what teemiing energy, with what feverish haste, the great
city pours forth its hu r1.y1ing thousIand I! With what endless spirit they
move up and down in uiceasing march upon its clattering pavements!
There is something of Greek quiickness and Greek intelligence left even
now about the old Phocsean colony. A Marseillais crowd has to this very
day something of the sharp Hellenic wit. .
Seen from the sea, Marseilles is indeed superb. The whole Mediter-
ranean has hardly a finer allproach to a great town to display before
the eyes of the artistic traveler.
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Unlike many of the old Mediterranean towns, Marseilles has not. only
a past, but a future. She lives and will live. In the middle of, this
century, indeed, it might almost have seemed to a careless, observer as
if the Mediterranean were "played out." And so in part, no doubt, it
really is; the tracks of commerce and international intercourse have
shifted to wider seas and vaster waterways.
We shall never again find that inland basin ringed round by a girdle
of the great merchant cities that do the carrying trade and finance
of the world. Our area has widened, so that New York, Rio, San
Francisco, Yokohama, Shanghai, Calcutta, Bombay, and Melbourne have
taken the place of Syracuse, Alexandria, Tyre and Carthage, of Florence,
Genoa, Venice and Constantinople. But in spite of this cramping change
a certain number of Mediterranean ports have lived on uninterruptedly,
by force of position, from one epoch to the other. Venice has had its
faint revival of recent years; Trieste has had its rise; Barcelona,
Algiers, Smyrna, Odessa, have grown into great harbors for cosmopolitan
Of this new and rejuvenescent Mediterranean, girt round by the fresh
young nationalities of Italy and the Orient, and itself no longer an in-
land sea, but linked by the Suez canal with the Indian Ocean, and so
turned into the main highway of the nations between East and West,
Marseilles is still the key and the capital. That proud position the
Phocean city is not likely to lose.
And as the world is wider now than ever, the new Marseilles is perforce
a greater and a wealthier town than was the old one in its proudest
days. Where tribute came once from North African, Levantine, and
Italian coasts alone, it comes now from every shore of Europe, Asia,
Africa and America, with Australia and the Pacific isles thrown in as
an afterthought. Regions Casar never knew enrich the good Greeks of
the Quai de la Fraternite: brown, black, and yellow men whom his
legions never saw, send tea and silk, cotton, corn, and tobacco to the
crowded warehouses of the Cannebiere and the Rue de la R6publique.
Here they crowd and jostle and push each other, each contributing
his portion to the growing prosperity, each one a link between the old
Greek city and the new world.


The Toilers of the Sea.
One of the most important of the few industries of Sardinia is the
tunny fishery. When Spain ruled in the island it was worth much
more that it is at present. Since then it has been'grievously neglected,
though in the last few decades its value has begun again to be recog-
From first to last the taking and potting of the tunny is an affair of
much tact and patience. The net or snare into which the wandering
herds of fish are enticed has to be of immense size, dexterous construc-
tion, and irreproachable strength. It is of two parts: the one an outer
framework of palmetto or esparto grass, made fast by cables and a
tether of hugh stones; and the other an inner drag net, by means of
which the fish are eventually brought near to' the surface. This is the
slaughterers' moment, and.a wild enough scene it is, when the great fish
are thus at the mercy of the men who have been nominated to stand on
two of the sides of the great boats which pen the fish, waiting the word
of command from the "rais," or superintendent, to drive their iron
hooks into the glittering bodies of their victims.
At last the supreme moment arrives. There are the tunny lashing
each other with their powerful tails as they try to move freely in their
restricted quarters. The water within the square is all in a boil. The
spray is shot right and left so vigorously that the spectators are soon
drenched, and it rises high in the air like the spouting from a hundred
The slaughterers have dressed themselves in cotton from head to foot.
Well they may, for in a few moments they are red all over with the
blood of the dead and dying fish. These they stab with their "crocchi,"
or hooked poles, and draw from the water into the roomy holds of the
barges, which cut off all chance of escape for the fish, It is not child's
play, though of actual danger there is none, save that of a blow from
the tail of the fish as it is being urged into the boat. And so the
work proceeds until the gory sea within the enclosure is divested
of its tenants. Then the men leap into the water upon the other
side, and swim about until they and their cottons are a more pre-
sentable color.


In Genova La Superba.
Genoa the Proud is an epithet not inappropriate for this city of mer-
chant princes of olden days, which was once the emporium of the Tyr-
rhenian as was Venice of the Adriatic sea, and the rival of the latter for
the commerce of the Eastern Mediterranean. No two cities, adapted to
play a similar part in history, could be more unlike in their natural en-
vironments. Venice clustered on a series of mud banks, parted by an
expanse of water from a low coast-line, beyond which the far-away moun-
tains rise dimly in the distance, a fleet, as it were, of houses anchored
in the shadows of the Adriatic; Genoa stretching along the shore by
the deepening water, at the very feet of the Apennines, climbing up their
slopes, and crowning their lower summits with its. watch-towers. No
seaport in Italy possesses a site so rich in natural beauty, not even
Spezzia in its bay, for though the scenery in the neighborhood certainly
surpasses that around Genoa, the town is built upon an almost level
plain; not even Naples itself, notwithstanding the magnificent sweep
of its bay, dominated by the volcanic cone of Vesuvius, and bounded by
the limestone crags of the range of Monte St. Angelo.
In Genoa, except for a narrow space along the shore, one can hardly
find a plot of level ground. Now that the old enclosed limits have been
passed, it is still growing upward; but beyond and above the farthest
houses the hills are still crowned by fortresses, keeping watch and ward
over the merchant city. For a season, indeed, there was more to be
protected than merchandise, for, till lately, Genoa was the principal
arsenal of the Italian kingdom; but this has now been removed to
Spezzia.. Italy, however, does not seem to feel much confidence in that
immunity from plunder which has been sometimes accorded to "open
towns," or in the principles of the peacemongers, and appears to take
ample precautions that an enemy in command of the sea shall not thrust
his hand into a full purse without a good chance of getting nothing
better than crushed fingers. Its semicircular harbor is defended by two
converging moles. Viewed from the harbor the city rises like an
amphitheatre, with its churches, palaces, promenades and gardens, en-
circled by fortifications, the summits, of the Apennines crowning .a
picture all of which is beautiful.



A Glance at the Capital of Sicily.
To the traveler fresh from Girgenti and its venerable ruins, or from
Syracuse, with its classic charm, the first impressions of Palermo
may very likely prove disappointing. Especially will they be so. if he
has come with a mind full of historic enthusiasm, and a memory
laden, with the records of Greek colonization, Saracen dominion, and
Norman conquest, and expecting to find himself face to face with the
relics and remainder of, at any rate, the modern period of the three.
For Palermo is emphatically what the guide-books are accustomed to

describe as "a handsome modern city," which means, as most people
familiar with Latin countries are but too well aware, a city as like any
number of other Continental cities, built and inhabited by Latin ad-
mirers and devotees of Parisian" civilization,"' as "'two peas in pod."
But the environs of the city, which are of peculiar interest and attrac-
tion, invite us, and. first among these is Monreale, at a few miles' dis-
tance, a suburb to which the traveler ascends.by a road commanding at
every turn some new and striking prospect of the bay. On one hand,
as he leaves the town, lies the Capuchin Monastery, attractive, with its
catacombs of munimitied ex-citizens of Palermo, to the lover of the grue-


some rather than the picturesque. Farther on is the pretty Villa Tasca,
then Le Rocca, whence by a winding road of very ancient construction
we climb the royal mount crowned by the famous Cathedral and. Bene-
dictine Abbey of Monreale. Here are mosaics, as fine in quality and in
even greater abundance than those which decorate the interior of Cap-
pella Palatina. From the Cathedral we pass into the beautiful cloisters,
and thence into the fragrant orange garden, from which another delight-
ful view of the valley toward Palermo is. obtained. A steep path
branching off to the right from Monreale leads to a deserted fort, named
II Castellaccio, from which the road descends as far as San Martino,
whence a pleasant journey back to Palermo is made through the pictur-
esque valley of Bocca di Falco.
The Phoenicians founded at Palermo their first colony in Sicily. Its
inhabitants were the first Sicilians attacked by the Carthaginians, whom
they held at bay for nearly, a century. Its varying fortunes since
passing into Roman hands, 254 B. C., form one of the most interesting
chapters in the history of Europe.

The Most Important Naval Station of Austria.
Pola is a place of great antiquity. No one knows when it: was
founded or by whom. A legend attributes it to colonists from Colchis
who were in pursuit of Jason; but this will not avail with modern
skeptics. It was at any rate founded before the Romans conquered
Istria, two centuries before the Christian era. Even then it was a
town of importance, but later it was almost destroyed by Julius Caesar,
as a penalty for having taken the side of Pompey. Prosperity, how-
ever, returned with Augustus, who made it a Roman colony, and
gave it the name of Pietas Julia, in honor of his daughter. It was a
place of gloomy memories to the Constantine family. To Pola, Crispus,
eldest, son of Constantine the Great, was brought a captive, and there he
perished by an unknown mode of death, one thing only being clear, that
it was not a natural one. At Pola, also some years later, Gallus, the
nephew of the emperor, was executed by the order of his cousin; Constan-
tine. In later times we read of the fleet of Belisarius lying at anchor in
the ~harbor, waiting to carry the imperial army to Italy to do battle with
the Goth. But in the middle ages its history is,-like that of the other




seaports on the Eastern Adriatic, by no means one of uninterrupted
peace, though without episodes of general interest, till at last, in the
present century, it passed finally into the hands of Austria. It is now a
comparatively large town, but as it is near some tracts of marshy land,
it is said to be a rather unhealthy one.
The glory of Pola is its amphitheatre, which is situated on the northern
side of the town, and recalls the savage sports of its Roman builders.
This is remarkable in more than one respect. It is a massive oval wall,
pierced, as usual, with openings. This is only the shell of the ancient
building. In the amphitheatres at Rome and at Verona much of the
interior still remains, though part of the exterior has been quarried
away. At Nismes and at Aries both the one and the other are still
fairly perfect; at Pola, corridors, staircases, seats, have all disappeared,
with the exception of a few shapeless masses of masonry which protrude
from the sward, and only this enormous ring of arches still remains in
solitary grandeur.
In the City of the Doges.
So long as Venice is unvisited, a new sensation is among the possi-
bilities of life. There is no town like it in Europe. Amsterdam has its
canals, but Venice is all canals;. Genoa has its palaces, but in Venice
they are more numerous and more beautiful. Its situation is unique,
on a group of islands in the calm lagoon. But the Venice of to-day is
not the Venice of thirty years ago. Even then a little of the old romance
had gone, for a long railway viaduct had linked it to the mainland.
In early days it could be reached only by a boat, for a couple of miles
of salt water lay between the city and the marshy border of the Paduan
The death of Rome was indirectly the birth of Venice. Here in the
great days of the Empire there was not, so far as we know, even a village.
Invaders came, Aquileia went up in flames, the cities of the Paduan
delta trembled before the hordes of savage Huns, but the islands of its
coast held out a hope of safety. What in those days these camps of
refuge must have been can be inferred from the islands which now border
the mainland, low, marshy, overgrown by thickets, and fringed by reeds;
they were unhealthy, but only accessible by intricate and difficult chail-

.... 41



nels, with little to tempt the spoiler, and therefore supplied a place of
security from the savage invaders.
It was some time before Venice took the lead among these scattered
settlements. It became the centre of government in the year 810, but
it was well-nigh two centuries before the Venetian State attained to any
real eminence. Toward this, the first and perhaps the most important
step was crushing the Istrian and Dalmatian pirates. This enabled the
Republic to become a great "Adriatic and Oriental Company," and to
get into its hands the carrying trade to the East. She did battle with
Genoa for commercial supremacy, with the Turk for existence. She was
too strong for the former, but the latter at last wore her out, and Lepanto
was one of her latest and least fruitful triumphs. Still, it was not till
the end of the sixteenth century that a watchful eye could detect the
symptoms of senile decay. Then Venice tottered gradually to her grave.

A Motley Collection of All Nations.
The great thoroughfare of Alexandria, a fine street running in a
straight line from the western gate of the city to the Place Mehemet
Ali, is within a few minutes of the quay. A sudden turn and this
strange mingling of Eastern and Western life bursts upon the
spectator's astonished gaze. This living diorama, formed by the bril-
liant and ever-shifting crowd, is in its way unique. A greater,
variety of nationalities is collected here than even in Constantinople or
cosmopolitan Algiers. Let us stand aside and watch this motley collec-
tion of all nations, kindreds, and races pouring along this busy highway.
The kaleidoscopic variety of brilliant color and fantastic costume seems
at first a little bewildering. Solemn and impassive-looking Turks
gently ambling past on gaily caparisoned asses, grinning negroes from
the Nubian hills, melancholy-looking fellahs in their scanty blue kaftans,
cunning-featured Levantines, green-turbaned Shereefs, and picturesque
Bedouins from the desert stalking along in their flowing bernouses
make up the mass of this restless throng. Interspersed, and giving
variety of color to this living kaleidoscope, are gorgeously arrayed Jews,
fierce-looking Albanians, their many-colored sashes bristling with
weapons, petticoated Greeks, and then a group of Egyptian ladies, their
faces as well as their rich attire, concealed under the inevitable yashmak


surmounting the balloon-like trousers. And now we may proceed -to
visit the orthodox sights, but we have seen the greatest sight Alexandria
has to show us.
The Place Mehemet All, usually called, for the sake of brevity, the
Grand Square, is close at hand. This is the centre of the European
quarter, and round it are collected the banks, consular offices, and prin-
cipal shops. This square, the focus of the life of modern Alexandria, is
appropriately named after the founder of the present dynasty, and the
creator of the Egypt of to-day. In the middle of the square stands a
handsome equestrian statue of Mehemet All, which is, in one respect,
probably unique. The Mohammedan religion demands the strictest
interpretation of the injunction in the decalogue against making "to
thyself any graven image," and consequently a statue to a follower of
the creed of Mahomet is rarely seen in a Mohammedan country.

On Holy Ground.
To the Israelite, "the forest of his Carmel," "the excellency of
Carmel," expressed his highest idea of woodland beauty and moun-
tain grandeur; to those who recall the Alps or the Pyrenees it is
insignificant; but for ordinary hill scenery it is undoubtedly fine.
Alas! the forests that partially covered it thirty years ago are
now utterly destroyed by the reckless axe, to supply charcoal for the
silk factories of Lebanon. Still the plains on either side remain the
same, and they are truly vast; and the tiers of distant hills are so
numerous and varied in outline, that, bare as Carmel now is, the scenery
can never be called tame. The highest point of the.ridge is 1750 feet
above the sea, but the monastery on the western bluff is only 500 feet
up. Yet from its roof we gain one of the finest views in Palestine. To
the south the whole coast-line can be traced, a fertile fringe to Carmel's
mantle, with a hem of sand, and a lace-edging of spray, dotted by the
lonely fragment of the ruins at Athlit, and beyond it by the mounds of
Tantura, with the dislocated remains of Caesarea in the dim distance.
At our feet, to the northward, is spread the broad Bay of Acre, and the
dark-green plain beyond, with the white city of Acre looking like the
farther horn of the crescent. Beyond it, the white headland of Ras-en-
Nakura, the ladder 'of 'Tyre, closes the 'sea-view northward; But


above it rises the distant snow-clad Lebanon, almost lost in the clouds;
while to the east, Tabor and Hermon, with the dark hills of Galilee in a
confused and crowded mass, bound the half-hidden plain of Esdraelon.
The heights of Carmel behind us shut out the hill region of Samaria and
Central Palestine.
We descend again into the monastery, a cheerful and welcome hospice,
entirely modern, raised by the indomitable energy of Fra Battista, fifty
years ago, after the Turks had swept away every vestige of the old
monastery, on the spot where Pythagoras is said to have sojourned and
meditated. But the worthy friars are firmly convinced. that this is also
the very spot where Elijah sacrificed, and where the Godhead of Jehovah
was proved before assembled Israel.






S .HAT is there great in history that does not touch
l or approach Egypt? As a modern writer says:
S"The Bible, Homer, Philosophy, the Sciences;.
Greece, Rome, Christianity; the monks, Islam-
'-' ism; the Crusades, the French Revolution;
Abraham, Socrates, Moses, Helen, Alexander
Pompey, Coesar, Cleopatra, Origen, Athanasius,
Saladin, Napoleon! What names! what con-
trasts! Moses issues from Egypt; Pythagoras,
Ci Plato, Lycurgus, Solon, Herodotus, Strabo and
Tacitus enter into her bosom to be initiated
into her laws."
Crossing the Mediterranean, the moment one sees the
light-house of Alexandria (on the site of the ancient Pharos), it is felt that
we are in a new world. America and Europe have disappeared from our
view. As we anchor in the harbor a dozen .boats at once surround us,
peopled with nearly all the races and colors of the world. What a Babel
in miniature! Brown, yellow, red, black and white; turban, fez, hat,
pantaloons, Turkish trousers, rags and bare legs; all shouting, jabbering,
scolding, begging backshish, pushing and fighting, over and around us
and. our baggage. Sticks are used, as freely as tongues; a club, a chain.
and a pipe might be taken for the symbols of modern Egypt.
Alexandria is the most dismal city in the world; curious and inter-


testing only at the first glance. Houses jutting out, each story farther
than the one below; almost meeting above, across the narrow streets.
Strings of camels, and countless donkeys, bestrode by turbaned, or un-
turbaned, long-faced, long-bearded men, or led in waiting for riders;
above all, screaming, scolding, braying, and barking of dogs, all day
long;-but hushed for a time with the falling of night. Near midnight,
again come shouts or yells, not easily distinguished from the howling of
dogs and the long-drawn see-saw of the braying of asses. The donkey
is the nightingale of Egypt.
With dawn comes the tolling and chiming of bells, and the renewal
of all the noises of the daytime. One should see in Alexandria Pom-
pey's Pillar, with which Pompey had nothing to do; and (formerly, not
now, as it has gone to England) Cleopatra's Needle, a thousand or two
years older than Cleopatra; the Catacombs, and the Palace of the Khe-
dive, with halls and gardens like the Arabian Nights, and filled with
furniture fresh from Paris.
Along the Nile.
Leaving Alexandria, and traveling along the Nile on an English-built
railroad, we pass thousands of clay-built villages and Arab and Turkish
towns, thronged with population, before we reach Cairo; El Kahirah, the
magnificent, which is, except Damascus, the most Oriental city in the
world. It, too, has narrow streets, with houses whose upper stories ap-
proach each other; they are thronged with people from all the continents;
with camels, donkeys, and now and then a carriage of some wealthy
people. Before these run Arab men, calling out 0, ah, mareglek, she-
maluk, 0, ah!" "Get out of the way, right, left, out of the way!"
Horses are much less used for riding in Egypt than donkeys. Every
donkey has a boy to attend it; and those donkey-boys are as wide-awake
to fun and mischief as the gains of Paris or the newsboys and boot-
blacks of New York or Philadelphia.
All travelers visit the Tombs of the Kings, and those of the Caliphs;
they are much more imposing than the modern cemeteries.
The bazaars of Cairo display a great variety of merchandise; but are
amazingly slow in purchasing, unless you would pay five prices for every-
The mosques of this Mohammedan city are four hundred in number.


One must visit at least the finest, that of Sultan Hassan, and the ala-
baster mosque of Mehemet Ali. The Citadel, too, must be seen; it
was the fortress of Saladin, the Moslem hero of the Crusades; the place,
also, later, of the treacherous massacre of the Mameluke Chiefs, and the
romantic escape of Emin Bey, by leaping his horse over the brow of a
parapet. Wanting horrors, such at least to people who have nerves, you
may go to see the howling and whirling dervishes.

At the Pyramids.
The Pyramids may be visited from Cairo, or as a digression from the
Nile journey. What shall we say of -them? They are older than
Abraham, who looked upon them when in Egypt; their erection was the
work of more than 100,000 men through twenty years; they were meant
to be tombs of kings; but Cheops and Cephrenes were detested by their
people so much that they were never buried in them. In a land with-
out mountains, they express the aspiration of men for something higher
than themselves; and, most of all when seen from a distance, they have
an aspect almost of sublimity. This is mingled with a sense of
reflective wonder, when, near the Great Pyramid, we gaze on the stony
face of the gigantic, more than half sand-buried, Sphinx.
The traveler's pleasure in visiting the Pyramids is lessened much by
the annoyance of the Bedouin Arabs; who beset one constantly, offering
services, needed or not, and begging backshish. This begging is the
pest of the howadji (traveler) everywhere. One is not, indeed, greatly
impressed with the character of the population of Egypt. A facetious
writer classifies them thus: the camels are the higher class; next come
the donkeys; then the Turks and Arabs, the Coptic (so-called) Chris-
tians, and, lowest, the Fellaheen, or native Egyptian common people;
except that, lower yet are the dogs of the country; the meanest brutes
in all creation. Yet the Arab men, at least, in their Oriental costume,
are often very noble-looking. The women, when their faces are now
and then uncovered by their veils, show beauty so very rarely, that one
is content to bear resignedly the custom which nakes it more immodest
for them to exhibit the face than the knees. Their figures are tall and
straight, made more so by carrying jars of water or other burdens on
their heads.


A Trip Up the Nile.
:At Cairo we choose our dragoman, and engage our dl/iab:eyee'h, the
native boat, to enjoy to the full a trip up the river Nile. One may do it
much more quickly on a steamer, but that is only prose; the dahabeeyeh
trip is poetry. The writer's dahabeeyeh was 70 feet long and 16 feet
wide, with a cabin and small staterooms, accommodating a party of five.
It was manned by 14 men, including the "reis," or captain, a 'mate or
pilot,a cook, and an Arab waiter. There were half a dozen shades of
color among these; some were Nubians, other Arabs, but not a genuine
negro in the number. They were lazy fellows, and now and then our
captain had to whip one of them for refusing to work. When the wind
filled our lateen sail, we moved briskly up the river; otherwise the men
went ashore and dragged the boat very slowly along. The sky is al-
ways cloudless over Egypt; but the Nile gives enough moisture to make
the winter climate that of Paradise. Bichanan Read's poem, Drifti rig,"
is charming; it was written in remembrance of the Bay of Naples. But
not Naples, Capri, and Ischia, nor even the gondolas of Venice, can
give such a sense of gliding luxury; since they have no such sky and
atmosphere as one has while sitting on the deck of a Nile boat, sipping,
it may be, Mocha coffee, and listening to crocodile stories told by a reis
or dragoman. Sometimes a storm. may come, but only one of. wind.
Native fishermen's boats are often capsized; but the journey is free
from danger to life. Coming back from the upper Nile, descending the
cataract between two long walls of rock, it has a terrific look, and boats
are sometimes injured; but there is, with skilful navigation, little
real peril.
Serpents once abounded in this country. They were, as shown by the
monuments, at least the horned snake, sacred in ancient Egypt. Snake
charmers were once numerous, performing especially on, the daly cele-
brated as the birthday of Mohammed. They, like the serpents, even
the asp of Cleopat.ra, are, with the crocodiles, disappearing from the
The Animals of Egypt.
The animals of Egypt are mostly ugly. Every one knows the camel's
profile; it has little beauty,- although picturesque at a distance on a
level desert land. .Instead of the ox there is the buffalo; a long-necked,



long-legged, awkward animal, whose chief talent is for swimming. The
Egyptian goats, sheep and dogs are all of the color of the mnid-of the
river banks. Even the birds of Egypt are without brilliant colors;
white, as the sacred ibis, or black, gray, brown, and dull yellow, are
their hues. Birdsare very numerous in the Nile region. Hundreds of
flocks of wild ducks, geese and brant are seen flying overhead, north-
ward, constantly in February, to meet the coming Spring. Other birds
are the eagles, vultures, cormorants, hawks, owls, ravens, pelicans,
herons, cranes, curlews, snipe; sparrows, even, in the towns, as tame
almost as flies; and pigeons everywhere, encouraged to occupy nests,
sometimes nest-houses, built for them on the houses of the people.
The horses which we saw were rather small. The famous Arab breed
was represented here and there, ridden by Bedouins coming in from the
desert, or sometimes covered with trappings of the rich, in or near Cairo.
As we passed along the windings of the river, we were constantly
delighted with the vivid greenness and luxuriance of the crops upon its
banks. They were of rice, wheat, cotton, corn (our maize), sugar cane,
bucnkwheat, lentils, luceine and tobacco. Here and there a palm grove
varied most attractively the scene, and gave it character. Often, under
the palms, were low, clay-built hovels of the villages, among which rose
occasionally a tall, straight minaret, with the companion dome of a
Mountains, properly so called, Egypt has not. But, along the river
here and there, are rocky elevations, three or four hundred feet in height,
and sometimes very steep. .Gebel Aboofaydah is one of the most pictur-
esque of these.
Our Nile boatmen seemed to us like grown-up, lazy children. They
never worked when they could eat, and never ate when they could sleep
or smoke. Their food was bread dried for two weeks in the sun, and
dipped, as they sat cross-legged on the deck around a great bowl, in lentil
soup or gruel. Sugar cane, stolen along the banks, or clover, was their
luxury. Yet they had elegant white teeth, such as most Americans
might envy.
Their amusement was thrumming monotonously on a sort of tambour-
ine, and singing dolorously, with scarcely the semblance of a tune, while
they sat on the forward deck of the boat, while the wind blew favorably.


At other times they had to go ashore and drag the boat along with a
rope, at a rate which would make the "rapid transit" American boil
over with impatience.
One might imagine these lazy children happy, with so easy a life, in
this charming climate. But their faces are sad and downcast; their
voices are plaintive in every tone. All signs tell, of a people who are the
slaves of a despot who owns themselves and their property. Nearly half
of our crew had sacrificed their fore-fingers, others their right eyes, to
escape conscription into the Khedive's army. The cunning of the latter
had, at last, met this device by establishing a one-eyed regiment.

Wonderful Remnants of an Ancient Civilization.
Most interesting of all objects of study for the traveler are the ancient
monuments of Egypt. They reach ba'i:]i in antiquity three, four, some
authorities say five thousand years. Their vastness of proportion and
design, as seen in their ruins, is stupendous. Most of them are written
all over, even their roofs, with hieroglyphic inscriptions, giving records
of the public and private life of many centuries and dynasties. Their
preservation, often buried out of sight through long periods under the
sand, has been promoted by the dryness of the climate. The obelisk



taken by Napoleon I to Paris; and one afterwards conveyed to New York
city, in a year or two showed signs of beginning decay, while their fellows
at Luxor and Heliopolis, have still smooth, polished sides, and hiero-
glyphics as clear as when cut in honor of Rameses or his gods, three or
four thousand years ago. The colors of the paintings on the walls of
the tombs near the site of Thebes are as fresh almost as if the work of
No more imposing ruins are anywhere to be seen than those of
Karnak. In the age of their erection these temples must have been
magnificent. Think of an avenue of two miles of Sphinxes, of which a
a number are still left; of 360 columns, some of twelve feet in diameter,
and sixty-six feet high; of stones lifted to a roof, each stone forty feet
in length, and five-and-a-half feet square at the ends. There are in Egypt
monuments of still vaster proportions. The statue of Rameses the Great
at the Memnonium, a single piece of granite, is believed to weigh 887
tons; and it was brought from Syene, 138 miles. How it was brought,
no one can now say. A stone at a shrine in Lower Egypt is estimated
to weigh 5000 tons. The Sphinx's head, .near the great Pyramid of
Ghizeh, measures around its forehead 102 feet.
Many days may be well occupied in visiting the ruins of ancient
Thebes, the city once of a hundred gates:" Luxor, Karnak, the
Memnonium, Medinet Haboo, Gournoo, the Vocal Memnon, and the
A History in Stone and Colors.
The tombs alone, Bebzoni's (so named after its discoverer), and the
rest, would be worth a journey to Egypt to explore. On their walls you
may read, in colors unfaded and sculpture as clearly cut as Canova's,
though far less beautiful, the record of the everyday life of the ancient
Egyptian people; their agriculture, domestic doings, civic solemnities,
battles and triumphal processions; their ideas of a future state, the
accountability of each soul, aud the justice, tempered by mercy, of the
Supreme Being. There are representations of many gods on their monu-
ments; but there is reason for concluding that they held, vaguely it
may be, a belief in one God over all; this belief being lost only in the
days of their greatest degeneration.
It would take long to tell of others of these wonderful remnants of an



ancient civilization, the oldest of the world. Kom Ombo is one of the
most remarkable of these. It was a double temple, dedicated to the
Egyptian gods, Horus and Zebek; typified by the hawk and the crocodile.
Only some immense columns remain, now buried, except a few feet, but
once grand, even beautiful; and some othef scattered fragments. A
great doorway, a hall of columns and a double sanctuary, are said by
Miss A. B. Edwards (the best of authorities) to be probably yet perfect,
but not now accessible. An ancient city and a medieval hamlet must
have been slowly engulfed, and an early Temple once stood within the
enclosure. Over these the sand has been accumulating for 2000 years.
Thus the sand from the desert, on both sides of the Nile, is warring
year by year with the river-the Nile is Egypt. It is a truly great
river, though hardly as long as the Mississippi, including the Missouri.
Beginning near the Equator, in vast elevated lakes, it flows northward
to the Mediterranean, having, in Nubia and Egypt, scarcely a single
tributary stream; and, in those countries, no rain falls into it, not three
inches in ten years. The annual swell of the Nile from the tropical rains
and snow melting on the mountains in Central Africa is, in upper Egypt,
thirty to thirty-five feet. At Cairo it is not much over twenty feet; at
the Delta, near the Mediterranean, about four feet.. The rise begins near
the 21st of June. In a month it overflows its banks, beginning to sub-
side again about the 22d of September.
This overflow is the wealth of the land; the irrigation being extended
by the simplest methods to a distance beyond its natural range, to give
and maintain the fertility of the soil. Egypt is a belt of paradise laid
out by the river across the midst of the Libyan and Arabian desert. It
has always been one of the most populous regions of the globe.
Amid such scenes, we may recall the lines of an English poet:

"Under a palm tree, by the green old Nile,
Lull'd on his mother's breast the fair child lies,
With dove-like breathing, and a tender smile
Brooding above the slumber of his eyes.
While, through the stillness of the burning skies,
Lo, the dread works of Egypt's buried kings,
Temple and pyramid, beyond him rise,
.Royal and still as everlasting things."



IN all the world no land possesses greater interest to Americans
than that which to them is
still the mother country. No
matter how proud we may be
of the land which is our own;
no matter how we may boast
of its mighty lakes and rivers,
its wide prairies, its prosper-
ous cities, we will turn with a
peculiar delight to the shores
from which the Puritan, the
Quaker and the Cavalier alike
put forth, to try their fortunes
and to find new freedom across
the sea.
Instead of a single chapter,
volumes might well be written
of the cities and the rivers of
Great Britain; quiet rivers,
flowing between low banks,
.through rich meadows, ready
to carry the war ship of the WLLIAM EWART GLADSTONE.
Northman or. the coal barge
of his descendant; rivers which formed deep, quiet harbors, inviting the
building of wharves and shipping, harbors without which England could
never have been mistress of the sea,


On the banks of these rivers our Anglo-Saxon race grew to manhood;
here are the cities which grew with its growth; in these streets and
churches and castles is written the story of how it grew. It is the story
of a hardy race, of the growth of a mighty people. Let us study some
of its chapters, and as we gaze upon the old castle, whose ponderous
walls tell of the days of warlike knights and barons, or upon the crowded
streets and market places where their successors buy and sell, or, as we

,i U ,, J.j .LI ai" r'."U .
follow the worthy Briton to some gay modern watering place, let us learn
lessons of respect for the old, as well as pride in the new. Our patriot-
ism, our love for our land, will be all the greater, the more' we know of
our country and the people from whom we sprang. .

Triumphs of Engineering Skill.
From the old Bartizan Tower of the Abbey Church in Dunfermline
one can survey a dozen shires, and-contrast as strange as the light
and shadow in the churches below-a glimpse is caught, beyond
North Queensferry Point, of the limbs of the new Forth Bridge.
The whole space spanned is over a mile and a half, but fully a third

Colonial Secretary of England.

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of this distance is occupied by the viaduct approaches to what
may be termed the bridge proper, supported at a height of 165 feet above
mean sea-level, upon a series of stone piers. At this elevation the line
is carried across the Firth, which reaches from thirty to thirty-five fath-
oms in depth in the channels between Inch Garvie and the north and
south shores. Except the supporting bases of stone, the whole central
structure is of steel, wrought and fitted in the works on the southern
side; and it is estimated that not less than 50,000 tons of metal have
been used in the work.

From the three main piers, columned "towers of steel" rise to a height
of 630 feet above the high-water mark, that on Inch Garvie being higher
than the two others. They are formed of tubes of three-fourths .inch
steel, 12 feet in diameter at the base, inclining inward and toward each
other, and united by cross members, in the shape of the letter "X," for
purposes of strength, and from these the intricate bracket work of upper
and lower members, with their connecting struts and ties, stretch out
over the Firth, and approach each other near enough to be united by the
two 350 feet lattice girders over the fairways. The two great centre


spans are each 1700 feet in width, and the half-spans that join them to
the great north and south viaduct piers are 680 feet each. All the strains
are concentrated upon the bases of the cantilever piers, and the whole
structure gives a remarkable impression of combined lightness and
strength, as well as of colossal size. From 3000 to 4500 men have been
employed for several years upon the bridge, of which it may almost be
'aid that half the work is under water and out of sight. Its estimated
cost is between two and three millions sterling, and, connected with it,


new lines are being constructed, by which passengers and goods will,
henceforth, be carried by the shortest available route from south to north,
in despite of the obstacles interposed by the Forth, the Ochils, and the
Berwick-on-Tweed is certainly not happy in having no history.
Its beginnings are not clearly ascertainable; but it was for long a
Saxon settlement, until the Danes, attracted by the rich nerselands.
through which the Tweed flows, helped themselves to it. Then came
the turn of the Scots, who held it off and on from about the time


of Alfred the Great, until John Baliol renounced the authority of
his liege Lord, to whom he had sworn fealty at Norham. When an
English army approached, the citizens were by no means alarmed,
although it was led by Edward himself. Kynge Edward," they cried,
from behind their wooden stockade, "waune thou havest Berwick, pike
thee; waune thou havest get en, dike thee." But the place was
stormed with the most trivial loss, and nearly eight thousand of the
citizens were massacred. Some brave Flemings who held the Town
Hall were burnt to cinders in it, and the carnage only ceased when the

sad and solenin priests bore the host into Edward's presence, and
implored mercy. When Edward sat down before it, it was not only the
great Merchant City of the North, but ranked second to London among
English towns; he left it little more than a ruin, and it has never.since
been anything but "a pretty seaport." Two and twenty years later
there came another turn of the wheel. When Robert Bruce wrested his
native land from the feeble hands of the second Edward, Berwick shared
in the emancipation.
Its capture was held to be an achievement of the first order, and after
it, as Leland tells us, "The Scottes be6amie so proud that they nothing


esteemed the Englishmen." But presently a weaker Bruce reigned in
the North, and a stronger Edward in the South. In due course the
town was again beleaguered by an English force. A Scottish army under
the Regent, Archibald Douglas, came to its relief; but the English held
a strong position on Halidon Hill, and, met by their terrible showers of
clothyard shafts,
the Scots turned
and -fled, leaving
Berwick to its
Thus it again
became English,
and never again.
did it change mias-
In these latter
days, however, it
nas had to part
with another of its
peculiarities, and
now, instead of
constituting a sep-
arate municipali-
ty, it is siubstan-
tially a part of the
county of North-
From Newcastle
to the sea, twelve
miles by water, LORD TENNYSON.
the Tyne is a vast
tidal dock. It stands second among the rivers of the kingdom for the
extent of its commerce. The Thames takes precedence in the number
of vessels which enter and leave, and the Mersey stands before it in
respect of the total tonnage of the ships by which it is frequented ; but
the Tyjne ranks secorid to the Thames in the number of vessels which


enter the port,, and second to the Mersey in the bulk of its trade. But
more remarkable even than the commerce of the river are its great
industries. From Gateshead to the sea, on one hand, and from New-
castle to the sea, on the other, there is a constant succession of ship-
yards, chemical factories, engineering establishments, glass-works, docks,
and coal-shutes.
Newcastle, it has been said, owes its rise to war, its maintenance to
piety, and its increase to trade-a very neat and true saying. But
trade has done more for the Tyne than foi' Newcastle. It has, since the
beginning of the century, increased the population of the chief North-
umbrian town from 30,000 to 160,000; but it has increased the popula-
tion of Tyneside to half a million or more.
Milton did the river a huge injustice when he called this "the coaly
Tyne." His intention was innocent enough, no doubt; since he meant
only to acknowledge its celebrity in connection with coal. When there
are floods in the upper reaches, so much brown soil is carried down by
the impetuous water that the current of the river can be traced far out
to sea; but at ordinary seasons, the local color of the Tyne approaches
that of the sea itself, and is, in fact, a deep, clear, olive-green. What is
not sufficiently understood, however, is that the local color of the stream
is that which is most seldom disclosed. Water takes its hue from the
sky above it, and from the light which plays about its face. Hence,
Spenser's beautiful and much-assailed phrase, The silver-streaming
Thames." Hence, also, the Tyneside poet's eulogy of his native
stream :--
S "Of all the rivers, north or south,
There's none like coaly Tyne."

A Place of Great Historical Events.
"Barnard Castle standeth stately upon Tees," says Leland. Stately
it is, to this day, though it is no more than a group of ruined towers
and crumbling walls; and though where the Tees must have flowed,
deep and wide from below the castle rock, there is now at ordinary sea-
sons only a thin stream, threading its way through what might very
well he mistaken for a stone-yard. Before the castle is reached, we
have, in fact, come, to the first salmon weir, which, besides its other


purpose, is employed to divert the river to the service of industry.
From Barnard Castle, these weirs become very frequent, and are, in all
cases but this, an addition to the attractions of the stream. It was the
weir just below Barnard Castle that supplied Croswick with a subject
for one of his most famous and successful pictures..
The castle, which enclosed a circuit of six acres or more, was built ,by
Bernard Baliol. A descendant of Bernardi climbed to the Scottish throne,
doing homage for the crown, at Newcastle, to the first Edward. Edward
Baliol did the like to Edward III. for the cr'wn and kingdom of Scotland.

I, I
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It was a short and unfortunate dynasty which the Baliols founded, brought
to an end by the battle of Bannockburn. John Baliol presumed too much
on his independence as a king, wherefore his patron, Edward II, seized
upon his castle and his English estates, and the stately building on the
banks of the Tees was given to Beauchamps of Warwick. Thence it
passed by marriage into the hands of the Nevilles, and was part of the
dower of Annie Neville, the daughter of the King-maker, when she
married the scheming politician who was to become Richard III.
Gloucester not only dwelt here for some time, but left decided marks of


his tenancy, the latest portions of the building being held by antiqua-
rians to have been erected under his superintendence.
Since 1592 Barnard Castle has been a ruin, the survey of that year
exhibiting it as tenantless, mouldering, and weather-worn, "the doors
without locks, the windows without glass." Dwellings which were
clearly built for persons of wealth and position are let as tenements,
and there is, consequently, an odd contrast between their stateliness
and the dress and appearance of those 'who lounge about their doors.

... .- T

A glance at that part of the map where Yorkshire is separated from
Lincolnshire reveals the full extent of the Humber, but while it shows a
wide estuary, it conveys a poor idea of the national importance of this
arm of the sea. Nor is the value of the estuary in this respect much
increased by the mere statement that the Humber is formed by the con-
fluence of the Trent and the Ouse.
A Flourishing River-port.
Hull boasts not only of being the chief port on the Humber, but
claims to be the third port in the kingdom, giving precedence only to
London and Liverpool. There was a time when it was a mere hamlet;
but it has not only outgrown the towns neai it that once did a greater


business-such as Hedon and Beverly-but has seen what was a much
Larger commercial centre than either of these places, literally pass from
the map. What anciently was the chief port on the Humber lay snugly
-nough, to all seeming, just within the bend at Spurn Head. It was
known as Ravenser. It had much shipping, and in the time of Edward I
sent members to Parliament. Unfortunately, Ravenser, with neigh-
boring towns, was built on unstable ground. A process of denudation
is continually going on at this, the extreme point of Yorkshire, and fiom
this cause, the sea had left only a fragment of Ravenser in Bolingbroke's

lay. In no long time after this, the town was wholly absorbed by the
encroaching waters. Hull began to flourish as Ravenser began to decay.
Another circumstance that led to the development of this great Humber
port was the difficulty the Beverly merchants had in getting their sup-
plies by river. Hull was originally one of many wykes (the Norse name
oir a small creek or bay). It got the name of the river (the Hull) on
which it stood in the time of Richard I, and by this name it is known
everywhere, its corporate title of Kingston-upon-Hull seldom being
riven to it in print, and still mere seldom being applied to it in speech.
Ihe royal title was conferred by Edward I, who is said to have noticed


the value of the site for commercial purposes while hunting here, in 1256.
An interesting feature' of the town is the statue of the famous anti-
slavery advocate, William Wilberforce.

A Home of Prehistoric Ages.
To write of many of the now greatest cities of the world is a task of
light moment; their history began yesterday, and their present great-
ness alone has to be described; but not so of Bristol, for here within its
borders, and around its heights lie evident signs that it was a home'of
many dwellers in pre-historic ages. Only a few years ago, three great
camps spoke of these past ages; one has been destroyed to make way
for modern villas in Leigh Woods; but two, fairly perfect, yet remain;
one on Observatory Hill on Clifton Down, and another hidden amid a
wealth of trees and rich undergrowth in Leigh Woods. The former is
highly interesting, with Roman work added-to the British earthworks,
and with traces of lesser work in and around the camp that will give
many a pleasant moment to the antiquary in examining it.
The town of Bristol, in the days of the Normans, stood upon a little
peak of land that rose upon an islet formed by two rivers, the Avon and
Frome; and beyond these rivers, far enough away in those early days to
be free from danger to the city, rose up yet greater hills and peaks, form-
ing a. circle of hill-land all around this clustering home of gates, and
walls, and crowded houses, and churches. The centre of the old town
still forms the centre of the city, and the stranger who takes his stand
on the top of the rising ground, from whence diverge the four ways of
High Street, Broad Street, Wine Street, and Corn Street, will be stand-
ing upon the spot around which, for nearly a thousand years, has swirled
and rippled the life of Bristol citizens.

In the Scottish Capital.
The late Mr. George Ticknor, who had seen many men and many
cities, writing in his diary, in 1819, not only says that Edinburgh is
certainly one of the most beautiful cities in the world," but, "It is
hardly necessary to be nice in the selection of particular points about
Edinburgh. It is all beautiful, and it is enough to get upon a height or
a steeple anywhere, and you are sure to be rewarded with a rich and


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various prospect." And the iev. T. C. Clark, in a singularly suggestive
work, pleasantly dealing, among other subjects, with certain of the
associations of the Scottish capital, quotes the criticism which a lady of
repute as a sculptor passed on the town. "The perfection of Edin-
burgh," she said, is, the perfection of a Venus, which requires that it be
beautiful from all points, and that those be many."
The city of Edinburgh consists of two towns, the Old and the New,
presenting contrasts as striking as those which the old English poets
drew between the crabbed age and golden youth when linked together.
The old town covers a high hog-back ridge of basalt, which slopes from
the Castle Rock at its western extremity to the foot of three hills at the
east, namely, the Calton Hill, the hill called "Arthur's Seat," and the
hill crowned with the beetling precipices of Salisbury Craigs.
The new town is handsome, but not picturesque. It is built on a
plain which slopes gently northward to the sea, and a long, straight
street, Leith Walk, running northeastward, connects it with the thriving
port of Leith. In old times, this plain was a waste, cut off from the city
by a valley which was originally a royal garden and pleasure ground,
where tournaments were held, but was formed into a moat (called the
North Loch) in 1450, for the defence of the city. Boating, skating, and
even fishing, were often indulged in here; and it was also used as a
ducking-pond for persons of loose life, and in its turbid waters the Re-
formers, in 1538, carried away by their excess of zeal, soused the effigy
of St. Giles. Latterly it became a dark swamp when the weather was
dry, and an offensive, half-stagnant lake when the weather was wet.
After it was drained and bridged, the better class gradually migrated
northward, and built, on the open plain there, handsome houses of
Craigleth stone.
The Gateway of the Nation's Commerce.
Though Liverpool may, in a commercial sense, be described as a
modern city, it is in reality one of the oldest boroughs in England. Of
its very early history comparatively little is known. There is certainly
no reference to such a place in the Domestic Book, but there is there a
historical record that the land on which it stands was part of the fief
granted by William the Conqueror to Roger of Poitou. Of the ancient
Liverpool there is now little or no trace. There are no historical build-

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ings worthy of the name. The frowning castle where lived the Lords
Molyneux, and the castellated tower, once the residence of the Earls of
Derby, and subsequently a felon's prison, have long since disappeared.
The narrow alleys and wretched hovels which formed the old town
were all swept away when Liverpool became a gateway of the nation's
commerce, and the site is now covered with palatial marts, vying in
splendor and extent with those of any other city in the world. The old
Pool-the one sheltering-place where, in the olden times, the small craft
frequenting the port found scanty accommodations-is now the site of a
stately Custom House, and for miles on both sides is a range of vast
docks,' the more modern of which are triumphs of engineering skill. The
transformation has been so rapid, and is so complete, that it is quite
pardonable to speak of Liverpool as a modern city.
The Liverpool of to-day is a city of spacious thoroughfares and
splendid structures. Among its public edifices, St. George's Hall, Town
Hall, Municipal Buildings, Custom House, Free Library, Museum,
Walker Art Gallery, and Picton Reading Room, form a group of which
the citizens are justly proud. St. George's Hall is incomparably the
finest structure in the city. It was built by the corporation at a cost of
320,000 pounds, for the joint purposes of courts, concert rooms, and
public gatherings, and was formally opened in 1854. The hall is sug-
gestive of the noblest period .of Grecian art. The site on which it stands
is open on all sides, so that the building shows well from every point of
view. The northern end of the hall is semicircular, while the west
facade is distinguished by its square detached pilasters. The principal
law courts are situated at each end of the building, the great hall being
in the centre.
The Capital of the British Empire.
London-the word is sufficient to awaken admiration, to arouse in-
terest, and to stimulate curiosity. It is the name of the largest city in
the world-greatest, that is to, say, in its importance, its commerce, its
wealth, its provision for the comfort and health of its inhabitants, its
vast extent, its enorn ious annd increasing population.
It has been said that an adequate impression of what London really
is can only be gained by first approaching it by river, and that its vast-
ness.will.be best appreciated by the visitor who embarks on a steamboat


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at Shadwell, Blackwell, or Greenwich, and so makes a voyage through
the Pool, past the Tower, the Custom House, and Billingsgate Market,
to London Bridge. Thence the journey by "the silent highway of the


Thames may be continued under the series of noble bridges, beyond the
great commercial centre, I
The dome of the vast Cathedral of St. Paul remains ever in view as
the centre of c Lmddon, while nhe stately towers of the Houses of Parlia-
grea ~t cmeca cnr,
The omef th vat Cthedal f. S. Pul emais eer i viw a
the~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~" ceteO-Lnlo;wfe:!h tteytwr-fteHue ftala

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ment, standing high above the river bank, and close to the grand old
Abbey, mark the sister city of Westminster, which is practically in-
cluded in the comprehensive title of the metropolis. We may thus en-
deavor to see something of London; but of its churches, schools, colleges,
guilds, newspapers, theatres, halls, museums, public institutions, hospi-
tals, refuges, almshouses and charities, we shall be unable to form any
adequate estimate. It must still suffice us to say, in the eloquent
words of Mr. John Morley, "If yot will go on a penny steamer from
Blackwell, by:the time you arrive at Westminster, or better still, Chel-
sea, you will have been brought within three or four or half a dozen of
the greatest, the most stirring and touching historical monuments .on
the face of the habitable globe. I know that at Rome you see-you
have-a crowd of pathetic and august associations flowing in upon you;
but Rome, as one of our great poets has said, is the 'lone mother of
dead Empires." London is still alive, pulsing through every vein.
London sits enthroned at the gates of the sea, the mighty centre-com-
mercial, financial, political, social and intellectual-of a vast realm,
where English laws, English institutions, the English tongue, and all
the treasures of English literature, reign; govern, and enrich the lives
and -minds of millions of men, generation after generation, all over the
globe, with a sovereignty that seems imperishable, and destined never
to pass away."
In a different way, but with the same justice, it might be said of
London, as of Paris, that it is a world, rather than a city. Its govern-
ment is a puzzle to those who are familiar with the organization of more
modern cities, and it is only within the last few yearsthat the "greater
London," comprising all the districts whose names so confuse the trav-
eler, has been brought into the same municipality. But if London is
an old city, it is also, and in a very special sense, a modern city. Its
growth within the past century has been such as to rival in' rapidity,
and vastly to surpass in steadiness, that of our American cities. In
few, if any, other cities has the problem of rapid transit been so intelli-
gently or so boldly; attacked, and in no place in the world does the bus-
tling life of our century throb with greater force or earnestness.
Along with the memories of the historic buildings and localities of the
commercial centre of the world, the visitor will .carry with him, _should


he be so fortunate, or unfortunate, as to experience it, an abiding
recollection of the darkness and confusion, the ludicrous incidents and
the serious accidents, inseparable from a London fog.

Fingal's Cave.
This cave is a natural grotto, situated in the Island of Staffa, on the
southwest coast of Scotland. The ocean forms the floor, and is at low

water twenty feet in depth. The entrance describes an almost perfect
Gothic arch. The formation consists of lofty basaltic columns, and the
cavity extends about 225 feet from its mouth inward, with a width at
the entrance of .42 feet, diminishing to 22 feet at the extreme end.


JOURNEY through Ireland is a wonderful experience.
The beauty of much of the scenery, the fertility of
the land, and the misery of the people, will leave
upon the mind a succession of pictures which would
be delightful if they were not infinitely sad. Could
one see only the lakes and rivers, and some streets
of Dublin or Belfast, he would remember only the
picturesque, and Ireland would be to him only a land
of beauty; but handsome streets or wild scenery cannot
shut from view the presence of a despairing people, and the sight
of humanity in distress must destroy one's enjoyment of the
most attractive aspects of nature. The history of Ireland has
hardly its equal for sadness among all the peoples of the world. So far
as we know it, it is almost entirely the story of the dealings of England
with a people never wholly conquered, or submissive; never willing to
be really at one with their conquerors; constantly trying, frequently in
a most mistaken and disastrous manner, to right old wrongs; never
ready, and probably never able, to let by-gones be by-gones and face the
present needs with patience and with courage.
But let us forget, for a time, these sorrowful and perplexing questions,
and enjoy some of the more pleasant views of Ireland and the Irish.

In the Capital of Ireland.
The visitor who approaches Dublin by sea will probably think that
those Norsemen who came "spying out the country" long ago, showed
a nice aesthetic sense when they selected the mouth of the Liffey for their
anchorage. The bay of Dublin, viewed from the sea in fine weather,


offers a rarely beautiful sight. On the left, as one enters the river, is
discernible the ir- ..
:r: '' ,,. CHUBCH CATH DRA ,.J
regular outline of t c B:. .: ..-,
the mountains of ..
Dublin and Wick-
low, peak succeed- '. t.. s: l y .
ing peak from far
inland to the very .
edge of the sea,
where the bold con-
tour of Bray Head
cuts off the line of
the Wicklow Coast.
From this rough
promontory, which seems to stand sentinel over the bay, a succession of
watering-places occupy the coast. Bray nestles at the foot of its peak,
the rallying point for tourists meditating a descent on the scenery of
Wicklow; next to it is Ballybrack, and then succeed Killiny, Dalkey,
Kingstown (a flourishing town, a-ppy in "one of the most splendid
artificial ports in the United Kingdom," and the station for the dispatch
and arrival of the
mail boats from
England), Monks-
town, Blackrock,
and Sandymount,
S'whvichi closely ad-
joins the south-
eastern boundary
0 Of. the city.
lThe white villas
of which thisffinge
of buildings along
--- the coast is mainly
composed, show
to advantage in their leafy setting, ornamental plantations and natural
clumps of trees frequently breaking the monotony of the lines of houses,

and the charm of the picture is heightened by the dark background of
mountains in the distance. On the right hand an effective contrast to
this peaceful prettiness is furnished by the rough grandeur of the
promontory of Howth, of which the steep sides, clothed with scanty
heather, slope down abruptly to the sea.
The port is well provided with docks, and great improvements have
been made by the Port and Docks Board. The depth of water on the
bar has been doubled, the north and south walls have been extended,
the system of dredging has been improved; the channel has been deep-
ened and straightened, shoals have been removed and buoys put down;
timber wharves, graving slips, and graving docks have been constructed.
Vessels are now built and repaired in port, and vessels from other ports
put in for repairs.
A Fine Thoroughfare.
Sackville street, which runs due south from the Rotunda to the Liffey,
has long been the pride and boast of the citizens of Dublin. It is a fine
thoroughfare, exceptionally wide, and flanked by lofty houses, fairly uni-
form in size and architecture. The only public building of any impor-
tance which it contains is the General Post Office, the entrance to which
is from a side street, though its principal front faces on Sackville street,
and is adorned with an imposing portico supported by six fluted Ionic
columns. Over the portico are three allegorical statues representing Hi-
bernia, Mercury, and Fidelity, which have formed a peg on which to
hang one of .the numerous anecdotes told of the Dublin "jarvey," or,
hackney-car driver. "What are the statues, Pat ?" asked a tourist.!
"Shure, sir, thim's the twelve apostles." "Twelve apostles! but there
are only three of them. Where are the other nine? "Arrah, an' where
would they be," Pat replies indignantly, "but. inside, counting' the let-
thers ? .Shure yotu wouldn't have thim all out o' the place at wan time ? "
Almost directly in front of the Post Office, and right in the centre of the
street, rises Nelson's Pillar, a tall fluted column of the Doric order,
erected, in 1808, by the Irish admirers of Lord Nelson. The column is
one hundred and twenty-one feet high, and is surmounted by a colossal
statue of the hero of Trafalgar; inside there is a spiral staircase by which
an ascent can be made to its summit, from which a capital view of the
city can be obtained. In Prince's street, an insignificant thoroughfare

T11ROM711 1119 BMBPALD 18LE.-~


running westward from Sackville street, are the offices of the Freeman's
Journal, a largely circulated and well-managed daily paper, with evening
and weekly editions. At the southern end of the street, facing toward
O'Connell Bridge, stands Foley's noble statue of Daniel O'Connell, one
of the few artistic monuments the city possesses. Sackville street does
not present many other features of interest. The houses composing it,
though substantial and roomy edifices, are unpretentious from an archi-
tectural point of view, and are chiefly occupied by shops, hotels, and
offices. Some time ago, the municipal authorities endeavored to improve
the street by planting trees along each side, which it was anticipated

would, when grown to a decent size, materially add to its beauty. The
trees, however, would not grow, and after languishing through a limp
and leafless career of a year or two, died one by one, having served no
useful purpose save the provision of material for the comic writers of
the city, and the "patter" of the Christmas pantomimes.
The Commercial Capital of Ireland.
Belfast is nominally the second city in Ireland;. in reality it is the
commercial capital of the country. In Customs revenue it is the third
city in the United Kingdom, London and Liverpool alone being ahead


of it. Linen first made it conspicuous, and for long the city seemed
content with this single mark of pre-eminence; but within the last half
century it has struck out into other paths. It has assumed a leading
position as a ship-building port. The manufacture of machinery is
rapidly becoming a great industry in the town; while Belfast has made
for itself an unique position in the concoction of aerated waters. Impar-
tial, however, in everything relating to trade, at least, this young city-
it was only a "town" until the end of ]888-has also taken to the
manufacture of spirits.
In itself, Belfast is essentially a modern town. There is nothing

.I..... ................... I l l

ancient or venerable in its appearance, unless we except the ponderous
Cave-hill, lowering over the northern side of the place, with the quaint
resemblance to the face of the First Napoleon outlined in the queerly-
contorted edge of the topmost ridge. The impression which Belfast
most vividly produces on the minds of visitors, is that of newness; the
general aspect of the town is modern. There are in it no quaint, vener-
able buildings, suggestive of an older civilization. The last thatched
roof disappeared many years ago, and there is very little in the city
itself to arrest the enthusiastic antiquary. In the surrounding country,
however, there is much to interest. From the top of the Cave-hill, one


may not only have a magnificent view of the noble Belfast Lough, with
its wide sweep of water, and prominent, occasionally rugged banks, the
city extending far to the right and left, but may inspect an interesting
series of caves, which were used, no doubt, in ancient days, as dwellings,
or refuges in time of need, or, as in more recent times, were the resort
of holiday roysterers; for Cave-hill was for long the scene of Easter
Monday revels, which became a scandal, and had forcibly to be stopped.
Or, taking another direction from the town, one may enjoy an examina-
tion of the well-preserved Giant's Ring," with its central cromlech, and
the surrounding Rath, or fort, now a grassy mound, round which, in the
far-off centuries, many a vigorous battle must have raged between rival
Irish chieftains and their- clansmen.

A Prosperous City.
Limerick is situated about a hundred miles from Dublin, in a direction
slightly west of south. .It is the capital of the exceedingly fertile county
of the same name, and contains more than fifty thousand inhabitants.
The county is particularly interesting to the archaeologist, on account of
the numerous remains of Cyclopean masonry, military earthworks, an-
cient castles, and ruins of religious houses.
The city fought nobly in the bad cause of Charles I, and surrendered
to the parliamentary army only after a gallant defence, in 1651, and it
was the last place in Ireland to submit to William III, in 1691. On
this latter occasion the inhabitants secured a treaty guaranteeing to
Irish Roman Catholics certain religious rights, and granting amnesty
to all who took the oath of allegiance.
The city consists of-the "English town," on an island in the Shannon,
and the "Irish town" and Newton Perry," on the left bank of the
river. These different portions are connected by several bridges.. New-
ton Perry is the most attractive portion of the city, being filled with
handsome modern dwellings. The houses on the island are 'principally
in the Flemish style.
The cathedral, with several other places of worship, belong to the
established church, or Church of England; but there are fully as many
Catholic churches in the city. The cathedral is noted for its remarkably
fine bells.


The streets of the city, except in the older portions, are regular and
spacious. There is communication by railway or canal with all the
principal cities of Ireland, while its spacious harbor admits of extensive
shipping. Altogether, Limerick is one of the most prosperous and
attractive of Irish cities.
During all the prolonged conflict between the King of England and
the Parliament, the Irish people took the side of the King. The fugitive
heir of Charles I could rely upon finding in this Catholic country sym-
pathy and such assistance as the weak and ignorant and needy people
could supply. But, weak as the people were, it seemed by no means

easy for the English to reduce them to subjection, and it was not until
Cromwell personally took charge of the conduct of the war that the
country was finally brought to submission. He conducted a short, a
cruel, but a decisive campaign. He hanged his own soldiers for stealing
chickens and issued bibles regularly as part of the necessary provision
for his army.
Cromwell's Bridge.
It is said that when he came to Glengariff, in the south of Ireland, he
was disappointed at not finding a bridge, "and was thus put to con-
siderable and vexatious delay. He thereupon gave public notice that



on his return he would expect to find a bridge in that place, and that if
it was not completed by that time, he would hang a native for each
hour's delay. It seems needless to say that the bridge was punctually
But Cromwell knew how to govern, as well as to conquer, and Macaulay
describes his civil policy as able, straightforward, and cruel." Forty
thousand Irishmen found service in foreign armies during his adminis-
tration. The Irish Catholic gentry were removed to other districts, and
their property confiscated and divided between adventurers who had
advanced money and soldiers who had fought in Ireland. The majority
of Irish laborers remained to work under the new masters of the soil,
and the country became quiet, peaceful, and prosperous. Some of the
fighting Catholics betook themselves to -the woods and hills .and
bequeathed their name of Tories to a great political party. Measures
of the greatest severity were taken against the priests, but all classes
of Protestants were tolerated, and their preachers unmolested.
Beautiful Scenery.
No portion of the world is more famous for its beautiful scenery than
the neighborhood of Killarney, about fifty miles north of Cork. The
noted lakes are about a mile-and-a-half from the town, and are situated in
a basin between several lofty mountain groups, some rising abruptly from
the water's edge, and all clothed with trees and shrubbery almost to their
summits. The lower lake, Lough Leane, with an area of five thousand
acres, is studded with finely-wooded islands, on the largest of which are
the ruins of Ross castle, the old fortress of the O'Donoghues; and on
another are the picturesque ruins of an abbey founded by St. Finian,
at the close of the sixth century. Between this lake and the next,
stands Muckrose Abbey, built by the Franciscans, about 1440. The
upper lake, also studded with islands and closely shut in by mountains,
is connected with the others by the Long Range, a winding channel
two-and-a-half miles long, and commanding magnificent views of the
mountains. Midway in its course is a lofty pyramidal rock, called the
Eagles' Nest, which gives rise to a famous echo.
A journey to this district will bring very prominently into view the
single disagreeable feature of a visit to these lakes, and indeedi of all


travel in Ireland, the poverty of the people. They will run for miles by
the tourist's jaunting-car, hoping at last to beg a few pennies, or possibly
to earn them, and their constant presence fills the traveler's heart with
sorrow when his beautiful surroundings would otherwise bring him
nothing but delight.
Sorrowful and Perplexing Troubles.
A great Scotchman has devised a very simple method by which all
the woes of unhappy Ireland may be relieved. "To cease, generally,
from following the Devil," was the suggestion in which, as in a nutshell,
Thomas Carlyle believed a solution could be found for the questions
which British legislators have vainly tried for generations to answer.
The soundness of the doctrine cannot be doubted, but it amounts to
saying that if every man would but do what he ought, all difficulty
between man and man would cease. But the land question in Ireland
refuses to wait for the time when all men will do right, and, unfor-
tunately, all men are not agreed as to just what is right. To most
Americans the questions arising between landlord and tenant seem easy
of solution; if the tenant is not suited, or if the rent is too high, let him
look elsewhere; and if he does not pay the rent agreed upon, let the
owner of the property turn him out and seize upon his goods in sufficient
amount to pay what is due. And so a widespread organization to resist
the payment f rent seems contrary to all right and justice. So, too, a
supposition that the government fix the rent of property, or that State
aid be extended to tenants who wish to become owners, and that the
price of the land be fixed by the courts, is so contrary to our customs as
to seem unnatural and unjust. There is probably no better example of
the truth of the old saying, that circumstances alter cases.
Where the people have absolutely no means of living except from the
land; where to refuse to rent land is to invite starvation; where rents,
for generations, have left so small a margin to the tenant as almost to
destroy the possibility of a livelihood; where improvements made by the
tenant become the property of the landlord, and the basis of an increased
rent, and where the tenant has a deep and ever-present feeling that he
is himself_ the..rightful.. heir -to. .the land of which. his ancestors :were
idespoiled? the question ceases to be a simple one. IJder these cireum-



stances one no longer wonders that Irishmen resist eviction, and the
troubles in Ireland, while no less sorrowful or perplexing, become at
least intelligible.
This complicated question has, for generations, been the despair of
English governments. Perhaps the emigration to America has made
the problem less simple, for as the Irishman grows independent in his
adopted country, he craves like independence for the people at home,
and is ever ready to contribute of his hard earnings to relieve their condi-
tion, and to assist in their political battles. The growth of a feeling of
independence in Ireland intensified the feeling of hardship and wrong
under which the people suffered, and their excitable natures led them,
in too many cases, to express their opposition to the existing laws by
acts of violence, which sometimes extended to murder and arson. The
difficulty of suppressing the agrarian crimes was the occasion for the
passage of stringent laws, defining offences, and regulating their
punishment, the enforcement of which has often been so harsh and
unfeeling, as to justify intelligent people in sympathizing with the law-
breakers. Evictions became, in many sections, practically impossible,
for, whenever the officers prepared to eject the delinquent tenant, they
found him barricaded in his dwelling, and the house surrounded by a
constantly increasing crowd of neighbors and friends who were prepared
to overwhelm the attacking party, first with a flood of wordy abuse, and
then with showers of all kinds of missiles. Not only was it an offence
against the law thus to resist the officers, but it was manifestly as great
an offence to incite the people to resistance, and as resistance to the
paying of rent was a part of the political plan of the, Irish leaders, it
followed that political meetings were "proclaimed" or forbidden, and
the party leaders were engaged in a constant effort to evade the law.
This resulted in the arrest and imprisonment of the most prominent
Irishmen, and this, again, in the eyes of the common people, invested
them with the character of martyrs; and thus strife begat strife, and
there seemed no end. Wiser counsels, however, gradually prevailed.
Under the lead of cool, clear-headed men, the Irish gradually learned to
oppose the system which is hateful to them, and to which they attribute
much, if not all, of their suffering, without committing crimes against
the hlaw They have been fortunate in enlisting the sympathy of



some of the ablest English statesmen of our time, and their chief sources
of discouragement, of late, have not been in the attitude of the English
government or people, 'but in the indiscretions, quarrels and excesses of
their own leaders.
A Celebrated and Peculiar Locality.
But let us turn again to a more pleasant subject. There is no
locality in the British Islands more celebrated, none certainly more
peculiar, than the Giants' Causeway. England presents nothing like
it; Staffa, in Scotland, has its basaltic columns to claim a sisterhood in
its geological origin-but that is all. This wonderful congregation of
fantastic headlands, majestic columns, beautiful bays, and picturesque
caves along the winding shore, is unequaled. This is the glory of the
north, as Killarney is of the south, and Connemara of the west of
The Giants' Causeway is the low, rocky mole, composed of columnar
basalt, separating Port Ganniay from Port Noffer. Its outline is very
irregular: the greatest length seven hundred feet, the greatest breadth
three hundred and fifty, the greatest height thirty-three feet, and the
area about three acres. Agreeably to natural formation, it is divided
into the Little, the Middle, and the large or Grand Causeway. Here we
see some 40,000 basaltic polygonal pillars-shaved, as it were, on the
surfaces, and set like mosaics-in diameter varying from fifteen inches to
twenty-six inches, and sinking down to an unascertained depth, "fitted
as close and compact as if each stone had been dressed and laid by art."
The ancient legend, devoutly believed by the people, is this: "The
great warrior of Irish annals, Finn McCoul, the popular corruption of
the name of Fingal, the son of Comhal, 'the king of heroes,' and whose
exploits are the theme of many of the epics of his son Ossian-magni-
fled, like many another hero, into grotesque proportions when seen
through the mists of antiquity-desired to establish a highway between
his own country and Scotland, with which he maintained constant inter-
course; and so he wrought this wondrous road all across to the opposite
mainland, so that the giants in both countries might pass to and fro,"




TOUR of Europe would be particularly incomplete
without a visit to the low countries, the Niederlande,
so called because many portions of them are below
the level of the sea.
SArt, History and Legend on Every Hand.
But before we introduce the reader to the great
.$ cities' of Belgium, we shall visit, as though on our
S u-wayv from Paris, one of the most interesting cities of
i northern France, renowned for its architectural monuments,
t.he beauty of its situation, and its historical associations,
beginning "with the raids of the Northmen, who gave to this district the
name of Normandy. In whatever part of Normandy the visitor begins
his journey, he will very soon make his way to its former capital, Rouen.
The Seine, much broader here than at Paris, is crowded with shipping, and
gives this inland city a maritime appearance; the boulevards taking the
place of leveled fortifications remind one of Paris, while near almost any
part of them the visitor may find himself in quaint and narrow streets,
among gabled houses -with strange carvings. Here are two of the most
beautiful Gothic edifices in the world-the Church of St. Ouen, and the
Palais de Justice, that is, the Law Courts. The latter building is
situated nearly in the centre of the city, but as it faces.on a narrow
street, its best portions cannot be seen to advantage; the interior view
from the court is, however,very fine. Airiness, grace, and good taste are
the qualities of this rich ornamentation,, anything finer than which it is


difficult to imagine. Not only the octagonal towers in the centre, but
the niches with their numerous statues, the beautifully sculptured
windows, the arcades which form a gallery, the dormer windows with
their mass of turrets and pillars, hold the attention, not only of the
architect or artist, but of every intelligent traveler. If we go from the
boulevards or from the railway station into the Rue Jeanne d'Arc, we
notice to our left a tower called La Tour de Jeanne d'Arc. This is,
however, not the identical tower in which Jeanne d'Arc, or the Maid of
Orleans, was imprisoned; the latter formed one of the seven towers
surrounding the still existing castle, and was destroyed in 1809. A
little farther on we come to the Place de la Paille, or the Maid of
Orleans Square, where Jeanne d'Arc was burnt to death, a victim to
the stupid and revengeful bigotry of her time. But we must not linger
too long with historic details. We need only to go on a few steps to find
ourselves before another interesting monument of earlier centuries-less
important than others, no doubt, but not less characteristic of this
strange city, where art, history, and legend are on every side-the great
clock le Gros Horloge." A triumphal arch supports the enormous dial
plate, under which passes one of the most busy streets of the city. The!
mechanism of the clock itself dates from 1389, and precedes the con-
struction of the tower which encloses it, the arch which spans the street,
and the ancient city hall. No true citizen of Rouen neglects to set his
watch, when, in the evening, it strikes on its silver bell the hour of nine
-the "couvre-feu" (that is, the "cover-the-fire signal," the English
curfew), prescribed by the ancient Duke William of Normandy.

One Vast Continuous Village.
From Rouen we go to Amiens, whence, following the French coast,
we may reach the lowlands of Belgium, or, keeping to the right, enter
it by its industrial section. The- northern and eastern provinces of
Belgium, in their flatness, fertility, and the number of their canals
and dykes, can be geographically regarded only as a continuation of
Holland, and this portion teems with population, so that, in traversing
it, it has the appearance of one vast continuous village. The south-
ern provinces, on the contrary, consist, in a great degree, of rugged
mountains covered with dense forests, intersected by rapid streams, and


abounding in really picturesque scenery, the effect of which is increased
by the frequent occurrence of old, feudal castles. It is especially along
the river Meuse that the interesting scenery is found, and although the
part below the city of Namur is most frequented by travelers, yet all the
upper district is well worth a visit. For a considerable distance the
river is hemmed in by magnificent bluffs of limestone. Below Dinant
rises the castle of Porlvache, and quite near the town stands the ruined
castle of Bonvigne. During the siege of this place by the French, under
the Duke de Nevers (1554), three beautiful women retired with their

M%-- AM

husbands into one of the towers, hoping to assist and encourage the
garrison by their presence. The defence was obstinate, but at last they
were all slain but the three heroines, who, unwilling to submit to the
brutality of the conquerors, threw themselves from the top of the tower,
in sight of the French, and were dashed to pieces on the rocks. About
half a mile above Dinant, the road goes through a kind of natural portal,
a long, narrow ridge or wall of rock, projecting from the precipitous cliffs
on the right, and on the left a pointed and bold isolated mass of rock,
called the Roche Bayard (Bayard Rock). The finest point on the Meuse
is about three miles above the Bayard Rock, at the castle of Fuyr, of


which our picture shows one tower, a country seat with beautiful gardens
situated on the left bank of the river, at the base of cliffs and richly
wooded hills, furrowed by ravines. Within the grounds is a pretty,
natural grotto, abounding in stalactites, and singularly lighted by an
aperture in the rocks. Opposite to Fuyr the stupendous cliffs of lime-
stone rise directly from the Meuse, presenting many striking forms and
outlines, sometimes jutting out in ledges, at other times separated into
isolated fragments; sometimes the upper part projects and overhangs
the river.
The Battle at Sedan.
It is but a few miles from this point to French territory, the border town
being Givet, and it may not be amiss to remind the reader that about
forty miles to the south, at Sedan, one of the most important battles of the
Franco-Prussian war was fought. Napoleon with the French army was
practically surrounded in the fortress of Sedan. The pride of Napoleon
III gave way; the city and the army surrendered, and the emperor, him-
self, wrote to King William: "Having failed to find death in the midst
of my troops, it only remains for me to lay my sword at your majesty's
feet. I remain, your majesty's good brother, Napoleon." And, on Sep-
tember 2, 1870, Napoleon, a fugitive from his own troops and from
France, left Sedan. He became a prisoner of war, and the king
assigned for his abode, until the end of the conflict, the Wilhelmshohe at
Cassel, one of the finest residences in Germany. Following the Meuse
downward we come to Namur, the Belgian Sheffield, renowned for its
cutlery. Only about fifteen miles away to the west, we should reach a
part of Belgium which has been called the Cock-pit" of Europe, because
it has been for ages the ground upon which the powers of Europe have
decided their quarrels. The fields of Ligny, Fleurus, Quatre Bras, and
best known of all, Waterloo, confirm this statement. It was on the road
from Waterloo, near the town of Genape, that the Prussians captured
the carriage of Napoleon I, on the night after the battle, and nearly
took him prisoner. From this place to Sedan, where Napoleon III sur-
rendered, is but about sixty miles.
The Belgian Birmingham.
As Namur has been called the Belgian Sheffield, so Liege, still farther
down the picturesque Meuse, has been styled the Belgian Birmingham,


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