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oftheFLORIDA STATE MUSEUMBiologicalSciencesVolume23 '. 1978Numher3 CATALOGUE OFFOSSILBIRDS PAHT.5PIEH(:EBnoDKoRB UNIVERSITYOFFLORIDAGAINESVILLE

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Numbers oftheBULLETINOFTHEFLORIDA STATE MUSEUM,BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, are publishedat intervals. Volumes contain about 300 and are not necessarilycompletedinanyonecalendar year.OLIVERL.AUSTIN,JR.,EditorRHODAJ.RYBAK, Managing Editor Consultants for this issue:J.ALANFEDUCCIASTORRSOLSONCommunications concerning purchase or exchange ofthepublications and all manuscripts should be addressed to: Managing Editor, Bulletin; Florida State Museum; University of Florida; Gainesville. Florida 3261I.Thispublicdocumentwaspromulgatedatan annual cost of $5219.66 or $5.220percopy.Itmakes available to libraries, scholars,andallinterestedpersonstheresults of researches inthenaturalsciences,emphasizingthecircum-Caribbeanregion.Publication date:December15, 1978 Price: $5.25

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CATALOGUEOFFOSSIL BIRDS PART 5 (P ASSERIFORMES)PIERCEBRODKORB1SYNOPSIS:ThefifthinstallmentoftheCatalol!.ueofFossil BirdsincludesthePasseriformes,birdsofuncertainposition,tracefossils,nominanuda,doubtfulbirdsanda listofnon-avianspeciesdeleted.Addendaandcorrigendatopreviouspartsandanindextothe whule workwillbesuppliedlater.TABLEOF CONTE:
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1978BRODKORB:CATALOGUEOFFOSSIL BIRDSTABLEOF COl'\TDITS(CONTL'IUED) 141fMiocittaBrodkorb.fPr%cittaBrodkorb.f Henoc"itta Holman.SubfamilyCORVINAE(Vigors).Crows. Linnaeus..NeospedesofCorvidae..FamilyPARADISAEIDAE(Vieillot).BowerbirdsandBirdsofParadise.NeospeciesofParadisaeidae. .FamilyMENURIDAE(Gray).Lyrebirds...FamilyATHICHORNITHIDAEStejneger.Sc.:rub-birds..FamilvACANTHISITTIDAE(Sundevall).NewZealand\VrellS..Familv P.\HIIHE Boie.Tits..NeospedesofParidae.FamilvSITTIDAE(Bonaparte). I'\uthatches.I'\eospedes ofSittidae.FamilyCERTHIIDAE(Vigors).Creepers..NeospeciesofCerthiidae..FamilyCAMPEPHAGIDAE(Vigors).Cuckoo-shrikes.FamilyPYCNONOTIDAE(Gray).Bulbuls..NeospeciesofPycnonotidae.FamilyCINCLIDAE(Cabanis).WaterOuzelsNeospedesofCinc.:lidaeFamilyTHOGLODYTIDAE(Swainson).\Vrens.Cis/o/homsCabanis. I'\eospecies ofTroglodvtidae.Familv Vigors.Thrushes.Babblers,andOldWorldFlvcatchers..SubfamilvMYADESTINAEBonaparte.SolitairesfPalaeoscinisHoward.NeospeciesofMusdc.:apidae .FamilySYLVIIDAE(Vigors).OldWorldWarblers...........NeospeciesofSvlviidae.FamilyPHUELLIDAERichmond.Acc.:entorsNeospedesofPrunellidae..FamilvMOTACILLIDAE(Vigors).WagtailsNeospeciesofMotac.:illidae .FamilyBOMBYCILLIDAE(Swainson).Waxwings.NeospeciesofBombvcillidaeFamilyDULIDAE(Sclater).Palm-chats..jeospeciesofDulidae.FamilyAHTAMIDAEBlyth.Wood-swallowsFamilyLANIIDAESwainson.Shrikes.Lani/lsLinnaeus..eospeciesofLaniidae. ]57 ]57 ]58 ]58 ]58 ]60] 7]]71]71]72172]72 ]72 J 7:3]7-t ]7-t ]7-t ]7-t]7.3 ]7.3]75175176 176 176]76],8],8]7lJ]8618, ]88IS8 188 ]8lJIlJO1lJO]lJ() Hl() 1lJO ]90 ]lJ]]lJ]FIGUREI.-Someworkersinavianpaleontology,XVIInternationalOrnithologicalCongress,Canberra,Australia,17August1974.Lefttoright:G.F.vanTets,Lyneham,A.C.T.;PatVickersRich,Clayton,Victoria;C.J. O.Harrison,Tring;JoelCracraft,Chicago;ThomasRich,Clayton;PierceBrodkorb,Gainesville;CharlesT.Collins,LongBeach,California;RonJ.Sc.:arlett,Canterbury,NewZealand;StorrsL.Olson,Washington;CyrilA.Walker,London;RobertW.Storer,AnnArbor;JosephR.Jehl,SanDiego;PeterBallman, Koln. PhotographbyC.A.Walker.

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142BULLETIFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol.23,No.3TABLEOFCONTENTS(CONTINUED)FamilySTURNIDAEVigors. Starlings .fNecropsarSlater..Neospeeies of Sturnidae....FamilyMELlPHAGIDAEVigors. Honey-eaters..Neospecies of Meliphagidae..FamilyCALLAEATIDAE(Gray).WattledCrows..Neospeeies of Callaeatidae....FamilyNECTARINIIDAE(Vigors).Sunbirds...............................FamilyPARDALOTIDAE(Bonaparte). Flower-peekers..FamilyZQSTEROPIDAE(Bonaparte). White-eyes..FamilyVIREONIDAE(Swainson). Vireos....Neospecies of Vireonidae..FamilyCOEREBIDAE(Gray). Wood Warblers and HoneyCreepers..Neospeeies of Coerebidae FamilyTANAGRIDAE(Vigors). Tanagers..N eospecies of Tanagridae ...FamilyICTERIDAE(Vigors). TroupialsandBlackbirds .fCremasterBrodkorb .fPandanarisA.H. Miller .EuphagusCassin.... f PlJelorhamphusA.H.Miller... Neospecies of Icteridae....FamilyEMBERIZIDAEVigors.Buntings.....fPalaeostruthusWetmore.. ..PipiloVieillot..ZonotrichiaSwainson .. Neospecies of Emberizidae..FamilyPASSERIDAE(Illiger). SparrowsandFinches..PasserLinnaeus ... ..PetroniaKaup.... ..Neospecies of Passeridae..AVESINCERTAESEDIS... ...INDICIAAVIUM....PLUMAE.PUTAMINAOvonUM..VESTIGIAAVIUM..OMINAAVIUMNUDA... ..SPECIESNONAVIUMDELETAEINTRODUCTION192 192 192 193 193194 194 194194 194195195 195 196 197 198 198 199 199200 200 200 202 202 203 20.3 203 205 206 206 207211217218219 220 222 223Inthe recent avifauna the Passeriformes include almost twiceasmany genera and speciesasall the other avian orders combined,buttheir fossil recordisvery poor except for neospecies.Wehave no proofthatthey came into existence before the Miocene epoch, although in the 1800's four alleged passerines were described from the late Eocene of the Paris Basin. A presumed

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1978BRODKORB:CATALOGUEOFFOSSIL BIRDS143nuthatch,Sitta? cuvieriGervais 1852,laterbecamethetypeofPalaegithalusMilne-Edwards 1871, who said it combinedthecharacters ofSylvia, Parus,andPaTUla(genera belonging to three distantly related families)! In 1871 Milne-Edwards describedLaurillardia longirostris,andin 1891Flotaddedtwo more species,L.munieriandL.parisiensis,all said tobeeitherstarlingsorthrushes. Bothgeneraneed restudyandclose comparisonwithCoracii formesaswellasvarious oscineandsub oscine families.Foursuborders of Passeriformesareordinarily recognized,theEurylaimi, Tyranni, Menurae,andPasseres,butI agreewithFeducciain unitingtheOldWorldandNewWorld"suboscines" ontheonehandversusthePasseressensu stricto,Menuridae, Atrichornithidae,andAcanthisittidae on the other.Thederived condition of the stapes intheEurylaimi' eliminatesthatgroup fromtheancestry ofthePasseres, which retain a primitive stapes. The Eury laimiandHalcyones2have similar stapedes, whereas it has longbeenrecog nizedthatPasseresandPiciformes share many osteological characters.Theorders of birds are too finely split. Relationships wouldbebetterexpressedbyreducing PiciformesandCoraciiformestosuborders of Passeri formes.Theearliest record for Piciformesisearly Eocene, for Coraciiformes middle Eocene, for Passeres early Miocene,andfor Eurylaimi middle Mi ocene. All could havebeenderived fromthesame stock.Thepresumptive ancestoristhelate Cretaceous Alexornithidae (see Addenda).ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe consultants for this issue, Alan Feduccia and Storrs Olson, have long been interested in the phylogeny of the Passeriformes. They have made many pertinent suggestions that have im proved my work. Special thanksgoto Dr. Olson, my former student, for his generous helpinsomany ways. Friends acknowledged in previous parts have continued their valued cooperation.Itisnowmypleasure to thank the following additional persons for sending publications or specimens: Rafael Alvarez, Ann Arbor;O.G.Bendukidze, Tbilisi, GeorgianSSR;Zygmunt Bochenski, Krakow, Poland; Richard Brooke, Salisbury, Rhodesia; Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr., Los Angeles; GrahamS.Cowles, London;P.A.Clancy, Durban, Republic of South Africa; Andrzej Elzan owski, Warszawa, Poland; C.J.O.Harrison, Tring,U.K.;F. Clark Howell, Berkeley;J.Howard Hutchison, Berkeley; Carl Johanson, Cleveland;M.P.Stuart Irwin, Bulawayo, Rhodesia; William Morris,LosAngeles; Cecile Mourer-Chauvire, Lyon; StephenA.Nesbitt, Gainesville; OscarT.Owre, Coral Gables; Pat Vickers Rich and Thomas Rich, Clayton, Australia; HoraceG.Richards, Philadelphia; David W. Steadman, Washington; JohnA.Talent, Melbourne,, Feduccia used Tyranni for this suborder, which he raised to ordinal rank, naming it Tyranniformes. Although order-group names are not covered by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, it seems preferable to follow the Code's "basic principle of zoological nomenclature," priority, a practice with which] believe Feduccia now concurs. For order-group synonymies of Passeriformes seepostea., In splitting the Coraciiformes into four separate orders Feduccia proposed another new ordinal name, Alcediniformes, based on the most junior of four order-group names for the todies, kingfishers, and motmots. For synonymies, seePart4 of this work, pp. 248 and 252.

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144BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.3Australia;G.F. van Tets, Lyneham, Australia;M.A.Voinstvenski, Kiev; JohnS.Waldrop, Lake Wales, Florida; Alick D. Walker, Newcastle-upon-Tyne,U.K.;C.A.Walker, London; ClaytonM.White, Provo, Utah.Asthe earlier parts of the Catalogue are out of print andtheliterature on avian paleon tology has increased greatly duringtheI5-year interval since the publication of PartI,a re vised editioniscontemplated. I therefore request correspondents to continue their cooperation.OrderPASSERIFORMES(Linnaeus)PasseresLinnaeus 1758, System a Naturae, ed. 10, vol.I,pp. 82, 85,162(ordo; not based on genericname).-PasseresLinnaeus 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, pp. 119, 279 (ordo; type by tautonomyPasserBrissonI760).-PasserinaeNitzsch 1820, Deutsche Archiv rur Physi ologie, vol 6, p.253.-PasseriniJohannes Muller 1847, Abhandl.K.Akad. Berlin, Phys.KI.,p.366(ordo).-PasserifonnesGarrod 1874, Proc. Zool.Soc.London, pp. 117,122(order).-PasseresSharpe 1877(.July24), Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 3,p.1 (suborder).PasserifonnesHay 1930 (Jan.), Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. No. 390, vol. 2, p. 353 (suborder).HirundinesWagler 1830, Naturliches System der Amphibien mit vorangehender Classification der SaugethiereundVogel, pp.82,86(ordo; typeHirundoLinnaeus).CorviWagler 1830, op. cit., pp. 82, 113 (ordo; typeCorvus Linnaeus).-CorvifonnesSharpe 1891, Review of Recent Attempts to Classify Birds, p. 89 (subsection) [between section and family].CerthiomorphaeSunde vall 1872, Methodi Naturalis Avium Disponendarum Tentamen, pt. I,p.46 (cohors; typeCerthiaLinnaeus).CinnyrimorphaeSundevaIl1872, Tentamen, pt. I, p. 48 (cohors; typeCinnyrisCuvier).SyLviifonnesSundevall 1874, Cfversigt Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akad. Forhandl.,no.2,p.28 (pha lanx [between cohors and ordo]; typeSyLviaLatham).LaniifonnesSundervall 1874, CEfversigt Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akad. Forhandl.,no.2,p. 30 (pha lanx; typeLaniusLinnaeus).FringiLlifonnesSharpe 1885 (after March 9), Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 10, pp.ix,1 (section; typeFringiLLaLinnaeus).EuryLaemiSeebohm 1890, Classification of Birds, pp. vii,xi,4 (suborder; type EuryLaemus Agassiz 1846, an emendation ofEuryLaimusHorsfield1821).-EuryLaemiSharpe 1891, Review of Recent Attempts to Classify Birds, p. 84(order).-EuryLaimiWetmore 1930 (Jan. 8), Proc.U.S.Nat. Mus., vol. 76, art. 24, p. 6 (suborder).MenuraeSharpe 1891, Review of Recent Attempts to Classify Birds, p.84(order; typeMenura Davies).-MenuraeWetmoreand W. deW. Miller 1926 (July 3), Auk, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 345(suborder.-MenurifomtesMathews 1927, System a Avium Australasianarum, p. 000 (order).TyranniWetmoreand W. deW. Miller 1926 (July 3), Auk, vol. 43,no.3, p. 345 (suborder; typeTyrannus Lacepede).-Tyrannifomtes Feduccia 1975 (May 30), Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Misc. Publ.no.63, p. 30 (order).FumariiAmes 1971 (March), Bull. Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist., no. 37,p.153(suborder; typeFurnariusVieillot).SuborderEURYLAIMI(Seebohm)EuryLaemiSeebohm1890.-EuryLaimiWetmore, 1930.TyranniWetmoreand W. deW. Miller1926.-TyrannifonnesFeduccia, 1975.FurnariiAmes 1971.FamilyEURYLAIMIDAE(Swainson)EuryLaiminaeSwainson 1837, Natural History and Classification of Birds, vol. 2, p. 80 (sub family; typeEuryLaimus Horsefield).-EuryLaimidaeSelys-Longchamps 1842, fide Newton

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1978BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSILBIRDS145(family).-Eury/aeminaeCabanis1847, Archivf.Naturgeschkhte, Jahrg. 23, vol. I, pt. 2, p. 343(subfamilia).-Eury/aimidaeBonaparte 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, vol.1,p.168(familia).-Eurylae71lidaeScIater 1888 (June 28), Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol.14,pp.xix,454 (family).CalyptomeninaeBonaparte 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, vol.1,p. 169 (subfamilia; typeCalypto71lenaRaffles).Eurylaimidaegen.etsp.indet.Ellrylai71lidaegen. indet., sp. indet. Ballmann "1966" (Jan. 25, 1967), Vogel aus der altburdi galen Spaltenfullung von Wintershof (West) bei Eichstiitt in Bayem, pp. 39,89.Eurylai71lidaegen.etsp. indet. Ballman 1969(1Sept.), Zittelliana, vol.1,p.49,pI.2,fig.6-7 (proximal end of ulna, distal end of humerus and tarsometatarsus, Bayer. Staats sammlung fur Palaontologie und historische Geologie, Munchen).MIDDLEMIOCENE(earlyBurdigalian).BAVARIA:Wintershof(West).FamilyPHILEPITTIDAE(Sharpe)PhilepittinaeSharpe 1870, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 397 (subfamily; typePhilepittaGeoffroy).-PhilepittidaeForbes 1880, Proc. Zool.Soc.London, p. 387 (family).PaictinaeSundevall 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 63 (familia; typePaictesSundevall, 1872, a junior synonym ofPhilepittaGeoffroy 1839).NeodrepaninaeSharpe 1909, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, vol.5,pp.xiii,34 (subfamily; typeNeodrepanis Sharpe).Nofossilrecord.FamilyPITTIDAEBonaparteBrachYllridaeBlyth 1849, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiatic Soc.,p.155 (family typeBrachyurusThun berg 1821, a .junior synonym ofPittaVieillot, 1816).PittidaeBonaparte 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. I,p.253 (family; typePittaVieillot).EllcichlinaeSundevall 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.5 (familia; typeEucichlaReichenbach 1850, a junior synonym ofPittaVieillot, 1816).Nofossilrecord.FamilyFURNARIIDAE(Gray)AnabatinaeSwainson 1837, Natural History and Classification of Birds, vol. 2, pp. 131,315 (sub family; typeAnabatesTemminck 1820, a junior synonym ofSynallaxisVieillot, 1818).-AnabatidaeJohannes Muller 1846 (read 1845), Abhandl.Kgl.Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Phys.KI.,p. 383 (familia).UppucerthidaeD'Orbigny [1838], fide Gray (typeUppucerthiaLafresnaye and D'Orbigny, 1838, a junior synonym ofUpucerthiaI.Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire 1832).FumarinaeG.R.Gray 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p.16(subfamily; typeFllmariusVieillot).-FumariinaeCabanis 1847, Archiv fUr Naturgeschichte (Berlin), pt.1,p. 339(subfamilia).-FumariidaeSundevall 1872, Methodi naturalis Avium disponde narum Tentamen, p. 55 (familia).-Fumariidae Stejneger 1885, Standard Natural History, vol. 4, p. 479(family).-FumariidesWetmore 1930 (Jan. 8), Proc.U.S.Nat. Mus., vol. 76, art. 24, p. 6 (superfamily).-Fumarioidea Wetmore 1934 (Apr. 23), Smithsonian Misc. ColI., vol. 89,no.13, p. 10 (superfamily).DendrocolaptinaeG.R.Gray 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 17 (subfamily; type

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146BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.3Dendrocolaptes Herman).-DendrocolaptidaeSelys-Longchamps 1842, fide Gray (family).-DendrocolaptinaeSundevall1872, Tentamen,p.56(familia).-DendrocolapteaeRidgway1911(nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5,p.226.SynallaxinaeG.R.Gray J846 (Feb.), Genera of Birds, vol.J,p.J35 (subfamily; typeSyllallaxis Vieillot).-SyllallaxillaeSundevall 1872 Tentamen,p.55 (subfamilia).-Synalilaeae Ridg way1911(Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5,p.160.SclerurillaeSclater 1862, Cat. Coli.Am.Birds,p.145 (subfamily; typeSclerurusSwainson).PhilydorinaeSclater 1890 (after March7),Cat. Birds Brit. Mus.,vol.15,pp.xii,3, 74 (sub family; typePhilydorSpix).MargaromithesRidgway1911(ov.29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 5,p.159 (group; typeMargarornisReichenbach).PseudocolapteaeRidgway1911(Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 5,p.162 (group; typePseudocolaptesReichenbach).AutollwleaeRidgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat.Mus.no.50, pt. 5,p.162(group; typeAuto1l1olusReichenbach).XiphocolapteaeRidgway 1911 (ov.29),Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5,p.226 (group; typeXiphocolaptesLesson).GlyphorphynchinaeRidgway1911(ov.29),Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt.5,p.227 (sub family; typeGlyphorynclltls Wied).-GlyphorhYllcheaeRidgway 19J1,loc. cit.DrymomithesRidgway 19J J (Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt.5,p.227 (group; typeDrymomisEyton).SittasomaeRidgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 5,p.227 (group; typeSittasomusSwainson).DelldrocillclaeRidgway J911 (Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt.5,p.227 (group; typeDelldrocillclaGray).Neospecies of Furnariidae from the Pleistocene andHolocene SubfamilyDENDROCOLAPTINAE1.Xiphocolaptes albicollis(Vieillot). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania(0.Winge 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol.1,pp.8,9, 15, 48).2.Lepidocolaptes angustirostris(Vieillot). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania and Lapa daEscrivania (asPicolaptes bivittatusO.Winge 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol.1,pt.2,pp. 8,48).Winge also mentions "Species multae, indeterminate, etiam affines Furnario etc." See Lund (1841, Oversigt over det kongelige Danske videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger, pp. 16-18). Giebel (1847, Fauna der Vorwelt,vol.1,pt. 2, pp. 13, 17,39) and Lambrecht (1933, Handbuch der Palaeornithologie,p.779) refer to these indeterminate fossils under the namesDelldrocolaptes[sic],OpetiorhYllchus(a synonym ofFumarius),andAllabates(a synonym ofSynallaxis).FamilyTHAMNOPHILIDAE(Vigors)ThamnophilinaVigors 1825, fide Gray (typeThamnophilus VieiJIot).-ThamnophilinaeSwainson 1832 (Feb.), Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2,p.105(subfamily).-Tamnophilinae[sic]Bonaparte 1850 (Feb.), Conspectus Generum Avium, vol.1,sig.25,p.197 (subfamilia).ThamnophilinaeSundevall 1872, Tentamen,p.63(familia).-ThamnophileaeRidgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,No.50, pt. 5,p.10.MyiotheridaeBoie 1826, Isis,p.973 (typeMyiotheraIlIiger 1811, a .junior synonym ofFormi cariusBoddaert1783).-Myotherinae[sic]Swainson 1837, Nat. Hist. and Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 18,24(subfamily).-MyiotherinaeBonaparte 1850 (Feb.), Conspectus Generum Avium, vol.1,sig. 26,p.197 (subfamilia).FormicarinaeG.R.Gray 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds,p.25 (subfamily; typeFormicarus Boddaert).-FormicariidaeSclater 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,p.69(family).-FormicariinaeG.R.Gray, 1869 (after May10),Hand-list of Genera and Subgenera of Birds, pt.1,pp.XVi,297(subfamily).-FormicaroideaeStejneger 1885, Standard Nat. Hist., vol. 4, pp.460,476(superfamily).-FormicaroideiCope 1889 (Oct.),

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1978 BRODKORB:CATALOGUEOFFOSSIL BIRDS 147Amer. Naturalist, vol. 23,p.873(superfamily).-FonllicarieaeRidgway 1911 (TOV29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.SO,pt.5,p.15(group).-FonllicaroidaeHay 1930, Carnegie lnst. Washington, Publ. 390, vol. 2,p.354 (superfamily).EriodoridaeCabanis 1847, Archiv. fur Naturgeschicte (Berlin), Jahrg. 23, vol. I,no.1,p. 209 (familia; typeEriodoraGloger 1826, a junior synonym ofFomlicariusSwainson1824).EriodorillaeCabanis1847, op. cit. (subfamily).FonnicivorillaeSclater 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 238 (subfamily; typeFonllicivora Swainson).-FonllicivoraeRidgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.SO,pt. 5, p. 12 (group).H'IpocnemidillaeCabanis 1847, Archiv Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. I,no.I, p. 212 (subfamilia; typeH'Ipocllemis Cabanis).-H'IPocllemididaeCabanis 1859(1July), Museum Heineanum, pt. 2, sig. I,p.3 (familia).M'InnomithillaeSundevall 1872, lethodi Naturalis Avium Dispondenarum Tentamen,p.64(familia: typeMymlOrnisHermann). H'Ipsibaemollillae Sundevall 1872, op. cit.,p.64(familia:HypsibaemollCabanis 1847,ajunior synonym ofGral/ariaVieillot 1816).COllopophagillaeSclater and Salvin 1873, Nomenclator Avium Neotropicalium,p.41(sub familia; typeCOllopophagaVieillot).-Collopophagidae Garrod 1877, Proc. Zool.Soc.London, p. 452.GrallariillaeSclater 1890 (after March7),Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 15, pp.xvi,177, 306 (subfamily; typeGrallaria Vieillot).-GrallariaeRidgway1911(Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no.SO,pt. 5,p.17.Pith'leaeRidgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.SO,pt. 5, p.16(typePith'lsViei1lot).RhopoterpeaeRidgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 5, p. 17 (typeRhopo terpeCabanis 1847, a junior synonym ofFonllicivorusTemminck 1807).Pittasomae[sic] Ridgway1911(Nov. 29), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.SO,pt. 5,p.17(typePittasol1laCassin).Neospecies of Thamnophilidae from the Pleistocene1.Chamaeza brevicauda(Vieillot). BRAZIL: LapadaEscrivania(0.Winge 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol. I, no. 2, pp.8,13,47).FamilySCYTALOPODIDAE(J.Muller)Rhinam'ldaeaed'Orbigny 1838, Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale, vol. 4, pt. 3,p.192 (type Rhinam'la Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire 1832, preoccupied by Rhinam'la Robineau-Desvoidy 1830).SC'ltalopidaeJohannesMuller 1846, Abhandl.K.Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 383 (familia; typeSC'ltalopus Gould).-Sc'ltalopodidaeHuxley 1867, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p.471.SC'ltalopodinaeSundevall 1872 (Aug. I), Methodi naturalis avium disponendarum Ten tam en, pt. I, p. 65.PteroptochidaeCabanisandHeine 1859(4Aug.), Museum Omithologicum Heineanum, pt.2,p. 20 (familia; typePteroptochus Kittlitz).-PteroptochinaeCabanis and Heine 1859, op. cit., p. 20 (subfamilia).RhinocryptidaeWetmore 1930 (Jan. 8), Proc.U.S.Nat. Mus., vol. 76, art. 24, p. 6 (family; typeRhinocryptaGray 1841, new name for Rhinam'la Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire 1832).No fossil record. FamilyTYRANNIDAE(Vigors)T'lranninaVigors 1825, fide Gray (typeTyrannus Lacepede).T'lranninaeSwainson 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 107 (subfamily).-T'lrannidaeMuller 1846, Abhandl.K.Akad.

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148BULLETINFLORIDASTATEMUSEUMVol.23,No.3Wiss. Berlin,p.OOO.-TlfranninaeSundevall 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 57 (familia).TlJrannoideaeStejneger 1885, Standard Nat. Hist., vol.4,pp. 460, 463 (super-family).TlJrannoideaWetmore 1934, Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 89, no. 13, p. 10.FluvicolinaeSwainson 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 5, 21, 89 (subfamily; typeFluvicolaSwainson).TaeniopterinaeGray 1841, List Genera Birds, ed. 2, p. 40 (subfamily; typeTaeniopteraBonaparte1830, a junior synonym ofXolmisBoie 1826).AlectrurinaeG.R.Gray 1847 (Sept.), Genera of Birds, vol.1,p.241(subfamily; typeAlect rurusVeiellot).ColopteridaeCabanis 1847, Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 23,Bd.1,no.1,p.232 (familia; typeColopterusCabanis, preoccupied byColopterusErichson 1842).PlatlfrhlfnchinaeCabanis1847, Archivf.Naturg., Jahrg. 23,Bd.1,pt.1,p.251 (subfamilia; typePlatlfrinchus Desmaret).-PlatlfrinchinaeHellmayr 1927, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., zool. ser., vol. 13, pt. 5, pp. 5, 261.ElaininaeCabanis and Heine 1859 (Sept.), Museum Heineanum, pt. 2, p. 55 (subfamilia; typeElaeniaSundevall).-Elaineinae Sclater 1888, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 14, pp. viii, 3,109.-ElaeniinaeHellmayr 1927, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. ser., vol. 13, pt. 4, pp.vi,400.ConopophaginaeSclater and Salvin 1873, Nomenclature Avium Neotropicalium,p.41(sub family; typeConopophaga Vieillot).-ConopophagidaeGarrod, 1877, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 452.EuscarthminaeRidgway, 1906 (Jan. 29), Proc.BioI.Soc. Washington, vol. 19,p.11(sub family; typeEuscarthmusWied).SerpophaginaeRidgway, 1906 (Jan. 29), Proc.BioI.Soc. Washington, vol. 19, p.11(subfamily; typeSerpophagaGould).PitanginaeRidgway, 1906 (Jan. 29), Proc.BioI.Soc. Washington, vol. 19, p.12(subfamily; typePitangusSwainson).MlfiarchinaeHellmayr, 1926, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., zool. ser., vol. 13, pt.5,pp. 158 (subfamily; typeMlfiarchusCabanis).Neospecies of Tyrannidae fromthePleistoceneandHolocene1.Salfomis phoebe(Latham). ILLINOIS: Meyer Cave? (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleological Soc. Bull;; vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 145,no.2, p.12).2.SalJomis salJus(Bonaparte). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria?(A.H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no.7,p.172,pI.13,fig.e).NEWMEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, p.16).3.Tlfrannus tlfrannus(Linnaeus). FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31,p. 136).4. Tlfrannus dominicensis(Gmelin). BAHAMAS: cave 10 mi.S.of March Harbor on Abaco Island (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3,p.238). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro San Francisco (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 279). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral and Cueva Clara (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 324).5. TlfrannusvociferansSwainson. CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea?(A.H. Miller, 1929, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 19, no.1,p. 6,pI.1,fig.b).6. Tlfrannus caudifasciatus(d'Orbigny). BAHAMAS: cave10mi.S.of Marsh Harbor on Abaco Island (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33. no. 3, p. 238). HAITI: St. MicheldeI'Atalye (Wetmore, 1922, Smithsonian Misc. Coil., vol. 74,no.4, p.4).DOMINICAN REPUBLIC:CerroSan Francisco (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 279). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedraland Cueva Clara (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 324).7. Mlfiarchus crinitus(Linnaeus). ILLINOIS: Meyer Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleolog.Soc.Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130).8.Mlfiarchus stolidus(Gosse). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer.Mus.Nat. Hist., vol. 46,p.325).

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1978BRODKORB:CATALOGUEOFFOSSIL BIRDS1499. Contopus virens(Linnaeus). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys(Wetmore,1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 145,no.2, p.12).10. Contopus caribaeus(OOrbigny). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: CuevaSanFrancisco? (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 279). 11.Contopus latirostris(Verreaux). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46,no.325).12. Empidonaxsp. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria(A.H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21,no.7,p. 172,pI.14,fig. D. ILLINOIS:Meyer Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleolog. Soc. Bull., vol. 29,no.4, p. 130).FamilyOXYRUNCIDAERidgwayOXlJrhlJnchidaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt.2,p. 299 (subfamily; typeOx IJrhlJnchusSwainson, 1821, a junior synonym ofOXlJruncusTemminck, 1820).-Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I,p.57 (familia).OXlJruncidaeRidgway, 1906 (Jan.29),Proc.BioI.Soc.Wash., vol. 19,p.8 (family; typeOxyWIlCUSTemminck).No fossil record. FamilyPHYTOTOMIDAE(Swainson)PhlJtotominaeSwainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol.2,p. 296 (subfamily; typePhyto toma Molina).-PhlJtotomidaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. I, p. 86 (familia).No fossil record. FamilyQUERULIDAE(Swainson)AmpelidaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt.2,p. 232 (family; typeAmpelisLinnaeus, 1766, a junior synonym ofCotingaBrisson,1760).-AmpelinaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (before April), List of Genera of Birds,p.34 (subfamily).CoracinaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2,p.500 (subfamily; typeCoracinaVieillot, 1816, a senior synonym ofPyroderusG.R.Gray,1840).-CoracininaeCabanis,1847, Arch. fur Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. I, pt. I, p. 342. Querulinae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 91, 255 (typeQuerulaVieillot).-QuaerulinaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. I, p. 179.TitlJranaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (before April), List of Genera of Birds, p.31(subfamily; type TityraVieillot).-TitlJrinaeGray, 1841, List Genera Birds, ed. 2, p.41.-TitlJrinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I,p.62(familia).-TitlJraeRidgway, 1907, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 4, p. 777.PlJroderinaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (before April), List of Genera of Birds, p.38(subfamily; typePlJroderusG.R.Gray).-PlJroderaeRidgway, 1907, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 4,p.777.GlJmnoderinaeG.R.Gray, 1847 (March), Genera of Birds, vol. 2, p. 317 (subfamily; typeGlJm noderus Geoffroy).-GlJmnoderaeRidgway, 1907, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 4,p.778.PsarinaeCabanis, 1847, Archiv fur Naturgeschicte, Jahrg. 23, vol. I,no.I, p. 236 (subfamily; typePsarisCurvier, 1817, a junior synonym ofTitlJraVieillot, 1816).COtingidaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. I, p. 170 (familia; typeCotingaBrisson).HeliocherinaeBonaparte, 1853 (seance du31Oct.), C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, no. 18, p. 645 (subfamilia; typeHeliocheraFilippi).AttilinaeSclater, 1862, Cat. Call. Amer. Birds, p. 194 (subfamily; typeAttilaLesson).

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150BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol.2:3,No.3RupicolinaeSclater, 1962, Cat. Coli. Amer. Birds, p. 253 (subfamily; typeRupicolaBrisson).RupicolaSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.61(familia).-RupicolidaeRidgway, 1906 (Jan. 29), Proc.BioI.Soc.Washington,vol.19,p.9.AmpelioninaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.62 (familia; typeAmpelioCabanis).ProcniatinaeRidgway, 1907, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 4,p.778 (subfamily; typeProcniasIlIiger).PtilochlorinaeSclater, 1888, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 14, pp.xvi,282, 316 (subfamily; typePtilochlorisSwainson, 1837, a junior synonym ofLaniisornaSwainson, 1832).No fossil record. FamilyPIPRIDAEVigorsPipridaeVigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol.14,p.435 (family; type Pipm Linnaeus).PiprinaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (after Apr.), List of Genera of Birds,p.33 (subfamily).-Piprinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.60 (familia).No fossil record. SuborderPASSERESLinnaeusPasseresLinnaeus 1766.HirundinesWagler 1830.CoroiWagler 1830.CerthiomorphaeSundevall 1872.CinnyriomorphaeSundevall 1872.SylviifonnesSundevalll874.LaniifomlesSundevalll874.MenumeSharpe 1891.Family ALAUDIDAE (Vigors)AlaudinaVigors, 1825, Zoological Journal, vol.1,p.445 (stirps; typeAlaudaLinnaeus).AlaudidaeBoie, 1826,Isisvon Oken, col. 974 (family).-Alaudinae Bonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzione Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati,p.51(subfamilia).AlaudinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.53 (familia).CalandritinaeCabanis,1851 (May), Museum Heineanum, pt.1,sig.16,p.121(subfamilia; typeCalandritisCabanis, 1851, a .junior synonym ofCalandrellaKaup, 1829).GenusMelanocoryphaBoieMelanocoryphaBoie, 1828, Isis von Oken, vol. 21, col. 322 (typeAlauda yeltoniensisForster, designated by Gray, 1840, Recent).1.Melanocorypha gracilisTchernovMelanocorypha gracilisTchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleistocene Deposits of 'Ubeidiya, p. 14,pI.2,figs.1-18 (syntypes from Ubeidiya, 40 prox. ends of coracoids, 5 prox. and 9 dist. ends of humeri,10prox. and15dist. ends of ulnae, 33 prox. and 7 dist. ends of carpometacarpi,15frags. of premaxillae, Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem).MIDDLEPLEISTOCENE('Ubeidiya Formation).ISRAEL:'Ubeidiya, on SW bank of Sea of Galilee.

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1978 BRODKORB:CATALOGUEOFFOSSILBIRDSGenusAlaudaLinnaeus151AlaudaLinnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. I,p.165 (typeAlauda arvensisLinnaeus, Recent).2.Alauda iordanicaTchernovAlaudaiordanicaTchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleistocene Deposits of 'Ubeidiya, p. 19,pI.3, figs. 1-8 (syntypes from Ubeidiya, 6 prox. and 2 ilist. ends of carpometacarpi, 7 prox.and8 dist. ends of ulnae, and I frag. manilible, Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem).MIDDLEPLEISTOCENE('Ubeidiya Formation). ISRAEL: 'Ubeidiya, on SW bank of Sea of Galilee. Neospecies of Alaudidae from the Pleistocene and0Holocene1.MeLanocorypha calandra(Linnaeus). FRANCE: Mas Rambault, L'Escale, Orgnac-l'Aven, and Combe Grenal 1975 Docum. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 186). POLAND:Rajcave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 93, 200,fig.60).UKRAINE: Syuren, Novgorod-Seversk, and Okunevki (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob stanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 31, 40, 59).RUSSIA:Don River between Nizhne-Chirsk and Novocherkasska? (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit.,p.54). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa cave (Tcher nov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol.ll,no.3, p. 104); Kebara cave on Mt. Carmel(Melanocorypha nwiorTchernov, Nov. 1962, op. cit.,p.Ill,pI.[4],fig.27;pI.[6],fig.8-9; holotype left humerus, Dept. Zool., Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem); 'Ubeiiliya (Tchernov, 1968, Pre lim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 18,pI.2,fig.18;M.maiorsynonymized).2.Melanocorypha bimaculata (Menetries), AZERBAIJAN: Binagady? (Serebrovsky, 1941, Doklady Akad. NaukSSSR,vol. 33,no.7-8,p.473).3. Melanocorypha yeltoniensis(Forster). UKRAINE: Tankov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 80).4. Melanocorypha ,sibirica(Gmelin). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt.1,pp. 102, 112).5.CalandrelLa cinerea(Gmelin). FRANCE: Grotte de l'Escale and Abimes de la Fage (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Docum. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.186,pI.16,fig.9); Pech de l'Aze? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit.,fasc.2,p.492). UKRAINE: Novgorod-Seversk and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 41, 58). See alsoCaLandreliad.cinereafrom Pliocene of Tarkhankut, Crimea (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit.,p.22).6.CaLandrelia rtlfescens(Vieillot). AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Serebrovsky, 1941, Doklady Akad. NaukU.R.S.S.,vol. 33, p. 473).7. Galerida cristata(Linnaeus). FRANCE: Montmorency? (Paris, 1912, Rev. Orn., vol. 4, p. 284); Abimes de la Fage (Chauvire, 1965, C.R.Soc. Geol. France, no.1,p.8);Combe Grenal (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,p.359; Rond-du-Barry and Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no.1,p. 38); L'Escale, Orgnac I-Aven, Le Lazaret, Abri Suard, Fontechevade, Salpetre de Pompignan, La Crouzade, La Balauziere, Villereversure?, Campalou?, Baume de Gigny, and La Crouzade (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Docum. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 186); Grotte TournaI and Neuville-sur-Ain (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, pp. 392, 447). SWITZERLAND: Felsen bei Birseck? and Ermitage? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 789). GERMANY: Mauer an der Eisenz? and Thiede (Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit.,p.789). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Bald.rka (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb. kgl. ungar. Reich sanstalt, vol. 19,no.3, p. 151); Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. .Jahrb, kgl. ungar. geol. Reichsanst., vol. 23, pp. 481, 508). POLAND: Mamutowa cave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 98, 2(0). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 4, pp. 103, 112); Novgorod Seversk (Zubareva, 1950, Truili

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152BULLETINFLORlDASTATEMUSEUMVol.23,No.3Inst. Zool. Akad. Nauk Ukrain.SSR,vol.4,pp. 80, 92,pI.3,fig.14);Tankov. Alimovsk, and Okunevk (Vointsvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 30, 58, 59). AZERBAIJAN: Klit (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil BirdsinCaves ofUSSR,p.241). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa cave and Kebara cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 100, 104, 106); Hayonim cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15,p.132).CHIA:Cou-Kou-Tien? (Howard, 1939, Fortschritte Palaont., vol. 2, p.314).9.Lullula arborea (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Ablmes de la Fage (Chauvinl, 1965, C.R.Soc. Geol. France, no. I,p.8); Grotte de l'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no. I,p.291); Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quaternar,p.153); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie,vol.78, no.I,p.38); L'Escale, Lunel-Viel, Orgnac-l'Aven, Le Lazaret,Capde la Biehle, Aldene, Fontechevade, La Balauziere, Cottier, Combe Grenal, Grotte Simard, and Baume de Gigny (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Docum. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.187). SARDINIA: Monte San Giovanni (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,p.472,pI.37,fig.9).CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Yolyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.789).POLAND: Mamutowa cave andRajcave (Boch enski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 99, 2(0). UKRAINE: and Syuren (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, pp. 28, 31).10.Alauda arvensis Linnaeus. IRELAND: Castlepook Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser.4,vol.19,no.893,p.404). ENGLAND: Kirkdale Cave? (Lydekker, 1891, Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 3,p.384); Ightham fissure (E.T.Newton, 1894, Quart. .lour. Geol. Soc. London,Vol.50,p.191,pI.10,figs.10-12); Clevedon Cave, Langworth Bassett Cave, Chudleigh Cave, and Barton Mere (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,p.404). SPAIN: Caverna de Santimamine (Villata, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15,p.97). FRANCE: Montmorency (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois.Foss.France,vol.2,p.598); Grotte de Moustier and Quercy (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.789); Grotte de Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull.Mus.Anthrop. prehist. Monaco,no.11,pp. 64,66,72, 76, 78); Combe Grenal (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.I,p.359); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie,vol.78,no.I,p.38); Les Valerots?, L'Escale, Abimes de la Fage, Orgnac-l'Aven, Fontechevade, Eden Roc?, La Baulauziere, Soulabe, Combe Grena), Pech de l'Aze, La Quina, and Le Placard (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Docum. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.187);Grattede Balazuc? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2,p.435). CORSICA: Funtanedu(E.T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool.Soc.London, pt. 2,p.231). SARDINIA: bone breccia (Milne-Edwards, 1971, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2,p.597); Monte San Giovanni? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.789). ITALY: Buco della Volpe above Rovenna (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38,p.197); Grotte du PrinceatGrimaldi? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, op. cit.,p.187).GERMANY: Westeregeln bei Mag deburg?, Audmerberg bei Goslar?, and Kleine ScheuerimLonetal (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.789). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Holubice, Mikulov, Balcarova skala, Certova dira, and Stranska skala (Skubl and StehliK, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4,p.5).AUSTRIA: Schuster lucke? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.789); Hundsheim? (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-naturw.KI.,Abt. I,Bd.182, Heft 6-8,p.212). HUNGARY: Palffy cave (Lambrecht, 1913, vol. 20,p.426). RUMANIA: Piispokfiirdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlang kutatas, vol. 5,p.30). POLAND: Mamutowa cave andRajcave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 101, 2(0). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt.i,pp. 103,112);Novgorod-Seversk (Zubareva, 1950, Trudi Inst. Zool. Akad. Ukrain.RSR,vol.4, pp. 50, 92,pI.3,figs.3-8); grotto Chokurcha, Tardenuaz, Desny River below Chernigov, Kiev, Alimovsk, Okunevk, and (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo,vol.3, pp. 25, 30,35, 40, 49, 51,58, 59,65).RUSSIA: Don River between Nizhne-Chirskaya and Novocherkassk (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit.,p.54). ISRAEL: OummQatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 100,104).CHINA: Chou-Kou-Tien? (Howard, 1939, Fortschritte Palaont., vol. 2,p.314.11.Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave? (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol.19,no.893,p.404). BELGIUM: Grotte Marie-Jeanne (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut,vol.63, p.10).FRANCE: Mas Rambault and l'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Docum. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p.187).CORSICA: Grotta de Funtanedu?(E.T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt.2,p.231). SWITZERLAND: Schweizers bild bei Schaffhausen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.789). CZECHOSLOV AKlA:

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1978BRODKORB:CATALOGUEOFFOSSIL BIRDS153 Balcark&(SI..'Util and Stehb'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6,no.2-4, p.22).POLAND: Mamutowa cave andRajcave, (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 95, 200, text-fig. 63,pI.6,fig.3).UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect.Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 102,Il2);Adzhi-Koba, Novgorod-Seversk, and Tankov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirod naya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 28, 30, 40). AZERBAIJAN: Klit (Burchak Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds CavesUSSR,p. 241). CALIFORIA:Rancho La Brea(L.Miller, 1912, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Ceol., vol.7,no.5, p. 78); McKittrick(A.H. Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39, p. 250). EW MEXICO: Conkling Cavern and Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H.Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 70, no. 2,p.183). SOUTH DAKOTA: Hosterman, Spiry-Eklo, and Sully (Parmalee, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 22-77, p. 197).FamilyHIRorIDAEVigors J-lirundinidae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn.Soc.London, vol.14,p.428 (family; typeHirundoLinnaeus).-HinmdininaeGray, 1840 (before Apr.), List Genera Birds, p. 8 (subfamily).HirundininaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I,p.52 (familia).PsalidoprocninaeSharpe, 1870, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 288 (subfamily; typePsalidoprocneCabanis).PseudochelidonidaeShelley, 1896, Birds of Africa, vol. I, p.104(family; typePseudochelidon Hartlaub).-PseudochelidoninaeBannerman, 1939, Birds Tropical W. Africa, vol. 5,p.299 (subfamily).GenusHirundoLinnaeus Hirundo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol.1,p.191(typeHirundo rusticaLinnaeus, Recent, designated by Gray, 1840).1.Hirundo aprieaFeduccia Hirundo apricaFeduccia, 1967 (Oct.9),Condor, vol. 69,no.5,p. 526,fig.1 (type from Fox Canyon, right humerus, Univ. Mich. Mus. Paleo.no.28104).UPPERPLIOCEE (Rexroad Formation). KANSAS: MeadeCounty:FoxCanyon.GenusTaehyeinetaCabanisTachycinetaCabanis, 1851, Museum Heineanum, pt.1,p. 48 (type by original designationJ-lirundo tlJalassina Swainson, Recent).2.Tachycineta speleodytesBrodkorbTachycineta speleodytesBrodkorb, 1957 (Feb. 26), Jour. Paleont., vol. 31,no.1,p.131pI.20,fig.1-9 (type from Dixie Lime Products mine, left humerus, Brodkorb coli. no. 1270 with associated left ulna, no. 1271, and left radius, no. 1272; referred rostrum, coracoids, carpometacarpi, femur, tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi).UPPERPLEISTOCENE(Reddick beds).FLORIDA:MarionCounty:DixieLimeProductsCompanymine, 1 mi SE Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957).UPPERPLEISTOCENE(Arredondoclay).FLORIDA:AlachuaCounty:Arredondo(Brodkorb, 1959, Bull.FloridaStateMus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283);Haile(Ligon, 1966), Bull.FloridaStateMus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 149).

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154BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.3Neospecies ofHirundinidaefromthePleistoceneandHoloceneI. Progne slIbis(Linnaeus). IDAHO: JaguarCave(L.Miller, 1965, Tebiwa, vol. 8, no. 1, p.19).FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no.1,p.136).2. Pragne clwllJbea(Gmelin). BRAZIL: LapadaEscrivaniaandLapadaLagoa Sumidouro (0. Winge, 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol. 1, no. p. 48).3. Stelgidopteryx ruficollis(Vieillot). YUCATAN:0Actun Has?,0Actun Coyok?, and0Actun Spukil? (H.1.Fisher, 1953 Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33, p. 83).4. Riparia riparia(Linnaeus). FRANCE: Grotte du Lazaret 1964, Bull.Mus.anthrop. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 64-78); Grotte de I'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,p. 276). SARDINIA: (Lambrecht, 1918, Aquila, vol. 24, p. 207). UKRAINE:0Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, p.58).5. PtlJonoprogne rupestris(Scopoli). FRANCE: Grotte de Lourdes (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol.2,p.594); Grotte du Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull.Mus.Antrhop. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 61, 66, 78); Grotte de l'Hortus,CombeGrenal,andGrottedeI'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,pp. 276,289, 359); Rond du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no.I,p. 38); L'Escale, Abimes de la Fage, Orgnac-I'Aven,Capde la Biehle, Fontechevade,and Pie Lombard (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc, Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 188); Bruniquel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc,2,p. 426). ITALY: Grotte Menton, Equi shelterandcave, andGrottadei Colombi? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p, 776). HUNGARY: Subalyuk cave? (.Janossy, 1962, Aquila, vol. p. 181).6. J-liruMo rusticaLinnaeus. IRELAND: Kesh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). ENGLAND: Ightham fissure(E.T.Newton, 1899, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 55, no. 219, p. 420); Langwith Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403): Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.775), FRANCE: QuercyandBruniquel? (Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit., pp. 775, 776); Balme-les-Grottes (Chauvire, 1963, C.R.Sommaire Soc. Geol. France, fasc. 2, p. 53);Grottedu Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull.Mus.Antrhop. prehist. Monaco. pp. 61, 72); Abimes de la Fage (Chauvire, 1965, C.R.Soc. Geol. France, no.1,p.8); Morin 1965, Congres Soc. Savantes, p. 255); Grottes inferieures d'Aurensan (Bouchud, 1972, Bull.Asso. Fran,; EtudeQuat., vol.1,pp. 53,56); Soul abe, La Colombiere at Neuville-sur-Ain, Le Blot, Cottier,CombeGrenal, and0Arago (Mourer Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 189). BELGIUM: Grotte Marie Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63, p. 9). GIBRALTAR: Devil's Tower (Bate, 1928, Jour. Roy. Anthrop. Inst., vol. 58,p.104); Forbes quarry (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 775). SARDINIA: Monte Giovanni? (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,p.473,pI.37, fig. 10). MALTA: Ghar-Dalam? (FischerandStephan, 1974, Z. geol. Wiss. Berlin, vol. 4,p.518). ITALY:Grottadei Colombi? (Regalia, 1893, Arch. Antrop. Etnol., vol. 23,p.262);GrottaRomanelli? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 775);Grottedu Prince? (Mourer Chauvire, 1976, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 2,p.363). SWITZERLAND: Ettingen? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 776). GERMANY: Seveckenberg bei Quedling burg(Hirundo fossilisGiebel, 1847,FaunaderVorwelt, vol.1,pt. 2, p. 18; types clavicle, carpometacarpus, 2 dist. frag. radii, prox. frag. tarsometatarsus; this sp.?); Hermannshole bei Riibeland (Blasius, 1901, Jour.f.Orn., vol. 49, pp. 58-60); Westeregeln bei Magdeburg, Thiede bei Westerregeln, Roter Berg bei Saalfeld, Fuchsloch bei Bleitsen, Possneck,andSt. Wolf gang? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.776). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber. Internat. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 941); Stranska skala and Yolyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.776); Balcarka, HolstYn, andKulna (SkutilandStehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). AUSTRIA: (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 775); Hundsheim? (.Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-naturw. Kl., pt.1,vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212). HUNGARY: Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); Pilisszanto (Lam brecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 480, fig. 18); Istall06sko (Janossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 216); Czarnota? (Kretzoi, 1956, GeolOgica Hungarica, ser. pal., fasc. 27, p. 128). RUMANIA: Piispokfurdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 29). POLAND:RajcaveandNiedostepna rock-shelter (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quarternary Poland, pp. 102, 200). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.Asso.Internat.

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]978BRODKORB: CATALOGLTE OFFOSSIL BIRDS]55Etude Quat., pt.1,pp. 103, 112); Novgorod Seversk (Zubareva, 1950, Trudi Inst. ZooI.Akad. Nauk Ukrain.RSR,vol. 4, pp. 80, 94,pI.3,figs.17-21); Tankov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro dnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3,p.30); Murzan-Koba cave (Burchak-Abramovich, Fossil BirdsinCavesUSSR,p.237). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 106,113,126, 131,pI.1,figs.4-5;pI.6,fig.13); Hayonim Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel .lour. Zool., vol. 15,p.132). CHI!A:Chou-Kou-Tien (Howard, 1932, Fortschritte Palaont., vol. 2,p.314). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania? (Winge, 1883,E.Museo Lundii, vol. 1,no.2, pp. 80, 88); Lagoa do Sumidouro (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom.,p.775 [error?]).7.HirulldodauricaLinnaeus. FRANCE: Grotte de I'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvin\, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,p. 276); Pierre-Chatel Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quar tar, vol. 23-24,p.153); Rond-dll-Barry (Mourer-Challvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol.78,no.I,p.38); Abimes de la Fage, Le Lazaret, Abri Suard, Pompignan, Remoulins, La Baulauziere,LesRomains, Grotte .lean Pierreno.1,.laurens, Le Blot, Pech de I'Aze, Grotte Simard, Baum de Gigny, and Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 189). ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi, (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 776); Grotte du Prince (Mourer-Challvire, 1976, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, fasc. 2, p. 363). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11,no.3, p.lOO).8. Petrochelidoll pyrrhollota(Vieillot). CALIFORNIA: McKittrick(L.Miller, 1925, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 15, p. 325). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc. ColI., vol. 145,no.2,p.12).9. Petrochelidolliulva(Vieillot). TEXAS: Klein Cave (Fedllccia, 1972, Southwestern atural ist, vol. 17,no.3,p.296). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro San Francisco (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28,no.3,p.279); PUERTO RlyO: Cueva Catedral (Wet more, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. at. Hist., vol. 46,p.325). YUCATAN:0Actun Lara?,0Actlln Coyok?,0Actun Spllkil?, and0Actun Oxkintok (H.1.Fisher, 1953, Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33, p. 83).10. Delichollurbica (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Newhall Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,vol.19,no.893, p. 403). ENGLAND: Carnfort Cave (Bell, 1915, op. cit., p. 403). FRANCE: Grotte de I'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,p.291);LesRomains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 153); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78,no.1,p.38); SOlllabe, Combe Grenal, and Petit Puymoyen (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 189). ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.766). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Stninska skala and Balcarka (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol.6,nos. 2-4, p. 22).RUMAIA: Piispokfurdo [=Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutat:is, vol. 5,p.70).UKHAI Kara-Koba, Novgorod-Seversk, Nizhnee Krivche, and0Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 36, 41,42, 58). RUSSIA: Don River between Nizhnee Chirskaya and ovocherasski (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit., p. 54).FamilyDICRURIDAE(Vigors)Dicrurina Vigors, 1825, fide Gray (type Dicrurus Vieillot).-Dicrurinae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 4,221(subfamily).-Dicrourillae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv.f.Naturgesch., .lahrg. 23, vol.1,pt.2,p.323 (subfamilia).-Dicrourillae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 22(familia).-DicruridaeBlyth, 1849, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiatic Soc., p. 200 (family).EdolianaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana,pt.2,p. 105 (subfamily; typeEdoliusClIvier, 1817, a junior synonym of DiCTUrus Vieillot,1816).-EdoliillaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. I, p. 349.NeospeciesofDicruridaefromthePleistocene1.DicrurusmacrocercusVieillot. CHINA: Chou-Kou-Tien? (Howard, 1939, Fortschritte PaIaont., vol. 2, p. 314).

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156BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23, No.3Family ORIOLIDAE (Vigors)OriolinaVigors, 1825, fide Gray (typeOriolus Linnaeus).-OriolidaeBoie, 1826,Isisvon Oken, col.(family).-OriolinaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2,p.152 (subfamily).-OriolinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.21(familia).IreninaeGray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt.1,pp.xvi,288 (subfamily; typeIrenaHors field).-/renidae Oberholser, 1917, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 7,p.537.Neospecies of Oriolidae from the Pleistocene and0Holocene1.Oriolous oriolus(Linnaeus). FRANCE: Fontechevade at Montbron (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.214). ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.784). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarka (Skutil and StehliK, 1939, Ornitbolog,vol.6,nos. 2-4, p.22). HUNGARY: Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21,p.90); Pilisszanto (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst. vol. 23,p.408). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol.II,no.3, pp.106,I10, 128,pI.3,fig.20).FamilyCORVIDAEVigorsCoracesIlliger, 18I1, Proromus systematis mammalium et avium, pp. 196, 225 (familia; type by tautonomyCoraciaBrisson,1760[neeCoraciasLinnaeus, 1776], a .junior synonym ofCorousLinnaeus,1758).-CoracesVieillot, 1816, Analyse d'un nouvelle ornitbologie elementaire,p.35 (famille).CoroidaeVigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London,vol.14,p.445 (family; typeCorousLin naeus).-Coroina Vigors, 1825, fideGray.-CoroinaeBonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzione Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati,p.42(subfamilia).-Coroinae Sunde vall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.43 (familia).GarrulidaeBoie, 1825,Isisvon Oken, col. 000 (family; typeGarrulus Brisson).-GarrulinaeSwainson, 1832, fide Gray (subfamily).-Garrulinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.42 (familia).CrypsirinaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2,p.288(subfamily).-CrypserinaeSwainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2,p.96 (subfamily).FrigilinaeSwainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol.2,pp. 96, 268 (subfamily; type"Frigilus",i.e.FregilusCuvier, 1817, a junior synonym ofPyrrhocoraxVieillot, 1816).FregilinaeGray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds,p.39(subfamily).-FregilinaeSunde vall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.42 (familia).GymnorhininaeGray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds,p.37 (subfamily; type Gym norhinaGray).-GymnorhininaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.I,p.44(familia).PyrrhocoracinaeGray, 1846 (Apr.), Genera of Birds,vol.2,p.319 (subfamily; typePyrrhocoraxVieillot).StreperinaeBlyth, 1849, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiatic Soc.,p.105 (subfamily; typeStreperaLesson).StreperidaeRidgway, 1909 (March), in Knowlton, Birds of World,p.726 footnote (family).-StreperidaeSharpe, 1909 (preface datedAug.24), Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, vol. 5, p.629).BaritinaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.1,p.367 (subfamily; typeBaritaCuvier, 1817, a junior synomy ofCracticusVieillot, 1816).NucifraginaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I,p.42 (familia; typeNUcifragaVieillot).ZovattariomithidaeLowe, 1949, Ibis, vol. 91,p.102 (family; typeZovattariomisMoltoni).CracticidaeAmadon, 1943, Amer. Mus. Novitates,no.1247,p.13(family; typeCracticusVieillot).GrallinidaeMayr and Amadon, 1941 (Apr.2),Amer.Mus.Novitates, no. 1496,p.31(family; typeGrallinaVieillot).CorcoracinaeMayr and Amadon, 1951 (Apr.2),Amer.Mus.Novitates,no.1496,p.38 (sub family; typeCorcoraxLesson).AphelocominiHardy, 1961 (Dec. 29), Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., vol. 42, no. 2,p.137 (tribe; typeAphelocornaCabanis).

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1978 BRODKORB:CATALoeEOFFOSSIL BIRDS 157CyanocoriniHardy, 1961 (Dec. 29), Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., vol. 42,no.2, p. 137 (tribe; typeCyanocorax Boie).-CyanocoraciniHardy, 1964 (Apr. 30), Occ. PapersC.C. AdamsCenterfor Ecological Studies, no. 11,p.1 ("justified emendation").SubfamilyGARRULIAE(Boie)GarrulidaeBoie,1825.-GarrulirlOeSwainson, 1832.CrypsirininaeSwainson, 1831.Alpheloco1lliniHardy, 1961.CyanocoriniHardy, 1961.GenusfMiocittaBrodkorbMiocittaBrodkorb, 1972 (18 Sept.), Condor, vol. 74, no. 3, p. 347 (type by original designationMiocitta galbreathiBrodkorb).1.Miocitta galbreathiBrodkorbMiocitta galbreathiBrodkorb, 1972 (18 Sept.), Condor, vol. 74,no.3,p.347,fig.1 (holotype from near Peetz, distal portion of right humerus, Southern Illinois Univ. no. P 198).UPPERMIOCENE(Kennesaw local fauna,lowerpartofPawneeCreekFormation).COLORADO:Logan County:about20miWSWPeetz,in SE 114, section 26,Township11, Range 55W.GenusfProtocittaBrodkorbProtocittaBrodkorb, 1957 (Feb. 26), Jour. Paleont., vol. 31,no.I, p.132(type by original desig nationProtocitta dixiBrodkorb).2.Protocitta aiaxBrodkorbProtocitta a;axBrodkorb, 1972 (18 Sept.), Condor, vol. 74,no.3,p.349,fig.2 (holotype from Palo Duro Falls, Univ. Calif. Mus. Paleo.no.43386, left tarsometatarsus; see alsoPicapicaA.H. Miller and Bowman, 1956, Condor, vol. 58,no.2, p. 164,fig.2).UPPERPLIOCENE(Blancan age).TEXAS:Randall County: PaloDuroFalls, locality V-5318, 9 mi E, 31/2mi N Canyon).UPPERPLIOCENE(RexroadFormation,Blancan age). KANSAS: MeadeCounty:RexroadRanch(Brodkorb, 1972, p. 349).3. Protocitta dixiBrodkorbProtocitta dixiBrodkorb, 1957 (Feb. 26), Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no. I, p. 132,pI.20,figs.14-18 (type from Dixie Lime mine, left humerus, Brodkorb coll. no.PB428; referred coracoid, ulna, carpometacarpus, tarsometatarsus).-Hamon, 1964, Florida Ceol. Surv. Ceol. Bull.,no.44, p. 193,fig.(deser-scapula, femur, tibiotarsus).LoWERUPPERPLEISTOCENE(Reddick beds).FLORIDA:Marion County: DixieLimeProductsCompanymine, 1 mi SE Reddick.LoWERUPPERPLEISTOCENE(Arredondo clay).FLORIDA:AlachuaCounty:Haile(Ligon, 1966, Bull.FloridaStateMus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 149).UPPERPLEISTOCENE(cave deposit).TEXAS:LlanoCounty:Miller'sCave(Weigel, 1967, Texas Jour. Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, p. 108).

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158BULLETlNFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol.23,No.3Genusf'HenocittaHolmanHenocittaHolman, 1959 (Sept. 3), Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 5, no.1,p.5 (type by original designationHenocitta brodkorbiHolman).4.Henocitta brodkorbiHolmanHenocitta brodkorbiHolman, 1959 (Sept. 3), Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 5,no.I, p. 6, pI. I,figs.1-2(type from Connell and Schultz mine, distal haU of left humerus, Brodkorb coli. no.PB2323).LOWERUPPERPLEISTOCENE(Arredondoclay).FLORIDA:LevyCounty:ConnellandSchultzLimerockCompanyquarry,SEedgeWilliston. SubfamilyCORVINAE(Vigors)CoracesIIliger, 1811.CorvidaeVigors,1825.-CorvinaeBonaparte, 1831.FrigilinaeSwainson, 1837.PyrrhocoracinaeG ray, 1846.ZavattariomithidaeLowe, 1949.GenusCorvusLinnaeusCorvusLinnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed.10,vol. I,p.105(type by tautonomyCorvus coraxLinnaeus, Recent).MiocoraxLambrecht, 1933, Handbuch der Palaeornithologie, p. 636 (type by monotypyCorvus lartetiMilne-Edwards; preoccupied byMiocoraxLambrecht, 1933, op. cit.,p.291).MiocorvusLambrecht, 1933, op. cit., p. 1024 (new name forMiocoraxLambrecht, p. 636).PalaeocoraxForbes, 1892 (Dec. 31), Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. I,p. xxi (type by monotypyCorvus moriorwnForbes).5.Corvus lartetiMilne-EdwardsCorvus lartetiMilne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, sig. 48,p.381.pI.151-152 (type from Sansan, tarsometatarsus, tibiotarsus, ends of femur, coracoid, scapula, ulna, carpo metacarpus, phalanges, quadrate).UPPERMIOCENE(Tortonian).FRANCE;Dept.Gers: Sansan.6.Corvus pliocaenus(Portis)Numeniussp.(Pliocaenus)Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38,p.194(11Tasso, distal portion ulna; nomen nudum).-Portis, 1889, Mem.1st.Studi Superiori Firenze,p.195,pI.38,figs.26a-b (type from11Tasso, distalpartof right ulna, Gabinetto di Geologia, Istituto di Studi Superiori, Firenze).-CorvuspliocaenusRegalia, 1902, Palaeontographia Italica, vol. 8, p. 220,pI.27,fig.1 (type restudied).Corvus praecoraxDeperet, 1890 (seance21March), C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 114,no.12, p.691(Rousillon [basin], brief descr. tarsometatarsus, tibiotarsus, carpometacarpus, coli. Dr.A.Donnezan).-Deperet,1892 (seance 25 Apr.), C.R.Soc. geologique France, ser. 3, vol. 20, no.7,p.lxv(Perpignan;nodescr.).-Deperet, 1897, Mem. Soc. geol. France, Pal. Mem. no.3, p. 135,pI.13,figs.12-19 (descr. humerus, ulna, carpometacarpus, tibiotarsus).-Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 248 (types restudied, now in Dept. Sciences de la Terre, Lyon).'IThesingle availablemeasurement ofthetypeofN. pliocaenus, theoblique widthof theulna. is 10.7mOl,only 0.2mOl. less than the corresponding measurement ofC. praecorax. MourerChauvirenevertheless considered themasrepresenting different species of separate lineages.

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1978 BRODKORB:CATALOGUEOFFOSSILBIRDS 159Corvus betfianusKretzoi, 1962 (Feb.), Aquila, vol. 67-88, p.172(holotype from Betfia 5, distalpartof left carpometacarpus, Museum Regional, Oradea, no. 1899a/4). Position tentative.UPPERPLIOCENE(Perpignanclay, Astian).FRANCE: Pyrenees Orientales:FortdeSerrat-d'en-Vacquer,nearPerpignan,in Rousillon basin(Deperet,1890).UPPERPLIOCENE(Astian)orLOWESTPLEISTOCENE(Villafranchian).ITALY:Valdamo:11Tasso,nearTerranova(Portis, 1889).UPPERLOWERPLEISTOCENE(Biharian terrarosa).RUMANIA:Betfia, no. 5, 9kmSENagyvarad(Kretzoi, 1962;tentativelyreferred, seeMourerChauvire,1975, p. 237, fig. 30). 6a.Corvus pliocaenus ;anossyiMourer-ChauvireCorvus pliocaenus ;anossyi 1975(27June), Doc. Lab. Ceo!. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,fasc.1,pp.1,230,p!.18;p!.19,figs.1-2 (holotype fromCrottede rEscale, left humerus, Univ. Lyon, no.CD66-D-11290, referred radii, ulnae, carpometacarpi, coracoids, scapulae, femora, tibiotarsi, and tasometatarsi; LunelViel, coracoid; Abimes de la Fage, coracoid, deistal haU of ulna).-Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Lyon, fasc. 13, p. 99,p!.99,fig.12 (La Fage, ulna).LoWERMIDDLEPLEISTOCENE:(Mindel):FRANCE:Bouches-du-Rh6ne:Grottedel'EscaleatSaint-Esteve-Janson.MIDDLEMIDDLEPLEISTOCENE(Mindel-Riss).FRACE:Herault:LunelViel.UPPERMIDDLEPLEISTOCENE(Riss).FRANCE:Correze:AbimesdelaFageatNoailles.7.Corvus hungaricusLambrechtCorvus hungaricusLambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, pp. 173,175,figs.2-3 (holotype from Nagyharsany Mountain, left tarsometatarsus and referred distal end of right humerus, Mus.Kgl.Ungarisch. Ceo!. Anstalt, Budapest).LoWERLOWERPLEISTOCENE(Villafranchian).FRANCE:HauteLoire: Seneze (Stehlin, 1923,Eclogaegeol. Helv., vol. 18, p. 280). Saint-Vallier(Mourer-Chauvire,1975, Doc. Lab. Geo!. Fac.Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc.1,pp.247-248,253,pI. 22, fig. 14). UPPERLOWERPLEISTOCENE(Biharian terrarosa).HUNGARY:KomitatBaranya:NagyharsanyMountain(Lambrecht,1916).8.Corvus wetmoreiBrodkorb Corvus wetnwrei Brodkorb, 1959 (June 3), Bull. Florida State Mus.,vo!.4,no. 11,p.363,p!.3,figs.1-9 (holotype from Banana Hole, distal portion of left humerus, Florida StateMus.no. UF 3210; referred ulna, carpometacarpus, femora, dist. tibiotarsus, prox. tarsometa tarsus, ungues).UPPERPLEISTOCENE(cave deposit).BAHAMAS:NewProvidenceIsland:BananaHole(Brodkorb, 1959).GreatExumaIsland(Wetmore,1937, Bull.

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160BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol.23,No.3Mus. Compo Zool., vol. 80, no. 12, p. 440)?CrookedIsland:GordonHillsCave(Wetmore,1938, Auk, vol. 55, no.1,p. 52)?9.Corvus pumilisWetmoreCorvus pllmilis Wetmore, 1920 (Dec. 30), Prox. BioI. Soc. Washington, vol. 33, p.81(holotype from Cueva San Miguel, right ulna, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.no.4925).-Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 327,fig.23).-Wetmore, 1937, Jour. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, vol. 21, no.1,p. 14,pI.1,figs.10-14 (tibiotarsus).QUATERNARY(cave deposit).PUERTO fuca: CuevaSan MiguelnearMorovis(Wetmore,1920). RECENT (pre-Columbianmidden).VIRGINISLANDS:St. Croix(Wetmore,1937).10.Corvus moriorumForbesCorvus 1JWriorum Forbes, 1892, Nature, vol. 46, p. 252 (ChathamIslands).-Palaeocorax moriorumForbes, 1892 (Dec. 31), Bull. Brit. Om. Club, vol.1,no. 4, p. xxi,-Forbes, 1893 (April), Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 5, no. 18, p.254.-Dawson,1958, Ibis, vol. 100, p. 235 (note on apparent types).-Scarlett, 1972, Bull. Canterbury Mus.,no.4, p. 19 (Chatham Islands; meas. humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus).QUATERNARY.CHATHAMISLANDS.lOa.Corvus moriorum antipodum(Forbes)Palaeocorax antipodumForbes, 1893 (Oct.), Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 5,no.20, p. 544 (type from NorthIsland).-Palaeocorax moriorumScarlett, 1972, Bull. Canterbury Mus., no. 4, p. 19,fig.25,58-59,87-88,140-141,239-241 (New Zealand, meas.;fig.sternum, coracoid, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, femur).QUATERNARY.NEWZEALAND:NorthIsland (Forbes, 1893).SOUTHISLAND:WairauBar,LakeGrassmere,PyramidValley, Banks Peninsula,andNgapara(Oliver, 1955), N.Z.Birds, ed. 2, p. 606, fig.);TaiRua(Trotter,1965, Notornis, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 178). NeospeciesofCorvidaefromthePleistoceneandHoloceneSubfamilyGARRULINAE(Boie)1.Gymnorhinus cyanocephaillsWied. UTAH:SandDune Cave (Hargrave, 1970, Tech. Ser. Mus.N.Arizona, no.9,pp. 40,45). ARIZONA:WinonaVillage (Hargrave, 1939, Condor, vol. 41, no.5,p. 209).NEWMEXICO: Conkling Cavern and Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H.Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no.I,p.16).2. Aphelocoma caerulescens(Bosc). FLORIDA: Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283); Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Ceol. Surv., Ceol. Bull.,no.44, p. 193); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4,p.149).3. Aphelocoma califarnica(Vigors). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea(A.H. Miller, 1929, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Ceol. Sci., vol. 19, no. 6,pI.I,fig.b);Carpinteria(A.H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Ceol. Sci., vol. 21,no.7,p. 173,pI.12, figs.a,d);McKittrick(A.H.Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39,no.6, p. 250). UTAH:SandDune Cave (Hargrave, 1970, Tech. Ser. Mus.N.Arizona, no. 9, pp. 38, 45).NEWMEXICO:CochitiDam? (Harris, 1968, Mus. New Mexico Research Records,no.6, p. 222).4.Cyanocitta cristata(Linnaeus). WISCONSIN:Raddatzrock shelter (Parmalee, 1959, Wisconsin ArcheolOgist, vol. 40,no.2, p. 85). PENNSYLVANIA: Sheep Rock shelter (Cuilday

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1978BRODKORB:CATALOGUE OF FOSSILBIRDSJ6JandParmalee, 1965, Pennsylvania Archaeologist, vol. 35, no.I,p. 39). VIRGIIA:Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coil., vol. 145, no. 2,p.13).FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no.I,p. 136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4,no.9, p. 283);'VeroBeach (Weigel, 1963, Florida Geol. Surv. Spec. Publ., no. 10, p. 30).5. Cyanocitta stelleri(Gmelin). OREGO! : (Lambrecht, 1921, Fossilium Catalogus,p.90).CALIFORNIA: SamwelCaveand Hawver Cave(L.Miller, 1911, Univ. California Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol.6,no. 16,p.339); Carpinteria(A.H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no.7,p. 173,pI.12,fig.b,c);Rancho La Brea (Wetmore, 1940, Smithsonian Misc. ColI., vol. 99, no. 4,p.71).ARIZONA:'KietSiel Pueble (Hargrave, 1939, Condor, vol. 41, no. 5,p.209). 6.Cissilopha yucatanica(Dubois). YUCATA Actun Chacaljas(H.!.Fisher, Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33, p. 83); Actun Spukil?(asCyanocorar cyanomelas,Fisher, 1935, op. cit., pp. 83, 85). 7.Xanthoura 'Incas(Boddaert). YUCATAN: Actun Spukil(H.!.Fisher, 1953, Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33,p.83).8.Cyanocorar cristatella(Temminck). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania(0.Winge, 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol. I, no. 2, p. 48).9. Perisoreus canadensis(Linnaeus). VIRGIIA:atural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smith sonian Misc. Coil., vol. 145,no.2,p.12). 10.Cam/Iusglandarius (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Kesh Cave, Edenvale Cave, and Newhall Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser.4,vol.19,no. 893,p.404). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave and Hornsea (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, 1922,nos.787-788,p.251). SPAIN: Cavern a de Santimami6e (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15,p.99). FRANCE: Combe-Grenal 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem.no.1,p.359); Grotte des Espelungues (Bouchud, 1972, Bull.Asso.Franc. Etude Quatern, vol.1,pp. 55-56); Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel (DesbrosseandMourer Chauvire, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24,p.154); Rond-du-Barry and 'Rond-du-Barry (Mourer Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no.1,p.39); L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson, Lunel Viel, Abimes de la Fage, Orgnac-rAven, Le Lazaret, Aldene atCesseras, Salpetre de Pompig nan, Grotte Tournai at Bize, La Crouzade at Gruissan, Rond-du-Barry, Vergissond, Flavigny sur-Ozerain, Baum de Gigny, 'Flavigny-sur-Ozerain,'Baumde Gonvillars,and'Arago actuel at Tautavel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 214,pI.17,fig.17);Grottede la Baulaziere at Vers (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 399). BELGIUM: TroudeChaleux, du Sureau, du Frontal (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.783). LUXEM BURG:Oetrange(Ferrant and Friant, ]940, Faune Pleistocene d'Oetrange,p.201,pI.15). CORSICA:GrottadiFuntanedu(E.T.Newton, ]921, Prox. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 23]). ITALY:Grottede Menton Buca dell Tasso, and'BucaTana di Maggiano (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.783); Grottes du Grimaldi, Gr. du Prince,andGr.duCavill on (Mourer Chauvire, 1976, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 2, pp. 365, 368). SWITZERLAND: Ettingenand Ettingen (Lambrecht, ]933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 783). GERMAY:Viogtstedt? (Janossy, 1965, Pal. Abhandl., Abt.A,vol. 2, nos. 2-3 p. 355).DEMARK: Maglemose(0.Winge, Vidensk. Meddel. naturh. Foren., vol. 6, p. 103). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarova skala, Sipka,andCertova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.internat. ornith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 938); Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p, 783); Stranska skala, Holubic, Holstyn skala, Kulna, Zazdena, and Verunciva (SI..-util and StehhK, 1939, Omitholog, vol. 6, nos.24,p. 22). AUSTRIA: Mixnitz (Lambrecht, ]933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 783). HUNGARY: Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol.2],p.90);Pilisszant6and'Pilisszanto (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 480); Kalten-Szamos-Tal (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 194); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatis, vol. 4, no.34,p.206);Hidegszamos, Siebenbiirgen, Devencze, and Legenybarlang bei Pilisszentlelek (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 783). POLA0:Koziara Cave,'Niedastepnarock-shelter,andZamkowa DoIna Cave (Boche6ski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 108, 2(0). RUMANIA: Piispokfurdo (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatis, vol. 5, pp. 29, 70). MOLDAVIA: Starye Druitory (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka iFaunyProshlogo, pt. 3, p. 46). UKRAINE: Chokurcha, Belbek, Syuren II, Murzak-Koba, Shan-Koba, Nizhne Krivche, Rasponintsy, Desny River below Chernigov, middleDneprnear Kiev, and Zaporozhya (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit., pp. 26, 37,38,42,44,48, 53), RUSSIA: Don RiverbetweenNizhne-ChirskandNovocherkassk (Voinstvenski, 1967,

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162BULLETINFLORiDASTATE M SEUMVol.23,No.3op. cit., p. 54); Zhiguley Cave on Volga River (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,p.242). GEORGIANSSR:Darkweti (Bendukidze, 1973, Tezisi Dokladov kIVVsesouznomu Soveshchanizu po Izuchenui Chetvertichnogo Perioda, p. 88). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull.Res.Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 106).SubfamilyCORVINAE(Vigors)II.Picapica(Linnaeus). IRELAND: Castlepook Cave, Edenvale Cave,andNewhall Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). FRANCE: Caverne de Brengues (Giebel, 1847,FaunaderVorwelt, vol.I,pt. 2, p. 17); Lacombe-Thayac (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 594); GrotteduLazaret (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. prehist. Monaco, no.II, P,P' 62-78); Grottes inferieuresetsuperieures d'Aurensan (Bouchud, 1972, Bull.Asso.France. Etude Quatern., vol. 1, pp. 52, 54), Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24,p.154); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. I,p.39); Abfmes de la Fage, Orgnac-I'Aven,CapdelaBiehle, Fontechevade, Sal petre de Pompignan, La Baulaziere, La Salpetriere atRemoulins, Soulabe, Espelugues at Lourdes, La Colombiere at Neuville-sur-Ain, Campalou, Combe Grenal, Petit Puymoyen, Baum de Gigny, BaumdeGonvillars, Bawn de Gonvillars, and Arago actuel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 219); LaCaunede I'Arago at Tautavel, Grotte des HoteauxatRossillon, La Columbiere atNeuville sur Ain,andPech de I'Aze (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc.2,pp. 324, 441, 447, 493). PORTUGAL:GrottedeFurninha? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). MALLORCA: Son Bauza Cave (Ball mannandAdrover, 1970, Acta Geologica Hispanica,vol.5, p. 62). MO ACO: Grotte deI'Observatoire (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). CORSICA: Grotta di Brietta (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. ZooI.Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 231). SARDINIA: bone breccia (Milne Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol.2,p. 595). ITALY: Cavernes de Verrezzi (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 595); Buco della Volpe above Rovenna (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Torino,seT.2,vol.38, p. 197); Grotte de Menton,Grotte du Prince,Grottedu CavillonatGrimaldi,Grottad'Equi, Buca dell Tasso,Grottadei Colombi?, caverne delle Arena candida,andFinalmarino (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782);Grottede Gerbai (Mourer Chauvire, 1976 (Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 2, p. 359). SWITZERLAND: Hohle am Schlossfelsen von Birseck bei Basel, Ermitage, Kaltbrunnental-Hohle (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.782). BELGIUM: Trou de Nutons,duSureau, du Frontal (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 782). DENMARK: (!..4>ppenthin, 1967, Danske Ynglefugle i)ortid og nutid, pp. 52, 54, S03, 558). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: SipkaandLudmirau Certova dira (Capek, 1910,BeT.V.internat. ornith. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 939, 940). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke(Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 303); Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb, Palaeorn., p. 782). HUGARY:Puskaporos (Kormos, 19I1, Mitt, Jahrb.Kgl.Ungar. Geol. Reichsanstalt, vol. 19, no. 3, p.ISO);Ballaand Pesko (Lambrecht, Aquila, vol. 19, pp. 276, 282, 283); Bajot cave (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila, vol. 20, p. 425); Oregko cave (KormosandLambrecht, 1914, Barlangkutatas, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 105); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21,p.90); Pilisszantoandrecent (Lam brecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23,p.480, S02); Installosko (Janossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 208); Subalyuk-Hohle (Janossy, 1962, Aquila, vol. 6Hl8, p. 182). UKRAI E: Shaitan-koba, SyurenI,Syuren II, Shan-koba,andKiik-koba (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt.1,pp. 101, 111); Tankov, Azil, Tardenuaz, Zmeinogo, Nizhnee Krivche, Perevoloka, Desny River below Chernigov,DneprRiver near Kiev, Zaporo zhya, Mikkaylovka, Voin, Lyubimovka (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, pp. 30,37, 38, 42, 45, 58, 51,52, 62,63, 67, 69); Podolia (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,p. 240). RUSSIA: Balta (Burchak-Abramovich and Zalkin, 1972, Bull. Moscow Obshch. Ispit. Prirodi, vol. 77, no. 2, p. 53). Don RiverbetweenNizhne ChirskandNovocherkassk and Bershevo (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit., pp. 54, 67). GEORGIANSSR: Barkweti (Bendukidze, 1973, Tezisi Dokladov kIVVsesouznomu Soveshchanizu po Izucheniu Chetvertichnogo Perioda, p. 88); Krivchanska Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil BirdsinCaves ofUSSR,p.239). AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Serebrovsky, 1948,TrudyEstest.IstoT.Muz. Akad. Nauk AzerbaijanSSR,pts. 1-2, pp, 56, 58,figs. 60-81). Achshtyrska Cave, Caves near River Yurezan,andZhiguley Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,pp. 235, 242). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council

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1978BRODKORB: CATALOCL'E OF FOSSILBIRDS 16:3 Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 106, 126,130,pI.5,fig.5;pI.1,figs, 1-2). IRA1:Belt Cave (Wetmore, 1951, in Coon, Univ. Penn. Mus. Monograph, p. 90). CHINA: Chou Kou Tien (Shaw, 1935, Bull. Ceol. Soc. China, vol. 14, no.1,p. 80). ALASKA: "Kodiak Island (Friedmann, 1935, Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 25, no.1,p. 51). OREGON: Five Mile Rapids(L.Miller, 1957, Con dor, vol. 59, no.1,p.59). NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave (Howard, 1952, Bull.S.California Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pt. 2,p.54). IDAHO: "Weiss rock shelterand"Birch Creek Valley(L.Miller, 1963, Bull.S.California Acad. Sci., vol. 62, pt. 4, pp. 181, 184). ARIZOA:"Indian site 35 mi.N.of Flagstaff(A.H.Miller, 1932, Condor, vol. 34,p.138).NEWMEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H.Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no.1,p.16). NORTH DAKOTA: "Huff Focus site(L.Miller, 1960, Bull.S.California Acad. Sci., vol. 60, pl. 3, p. 126). SOUTH DAKOTA: "Hosterman, "Black Partizan, "Spiry-Eklo, "Sully,and"Medicine Crow (Parmalee, 1977, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 22-77,p.197). NEBRASKA: Midway Canyon (TateandMartin, 1968, Condor, vol. 70, no. 2,p.183). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc. ColI., vol. 145, no. 2,p.13). 11a.Picapica maiorJanossy.(Pica pica maior(.Janossy,1972, Anthropos, vol. 20 (n.s. ]2),p.59 (types from Stranska skala, 3 humeri, femur, 2 tibiotarsi, 3 tarsometatarsi, Moravske Mus., Bmo).MIDDLEPLEISTOCENE (end of Mindel glacial; Mindel-Riss interglacial). FRA CE: Grotle derEscaleatSaint-Esteve-Janson, ulna, femur, tibiotarsus; Grotles du Mas des Caves at LunelViel, coracoid, humerus, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus (Mourer-Challvire, ] 975, Doc. Lab. Ceol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc.1,p.215,pI.17,figs.19-20; 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, pp. 275, 285). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim(.Janossy,]974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat.KI.,pt.1,vol.182, no. 6-8,p.212, coracoid, humerus, ulna, tibiotarsus). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Stranska skala (Janossy, 1972).12.PicanuttalliiAudubon. CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea(A.H.Miller, 1929, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol.19,p.6);McKittrick(A.H.Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39, no.6,p.250); Carpinteria(A.H.Miller, ]932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol.2],no.7,p. 174,pI.12,fig.h).13. Nucifraga caryocatactes(Linnaeus). FRANCE: LacombeandMassat (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.783); Abfmes delaFage (Chauvire, ]965, C.R.Soc. Geol. France, no.1,p.8);Grotledel'-Hortus (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.],p.277,fig.4); L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson,CombeGrenal, and Baume de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 219);Grotlede Soulabe (Mourer-Chauvire, ]976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 412). SPAIN: Caverna de Santimamine (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. ]5, p. 99). ITALY:Grottedu Prince at Grimaldi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 783). SWITZERLA'0:Ermitage, Birseck, and Thiesstein (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.783). CHECHOSLOVAKIA: skala (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.Internat. Ornith. Kongr. Berlin,p.938); Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.Internal. Ornith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 940); Kulna and Pod (SkutilandStehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4,p.22). AUSTRIA: Schuster lucke (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19,p.306); Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom.,p.783). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb.Kgl.Ungar. Geol. Reichsanstalt, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 150; Bajat, Palffy,andPilisszanta (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila, vol. 20, p. 425); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, pp. 90,91, 93); Oregkii cave near Bajat (Kormos and Lambrecht, 1914, Barlangkutatas, vol. 2, no. 12, p. 105); Galgac (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, pp. 276,278,280,282,283,303,pI.4,figs.1-12). GEORGIANSSR:Krivchanska Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil BirdsinCaves ofUSSR,p. 239).14. Nucifraga columbiana(Wilson). CALIFORNIA: RanchoLaBrea (Howard, 1962, Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 58, p. 23). NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave (Howard, 1952, Bull.S.Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pt.2,p.54). IDAHO: Jaquar Cave(L.Miller, 1965, Tebiwa, vol.9,no.1,p.19).ARIZONA:"WupatkiPueblo (Hargrave, 1939, Condor, vol. 41, no. 5,p.209).15. Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax(Linnaeus).' FRANCE:Grotlede Massat(Pyrrhocorax primi geniusMilne-Edwards, 1875, Materieaux pour l'Histoire primitiveetnaturelle de l'Homme, vol. 11, no. 2, pt. 6, p. 487, brief descr. shank.-Pyrrhocoraxpyrrhocorax primigeniusMourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc.1,p.219, syntypes deSignated, 2 tarsometa tarsi, Inst. Pal., Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, Wiirmian glaciation);GratledeBrengues andGratledeIContrarytotheusualruleof larger size. late Pleistocene fossils tendtobeslightly smallerthantheir Recent descendants. butthe meansaretoo close to allow subspecific recognition.

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164BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.3Lacombe (Paris, 1912, Rev. Franor. Orn., vol. 4,no.37, p. 284); Perigord, Eyzies, I'Eglise, Bruni quel, Lhernl, Gourdan, Aure, Lourdes, and Quercy (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784); Abfmes de La Fage (Chauvire, C.R. Soc. Geol. France,no.1,p. 8); GrotteduLazaret (Mourer Chauvire, 1964 (Bull. Mus. Anthrop. prehist. Monaco,no.11, pp. 61-78,pI.I,fig.5;pI.2,fig.1);Grotte de I'HortusatValflaunes and Combe GrenalatDomme (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1, pp. 278, 292, 359); Pierre Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 155); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Antrhopologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); Orgnac-I'Aven, L'Arago at Tautavel, Aldene at Cesseras, Sal petre de Pompignan, Grotte TournaIatBize, La CrouzadeatGruissan, La BaulaziereatVers, Soulabe at Montseron, Balazuc, Grand-BailieatLeymiat, Le BlotatCerzat, Laugerie Haut Est at Les Eyzies, BaumdeGigny, Pie Lombard at Tourrettes-sur-Loup, and Jean PierreatSaint-Thibaud de-Couz (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 219); Grotte de Cottier at Retournac and Peche deI' Aze (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, pp. 472, 492). MONACO: Grotte de I'Observatoire (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, fasc. 1, p. 219). LUXEMBURG: Oetrange (Ferrant and Friant, 1940, Faune Pleistocene d'Outrange, p. 201,pI.15). PORTUGAL: Grotte de Furninha, Fontainhas?, and Grotte de Hornos? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.784). SPAIN: Cueva del Toll, Cuevadelas Tuxuneras, Reclau Viver, Caverna de Santimanine, CavernadeLumentxa, Cueva de la Ermitia, GrutadeHornos?, and Isla Meda Grande? (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15,p.99). GIBRALTAR: Forbes quarry? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). ITALY: Cavernes de Verezzi (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2,p.595); Grotta del Colombi (Regalia, 1893, Arch. Antrop. Etnol., vol. 23,p.262); Grotta di Parignana, Grotta d'Equi, Buca del Bersagliere, Cavern a Pollera, and Cavern a delle Arene candida (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784); GrotteduPrince and Grotte de Cavillon (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, fasc. 1, p. 219). SWITZERLAND: Grotte de Cotencher (Dubois and Stehlin, 1932, Mem. Soc. Pal. Suisse, vol. 52, pp. 29, 168); Wildkirchli, Kaltbrunnental, Ettingen, Basel land, and Thierstein (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). GERMANY: Langenaubach (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke, Tischoferhohle bei Kuf stein, and Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). UKRj\INE: Kiik-koba, Syuren I, and Syuren II (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt.1,pp. 101, 112); Adzhi-Koba, Tankov, Kosh-Koba, Kara-Koba, Murzak-Koba (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo,vol.3, pp. 24,27, 30,33,36, 37). GEORGIANSSR:Cana Cave and Gvardzhilas-Klde Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil BirdsinCaves ofUSSR,pp. 234, 238); AZERBAIJAN: Klit (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil BirdsinCaves ofUSSR,p. 241). IRAN: Zagros Mountains (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat.KI.,pt.1,vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 243).16. Pyrrhocoraxgrawlus(Linnaeus).'(Pyrrhocorax graculus vetusKretzoi, 1962, Feb., Aquila, vol. 67-68, p. 173; tentatively named, syntypes damaged left metacarpus and two distal ends of right tibiotarsi, Mus. Regional, Oradea, nos.297/2,297/3,and 1964/5, from Middle Pleistocene, Betfia, Rumania). ENGLAND: Kirkdale Cave (Lydekker, 1891, Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 3,no.11,p.385); Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 404). WALES: Paviland Cave (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, nos. 787-788, p. 251). FRANCE: Grotte de Bruniquel (Lydekker, 1891, Cat. Fossil Birds Brit. Mus., p.4);Gourdan (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784); GrottedeNichet at Fromelennes (Bastin, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Ardennes, vol. 28,no.30, p. 48); Balme les-Grottes (Chauvire, 1963, C.R.Sommaire Soc. Geol. France, 1963, fasc. 2, p. 52); GrotteduLazaret (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. prehist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 61-78,pI.1,fig.5;pI.2,fig.I); Abfmes de la Fage (Chauvire, 1965, C. R.,Soc. Geol. France,no.1, p. 8); GrottedeI'Hortus and Combe-Grenal (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no. 1, pp. 278, 360);, Grotte inferieur d'Aurensan and Grotte des Espelonges (Bouchud), 1972, Bull.Asso. Franor. Etude Quartern., vol.1,pp. 53-56); Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 154); Rond-du-BarryatSinzelles (Mourer Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no.1,p. 39); Le Lazaret at Nice, AldeneatCesseras, Grotte deslesGrasatEscragnolles, Eden RocatVaison-Ia-Romaine, Grotte TournaIatBize,IVariationinP. graculus issimilar to that inP. pynhocorax, asPleistocene fossils tend tobesmall and show great overlapwithRecent birds, unworthy of subspeeific recognition. .

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1978 BRODKORB: C-\TA.LOCl'E OFFOSSILBIRDS 165LaCrouzadeatGruissan, Grotte de la Carriere at Gerde, Grotte de Malarnaud and Grotte de Soulabe and Grottes de las BufiosatMontseron, Espelugues at Lourdes, Les Trois Freres at Montesquieu-Avantes, Les Balmes at Villereversure, Grotte de Balazuc, Grotte de Ebbou and Le Columbiere and Deux Avens at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Grotte des Hoteaux at Rossillon, Saint Romans, La Colombiereateuville-sur-Ain, Grand-Bailie at Laymiat, Abri GayatSaint-Nazaire en-Royans, Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Grotte des Fees at Chatel perron, Grotte de JaurensatNespouls, GrottedeCottier at Retournac, Pech de rAze at Carsac, Laugerie Haute Est aux Eyzies, Vergisson, Grand Caveau at Flavigny-sur-Ozerain, Baume de Gigny, Cimay at Evenos, L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson, Orgnac-rAven, LArago at Tautavel, Le Lazaret at Nice, Abri SuardatLa Chaise, Grotte d' Aldene at Cesseras, and Pie Lombard at Tourrettes-sur-Loup (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, pp. 222,228,pI.17,fig.21);Grotte du Salpetre at Pompignan, Grotte de la Salpetriere at Remoulins, Grotte de Tarte at Cassagne, and Abri de Campalou (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, pp. 386, 402, 424, 461). MONACO: Grotte de rObservatoire (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). SPAIN: Meda Grande?, CavernadeSantimamii\e, and Cueva de Berraberia (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p.99).GIBRALTAR: Devirs Tower (Bate, 1928, Jour.Roy.Antrhop. 1nst., vol. 58,p.104,fig.24). MALLORCA (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 784). CORSICA: Toga, Grotta di Funtanedu?, and Margine Cave (E.T.Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). ITALY: Cavernes de Verrezzi (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2,p.595); Grotte dei Colombi (Regalia, 1893, Arch. Antrop. Etnol., vol. 23,p.262); Grotte du PrinceatGrimaldi and La Tana del Pastore near Toirano (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). SWITZER LAND: Grotte de Cotencher (Dubois and Stehlin, 1932, Mem. Soc.Pal. Suisse, vol. 52,p.169,pI.7,fig.22). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Certova dlra (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.internat. om. Kongr. Berlin, p. 940); Kulna (Skutil and Stehlt"k, 1939,Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22); Stranska skala (Janossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20 (n.s. 12),p.59). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss. math.-nat.KI.,pt. I, vol. 182,no.6-8,p.212).HUJGARY:Balla-Hohle and Hohle Pesko (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, pp. 276, 281-283,pI.4,figs.13-22); Baj6t, Palffy-Hohle, and Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila, vol. 20, p. 425); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); "Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb.Kgl.Ungar. Geol. Reichsanstalt, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 339, 403); Kiskevely-Hohle and Kalten-Szamos-Tal (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, pp. 191,193,fig.6); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4, p. 206); Ista1l6sko and Hohle Pince (Janossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 208,figs.17B-C); Subalyuk-Hohle and Szelim-Hohle (Janossy, 1962, Aquila, vols. 67-68,p.182,fig.32A); Tarko Felsniche (Janossy, 1962, Ann. Mus. Hungar., vol. 54, p. 157); CuratavCave (Janossy, 1965, Vertebrata Hungarica, vol.7,p.112). RUMANIA: Pilspokfurdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1918, Barlang kutatas, vol. 5, pp. 29, 70). UKRAIE:Kiik-Koba and Syuren 1 (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt.1,pp. 107,112);Tankov. Azil, Kara-Koba, and Fatma Koba (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo,vol.3, pp. 24, 27, 36, 38). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11,no.3, pp. 106, 107,126,131,pI.I,fig.3; pI.6,fig.14).17. Corvus lIwnedulaLinnaeus. IRELAND: Edenvale Cave, Newhall Cave,KeshCave (Bell,1915, Zoologist,ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 404). E GLAD:Langwith Bassett Cave and Chud leigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). and Merlin's Cave (Lam brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). FRANCE: Moustier Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782); Balme-les-grottes (Chauvire, 1963, C.R.Sommaire Soc. Geol. France, 1963,fasc.2, p. 52); Grotte du Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. prehist. Monaco,no.11, pp. 61-78,pI.I,figs1,4);Grotte de I'Hortus and "Grotte de I'HortusatVal flaunes (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.I, p. 277); Lunel-Viel, Abimes de la Fage at Noailles, Orgnac-I'Aven, AldeneatCasseras, Grotte Tournai at Bize, Soulabe andLasBufios at Montseron, La Colombiere at Neuville-sur-Ain, Jearn Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de Couz, Les Fees atChatel Perron?, Pair-non-Pair at Marcamps, Petit Putmoyen, Baume de Gigny, and Baume de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 228,pI.17,fig.18).BELGIUM: Grotte Marie-Jeanne (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63, p.11).PORTUGAL:Grutadas Fontainhas and Gruta de Furninha? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.782). SPAIN: Gruta de Hornos (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 782). CORSICA: Grotta de Funtanedu(E.T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pt. 2, p. 231). ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi (Regalia, 1893, Arch. Anthrop. Etnol., vol. 23, p. 262);GrottadiParignana,

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166 BLLETINFLORIDASTATEMUSEUM Vol.23,No.3Grotta d'Equi, Grotta Romanelli, and Buca del Bersagliere? (Lambrecht, 1933, H(mdb. Palaeorn., p. 782). GERMANY: Zwergloch bei Pottenstein and Elisabeth-Hohle im Ailsbachtal? (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 302); Hohle Fels in Achtal bei Ulm, Hohle Fels bei Schelkingen, Felsnische bei St. Wolfgang, FelsnischeimVelburger Schlossberg (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn. p. 782). SWITZERLAND: Magdalenian? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). DENMARK: Vordingborg and Taarnmark(0.Winge, 1903, Vidensk. Meddel. na,!Urh. Foren., vol. 6, p. 103). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarova skala, Certova dira, and Spika (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.internat. ornith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 938-940); Yolyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn. p. 782); Stranska Skala, Holstyn; Michalova, Kulna, and Pod (Skutil and Stehh'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). AUSTRIA: Schreiberwandhohle, Eichmaierhohle?, Schusterlucke?, and Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb.Kgl.Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 19,no.3, p. 149); Hohle Pesko (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19,p.280); Palffy-Hohle, and Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila, vol. 20, p.428); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb.Kgl.Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 22,no.6, p. 403); Ista1l6sko, (Janossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 208); Tac (Bokonyi and Janossy, 1966, Vertebrata Hungarica, vol.7,p. 92). RUMANIA: Curatii Cave (.Janossy, 1965, Vertebrata Hungarica, vol.7,p. 113). POLAND: Manutowa Cave (Bochenski, Birds Late Quarternary Poland, pp. 106, 2(0). MOLDAVIA: Star, Druitor, and Trinka (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya ObstanovkaiFauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 46,47). UKRAINE: SyurenI,Syuren11,and Shaitan koba (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt.1,pp. IOJ, JJJ);Kizil Koba?, Tankov, Azil, Tardenuaz, Syuren11shelter, Murzak-Koba, Fatma-Koba, Nizhnee Krivche Kremensta, Rasponintsy, Rukomysh, Perevoloka, Aimovsk, Olvii, Voin, and Raykii (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit., pp.23,30,34,37,38,42,43,45,57,61,63,65); Podolia (Burchak Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,p. 240). RUSSIA: Don River between Nizhne Chirsk and ovocherkassk, and Fort Sarkel (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 54); ZhiguJey Cave on River Volga (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,p. 242). SIBERIA: Gusinyi Log Cave on River Yenesei near Krasno yarsk (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,p.241). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave and Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11,no.3, pp. 100, 106); 'Ubeidiya (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleistocene Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 24). CHINA: Chou-Kou-Tien (Shaw, 1935, Bull. Geol. Soc. China, vol. 14, no.1,p. 80).18.Corvus frugilegusLinnaeus. IRELAND: Castelpook Cave,KeshCave, Edenvale Cave, Newhall Cave, and Bantick Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser.4,vol. J9,no.893, p. 404). ENGLAD:Langwith Bassett (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser.4,vol.19,no.893, p. 404). FRANCE: Mentone (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781); La BalauziereatVers and Grotte SimardatPuymoyen (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Docum Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.229). CORSICA: Gradicchia Cave (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt.2,p. 231). ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi (Regalia, 1893, Arch. Antrop., Etnol., vol. 23, p. 262); Grotte du Cavill on at Grotta Romanelli, and Grotta d'Equi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781). BELGIUM: Trou des Nutons (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781). DENMARK: (Lpppenthin, 1967, Danske ynglefugle i fortid og nutid, pp. 50, 501, 558). HUNGARY: Pilis szant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 480, 500, 508); Baj6t (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781); Tac and Visegrad (Bohonyi and Janossy, 1966, Vertebrata Hungarica, vol.7,p. 92). GREECE: Nesakia on Isle of Cerigo (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 232). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt. I, pp. 101, 111); Tankov, Krements, Rasponints,DneprRiver near Kiev, Zaporozhya, Mikhaylovk, andFortSarkel (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3,pp. 30, 43, 44, 51,52,66).RUSSIA:Don River between Nizhne-Chirsk and Novocherkassk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Prosh logo, vol. 3,p.54); AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Burchak-Abramovich, "1963" (1962), Ornithologiya, vol. 4, p. 463). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 1(0). IRAN: Belt Cave (Wetmore, 1951, in Coon, Univ. Penn. Mus. Monograph, p.90).19.Corvus ossifragusWilson. ILLINOIS: Modoc Rock shelter and Snyders site (Parmalee, 1967, Wilson Bull., vol. 79,no.2,p.161); FLORIDA: Seminole Field (Wetmore, 1931, Smith sonian Misc. Coli., vol. 85,no.2, p. 40); Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no.1,p. 136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4,no.9, p. 283); Rock Spring

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1978BRODKORB:CATALOClTEOFFOSSILBIRDS167(Woolfenden, 1959, Wilson Bull., vol. 71,no.2,p.185); Bluff ton (Neill, Gut, and Brodkorb, 1956, Amer. Antiquity, vol. 21, no. 4, p. 388); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4,p.149); Nichol's HammockinDade County (Hirschfeld, 1009, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 31, no. 3,p.181); Goodman site (Wing, 1963, Contrib. Florida State Mus., no. 10, p. 56); Inglis ( niv. Florida).20. lellco{!,Iwphalus Daudin. PUERTO RICO: Barrio Canas (Wetmore, 1938, Auk, vol. 55,p.55). ST. CROIX: Concordia (Wetmore, 1937, Jour.Agr.Univ. Puerto Rico, vol. 21, no.1,p.14). 21.Corvus caurinusBaird. ALASKA: Kodiak Island (Friedmann, 1934, Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 24, no. 5,p.236). WASHINGTON: Puget Sound midden(L.Miller, 1960, Wilson Bull., vol. 72, no. 4, p. 397). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea(A.H. Miller, 1929, Univ. California Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 19, no. 1,p.8); Carpinteria (Wetmore, 1931, inA.O.U.,Check-listN.Amer. Birds, ed. 4, p. 467; see alsoA.H.Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. PubI.Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no.7,p. 175,pI.12,fig.I).22. Corvus brachyrhynchosBrehm. OREGON: Five Mile Rapids(L.Miller, 1957, Condor vol. 59,p.62). CALIFORIA:PotterCreek Cave(L.Miller, 1911, Univ. California Publ. Bull., Dept. Geol., vol. 6, no. 16, p. 399); Rancho La Brea(L.Miller, 1912, Univ. California Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol7,no. 5,p.71);Rancho La Brea(A.H.Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39,no.6, p. 252); Carpinteria (Wetmore, 1940, Smithsonian Misc. ColI., vol. 99,no.4, p. 72,butentirely absent according toA.H.Miller, 1937); Vallecito Creek? (Howard, 1963, Contrib.inSci., no. 73,p.26); Buena Vista Lake (DeMay, 1942, Condor, vol. 44, no. 5,p.228). NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave Howard, 1952, Bull.S.California Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pt. 2,p.54). IDAHO: BirchCreekValley and Weiss rock shelter(L.Miller, 1963, Bull.S.California Acad. Sci., vol. 62, pt. 4, pp. 181, 184). UTAH: SandDuneCave (Hargrave, 1971, Tech. Ser. Mus.N.Arizona,no.9, pp. 40, 45).ARIZ0TA:WalnutCanyon Pueblo (Hargrave, 1939, Condor, vol. 41, no. 4,p.209).JEWMEXICO: Cochiti Dam (Harris, 1968,Mus.New Mexico Research Records, no. 6, pp. 206, 223). NORTH DAKOTA: Thomas Riggs siteandHuff Focus site(L.Miller, 1961, Bull.S.California Acad. Sci., vol. 60, pt. 3,p.126). SOUTH DAKOTA: Chouteau site(L.Miller, 1961, Bull.S.California Acad. Sci., vol. 60, pt. 3, 126); Hosterman,CrowCreek,CattleOiler, Sully School, Sully,and Black Partizan (Parmalee, 1977, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 22-77, p. 197). TEXAS: Moore pit near Dallas (SlaughteretaI., 1962, Bur. Econ. Geol. Univ. Texas, Rept. Invest., no. 48,p.39); Ingleside pit (Feduccia, 1973, Condor, vol. 75, no.2,p.243). ARKANSAS: Zebree site? (Guilday and Pannalee, 1971, Amer. Mid land at., vol. 86, no.1,p. 228). IOWA: Mill Creek (Hamon, 1001, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 6, p. 211). WISCO SIN: Raddatz rock shelter (Parmalee, 1959, Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 40, p. 85).ILLIOIS:OPiumIsland (Baker, 1941, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., vol. 32, p. 68); Cahokia (Parmalee, 1957, Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. vol. 50,p.239); AppleCreek(Par malee, Paloumpis, and Wilson, 1972, Illinois StateMus.Rept. Invest.,no.23, pp. 31, 33). OHIO: KettleHillCaveandCanterCaves (Goslin, 1955, Ohio Jour. Science, vol. 55, no.6,p.359). PENNSYLVANIA: Varner site near Waynesburg (Guilday, 1001, Pennsylvania Archaeologist, vol. 31, no. 3-4,p.122); Sheep rock shelter (GuildayandParmalee, 1965, Pennsylvania Archae ologist, vol. 35, no. I, p. 39); Fort Ligonier (Guilday, 1970, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 42, p. 181).NEWYORK:Cole quarry (Moore, 1973, Bull.N.Y.Arch. Asso., no. 58, p. 33). WEST VIRGIlA: Buffalo village (Guilday, 1971, West Virginia Geol. Econ. Surv., Rept. Archeol. Invest., no. 4,p.8).FLORIDA: Seminole Field (Wetmore, 1931, Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 85, no. 2, p. 40); Reddick(Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Pal., vol. 31, no.I,p.136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283); Williston (Holman, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 5, no.1,p.5);Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 149).23.Comus caroneLinnaeus.Comus comix tassilisGiebel, 1847, FaunaderVorwelt, vol.1,pt. 2, pp.17,39(based on Rudolph Wagner, 1832, Abh.K.bayer, Akad. Wiss., pt.1,p. 779,pI.2, fig. 53, Pleistocene bone breccia, Sardinia, femur). ENGLAND: Palling (Lydekker, 1891, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus.,p.3);Hastings and Glaston bury (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). FRANCE: Mentone (Lydekker, 1891, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 3); Lourdes, Aure, and Lacombe-Thayac (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.781); Balme-les-Grottes (Chauvin\, 1963, C.R.Sommaire Soc. Geol. France, fasc. 2,p.53); GrottedeI'HortusandGrottede I'Hortus at Valflaunes (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,pp. 277, 2Jl9); Grottes inferieres d' AurensanandGrotte

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168BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.3des Espelonges (Bouchud, 1972, Bull.Asso. Fran<;,. EtudeQuatern., vol. 1, pp. 53-56; Les Romains at Pierre-Chiitel (DesbrosseandMourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24,p.154); Rond-du Barry (Mourer-Chauvin\, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no.1,p. 39); Lunel-Viel, Orgnac-I'Aven, Le Lazaret at Nice, FontechevadeatMontbron, Grand-Bailie at Leymiat, Grand CaveauatFlavigny-sur-Ozerain, Pie Lombard at Tourrettes-sur-Loup,GrandCaveauatFlavigny-sur Ozerain,andBaum-de Gigny (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 229,pI.19,fig.18). MONACO:GrottedeI'Observatoire (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 781). PORTUGAL:GrutadeFurninha (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 781). SPAIN: CavernadeSantimamine (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15,p.98). SARDINIA: bone breccia (Wagner, 1832, Abh.k.Bayer. Akad. Wiss., p. 779,pI.2, fig. 53); Pietro Tampoia Cave on Tavolara (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 471,pI.37, fig.5).MALTA? (Lambrecht, Palaeorn., p. 781). ITALY:Grottedu Prince at Grimaldi,Grottadei Colombi?, Grotta d'Equi,Grottadi Cucigliana,Grottaall Onda,andGrotta Romanelli (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palae om.,p.781). SWITZERLAND: Kesslerloch, Thayingen, Schweizersbild,andSzontagsee (Lam brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781). GERMANY: Fuchslocher am Roten Berge bei SaaUeld?andFuchsloch bei Gleitsen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.781); VOigtstedt (Janossy, 1965, pal. Abhandl., Abt.A,vol.2,p.354); Stellmoor (Lpppenthin, 1967, Danske ynglefugle i fortidognutid, p. 500). BELGIUM: Trou de la Naulette (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.781). DENMARK: Koling, Mejlgaard, Havn,Erteblle, Havelse, Slager, Aalborg, Borreb .jerg, Vordinborg,andTaarnmark (Winge, 1903, Meddel. naturh. Foren., vol. 6,p.104). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: SipkaandCertova lira(Xapek, 1910, Ber.V.Internat. ornith. Kongr. Berlin,p.939, 940); Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781);Stninska skala and Pod (Sleutil and Stehb'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). HUNGARY: Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb.Kgl.Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 22, no. 6, p. 398, pI. 15,figs.14-16); (Janossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 208). POLAND: Rock-shelter above Niedostepna Cave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 105,200).WHITERUSSIA: Novogrudok (Burchak-Abramo vichandZalkin, 1972, Bull. Moscow Obshch. Ispit. Prirodi, 77, no. 2,p.53). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 101,HI); Savatinovka (Bibikova, 1963, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol.1,p. 137); Tankov, Kara-Koba, Muzak-Koba, Rasponints,DneprRivernearKiev, Zaporozhya, Alimovsk, Chayka, Chersones, Olvii, Mikhaylovka,FortSarkel,andPetukhovka (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro dnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 30, 36, 37, 43,44, 51, 52,57, 59, 62,66, 69); Pololiaand Tash-AirCavenear Bakchisaray (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,pp. 240, 243). RUSSIA: Don RiverbetweenNizhne-ChirskandNovocherkassk,andBorshavo (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 54, 67); Yurezan River cavesandZhiguleyCaveon Volga River (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,p. 242); Moscow (Burchak-Abramovich and Zalkin, 1969, Bull. Moscow Obshch. Ispit. Prirodi, vol. 74, no. 6,p.51); Tanais (Burchak-AbramovichandZalkin, 1971, Bull. Moscow Obshch. Ispit. Prirodi, vol. 76, no. 5, p. 55). GEORGIANSSR:Darkwetiand Kvemo-Kartli (Bendukidze,1973, Tezisi Dokl.IVVsesouzhomuSOY.Izuchen. Chetvert. Perioda, p. 88). AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Serebrovsky, 1948,TrudyEstest.-Istor. Mus. Akad. Nauk AzerbaijanSSR,pts. 1-2, pp. 55, fig.). SIBERIA: Gusinyi Log Cave of Yenesei RivernearKrasnoyarsk (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,p. 241). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol.H,no. 3, pp. 100,106).JAPAN:lkiIsland off Kiushiu (Kuroda, 1959, Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan, vol. 21, no.7,pp.67,73,pI. 1,fig.F).24.Corvus macrorhynchosWagler. CHINA:ChouKou Tien? (Shaw, 1935, Bull. Geol. Soc. China, vol. 14, no.I,p. 80).25. Corvus cryptoleucusCouch. CALIFORNIA: McKittrick(A.H.Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39, no. 6, p. 251); Rancho La Brea (Howard, 1939, FortschrittederPalaont., vol. 2, p. 316).26. Corvus ruficollisLesson. AZERBAIJAN: Bingady? (Serebrovsky, 1941, Doklady Akad. NaukU.R.S.S.,vol. 33, p. 473; Serebrovsky, 1948.TrudyEstest.-Istor. Muz. Akad. Nauk AzerbaijanSSR,pts. 1-2, 56,58,figs.58-59).27.Corvus coraxLinnaeus.Corvus fossilisGiebel, 1847,FaunaderVorwelt, vol.1,pt. 2, pp. 16, 39 (Pleistocene, Seveckenberg bei Quedlinburg, Germany; syntypes complete tibio tarsus, distal haU of left tibiotarsus,andupperpartof tarsometatarsus, perhaps from the same

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1978BRODKORB:CATALOGUEOFFOSS1L BlRDS169individual).Corvus crassipennisGiebel, 1847, op. cit., pp.17,39 (Seveckenberg, type distal part of ulna). IRELAND: Shandon Cave near Dungarvan (Lydekker, 1891, Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 3,p.384); Eden vale Cave, ewhall Cave, and Bantick Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893,p.404). SCOTLAND: Linlithgow Cave (Lydekker, 1891, Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 3,p.384). ENGLAND: Kirkdale Cave (Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt,vol.1,pt.2,p.39); Clevedon Cave, Langwith Bassett Cave, Caervent, Cranbourn Chase, Woodcuts, and Lewes (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,vol.19,no.893,p.404); Wall and Pevensey (Bell, 1922, aturalist,nos.787-788,p.251); Col chester (Bate, 1934, Ibis,p.391). SPAIN: Rodauviver and Cavern a de Santimamiile (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol.15,p.98). MALLORCA (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.780). FRANCE: Abri Suard at La Chaise, Sal petre de Pompignan, Grotte TournaIatBize, La CrouzadeatGruissans, La CarriereatGerde, Soulabe and Soulabe at Montseron, Espelugues at Lourdes, Abri Lafaye at Bruniquel, Villereversure, Balazuc, Saint Romans, La Colombiere at Neuville sur-Ain, Les Romainsat Pierre-Chatel, Les Fees at Chatel perron, Rond du BarryatSinzelles, Combe Grenal at Domme, Pech de rAze at Carzac, Laugerie Haute Est aux Eyzies, Pair-non PairatMarcamps, Le Placard at Vilhonneur, Grand CaveauatFlavigny-sur-Ozerain, Baume de Gigny at Gigny-sur-Suran, Grand Caveau at Flavigny-sur-Ozerain, and Baume de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac.Sci.Lyon, no. 64,p.251). BELGIUM: Trou de Chaleux (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.781); Grotte Marie-Jeanne near Hastiere Lavaux (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63,p.11).MONACO: Grotte de rObservatoire and Menton (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.781). BALEARIC ISLANDS: Majorca (Lamb recht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.781). SARDIIA(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.781). MALTA (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.781). ITALY: Grotta die Colombi (Regalia, 1893, Arch. Antrop. Etnol.,vol.23, pp. 262, 340); Grotta d'Equi, Caverna Poll era, and Grotta Romanelli? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.781); Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi and Verezzi (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, pp. 251,252,fig.28).SWITZERLAD:Schaffhausen (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila,vol.19, pp. 302, 305); Grotte de Cotencher (Dubois and Stehlin, Mem. Soc.Pal. Suisse, vol. 52,p.167);Schweizerbild, Kesser loch cave, Thayingen, Kaltbrunnental, Thierstein, and Ettingen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.781). GERMANY: Seveckenberg bei Quedlingburg and Lahntal (Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. I, pt.2,pp. 16,17).DENMARK (L6ppenthin, 1967, Danske ynglefugle i fortid og nutid, pp. 46,48, 496, 557). NORWAY: Vardo (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781). FINLAND: Ladoga Lake (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. PJllaeorn., p.781). CZECHO SLOVAKIA: Predrnost, Balcarova skala, Sipka, and Certova dJra (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.internat. om. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 938, 939, 940): Zuslavitz (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol.19,pp. 302, 305); Theide, Kulna, Yolyn, and Kostelik (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 780); Stnl.nska skala, Holst}'n skala, and Pekarana (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6,nos.2-4,p.22).AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila,vol.19, pp. 302, 305). HUGARY:Balla Cave (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol.19,pp. 277,282, 283,pI.4,figs.31-32); Palffy Cave and Pillisszanto (Lambrecht, 1913,vol.20,p.428); Oregko Cave near Baj6t (Kormos and Lambrecht, 1914, Barlangkutatas, vol. 2,no.2,p.105); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila,vol.21,p.90); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb.Kgl.Ungar. Reichsanst.,vol.22, no. 6,p.403,pI.14,figs.1-16); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4,nos.3-4,p.206); Tarko (Janossy, 1962, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungar., pt. Min. Pal.,vol.54,p.157); Csakvar (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.780). POLAND: Raj Cave and Za Murem Cave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 105, 200). UKRAINE: Nizhnee Krivche, Krementsa, Olvii,Voin, and Bernova Luke (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp.42,43, 61, 63, 67); Podolia Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,p.240).RUSSIA: Kubenino II and Beloozero (Burchak-Abramovich and Zalkin, 1972, Bull. Moscov. Obshch. Ispit. Prirodi, vol. 77, no. 2,p.53). ABKHAZIA: Kholodnogo Grotto (Burchak-Abramovich and Bendukidze, 1971, Fragmenta Balcanica, vol. 8,no.12,p.109). AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Serebrovsky, 1941, C.R.Akad.Sci.URSS,vol.33,no.7-8, p. 473; Serebrovsky, 1948, Trudy Estest.-Istor.Mus.Akad. Nauk AzerbaijanSSR,pts.1-2,pp. 54,58,figs.56-57). SIBERIA: Gusinyi Log Cave on Yenesei River near Krasnoyarsk (Burchak-Abramo vich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,p.241). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3,p.106).ALASKA:Kodiak Island (Friedmann, 1934, Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 24, no. 5,p.236); Dutch Harbor, Little Kiska, Atka

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170BULLETINFLORIDASTATEMUSEUMVol. 23,No.3Island,and'AttuIsland (Friedmann, 1937, op. cit., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 436-438);'CapePrince of Wales (Friedmann, 1941, op. cit., vol. 31,no.9, p. 409); Kangiguksuk (Hall, 1969, Condor, vol. 71, no.1,p.76).ORECON:'FiveMile Rapids(L.Miller, 1957, Condor, vol. 59,no.1,p. 59). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea(L.Miller, 1909, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 5,no.21, p. 306); Hawver Cave(L.Miller, 1911, op. cit., vol. 6,no.16, p. 398); Mc Kittrick(L.Miller, 1925, Univ. California Publ., Geol. Sci., vol. 15,no.9, p. 325); Carpinteria(L.Miller, 1927, Science,n.s.,vol. 66, p. 156); Playa del Rey [Del Rey Hills] (Howard, 1936, Condor, vol. 38,no.5,p.212); "Buena Vista Lake (DeMay, 1942, Condor, vol. 44, no. 5, p. 228). NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave (Howard, 1952, Bull.S.California Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pt. 2, p. 54). IDAHO: "Weiss rock shelter(L.Miller, 1963, Bull.S.California Acad. Sci., vol. 62, pt.4,p. 181); Jaguar Cave(L.Miller, 1965, Tebiwa, vol.8,no.1,p.19).UTAH: "Sand Dune Cave (Hargrave, 1970, Tech. Ser. Mus.N.Arizona, no. 9, pp. 38, 54). ARIZONA: "Betatakin Pueblo, "Kiet Siel Pueblo, "Awatobi Pueblo,'WalnutCanyon Pueblo, "Winona Village, "Citadel Pueblo, "Nalakihu Pueblo, and"WupatkiPueblo (Hargrave, 1939, Condor, vol. 41, no. 5, p. 209).EWMEXICO: Conkling Cave and Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no.1,p.16); Howells Ridge Cave (Howard, 1962, Condor, vol. 64, no. 3, p. 242); "Cochiti Dam (Harris, 1968, Mus. New Mexico Research Records,no.6, pp. 206, 223); Dark Canyon Cave (Howard, 1971, Condor, vol. 73, no. 2, p. 238); Dry Cave entrance fissure and Bison Sink (Magish and Harris, 1977, Condor, vol. 78, no. 3,p.401). NORTH DAKOTA: "Thomas Riggs site and "Huff Focus site(L.Miller, 1961, Bull.S.Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 60, pt. 3, p. 126). SOUTH DAKOTA: "Chouteau site(L.Miller, Bull.S.Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 60, p!. 3, p. 126); "Crow Creek,"CattleOiler, "Sully School, "Sully, "Hosterman, "Black Partizan, "Spiry-Eklo, "Anton Rygh, "Medicine Crow,and"Mobridge (Parmalee, 1977, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 22, pp. 197, 217). IOWA: "Mill Creek (Hamon, 1961, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 6, p. 211); "Bear Creek (Parmalee, 1967, Wilson Bull., vol. 79,no.2,p.157). ILLINOIS: "Plum Island (Baker, 1941, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n.s., vol. 32, p. 68); "Cahokia (Parmalee, 1957, Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci., vol. 50, p. 239); "Fisher site (Parmalee, 1958, Auk, vol. 75, no. 2, p. 175); "Crawford farm and "Emmons site (Parmalee, 1967, Wilson Bull., vol. 79,no.2,p. 157). OHIO:'FeurtVillage (Wetmore, 1943, Wilson Bull., vol. 55,no.1,p.55);"CanterCaves (Goslin, 1955, Ohio Jour. Sci., vol. 55, no. 6,p.361). WEST VIRGINIA: "Buffalo Village (Guilday, 1971, West Virginia Geol. Econ. Surv., Rep!. Archeol. Invest., no. 4, p.8).GEORGIA: "Etowah (Parmalee, 1960, Florida Anthropologist, vol13,nos. 2-3,p.49). UEVO LEON: San Josecito cavern(L.Miller, 1943, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., vol. 47,no.5, p. 165).27a.Corvus corax antecorax [?]Corvus anneetensShufeldt, 1892, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 9, p. 419,pI.15,figs.14-16 (type from Pleistocene, Fossil Lake, Oregon, right tarsometatarsus,Copecol lection, nowinAmer. Mus. at. Hist., New York).[?]Corvus shufeldtiSharpe, 1909, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, vol. 5, p. 599 (new nameforCorvus anneetensShufeldt, 1892, preoccupied byCorvus anneetens Bruggeman, 1877).-Howard, 1946, Carnegie Instn. Washington, Publ. 551, p. 189 (referred toC.corax).-Mourer Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.250 (proportions differ from those of line ofC.corax).-Magish and Harris, 1977, Condor, vol. 78, no. 3,p.403 (holo type falls within size range ofC. corax sinuatus,C.cryptoleueus,andC.neomexieanus). Corvus anteeoraxMourer-Chauvire, 1975(27June), Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 1, pp. 239,253,pI.19, figs. 3-17;pI.20 (holotype from Abimes de la Fage near Noailles, Dept. Correze, France, complete left humerus, Mus. Lyon, no. 41,707; nearly 30,000 topotypes including all parts of the skeleton).Corvus neomexieanusMagish and Harris, 1977(11Jan.), Condor, vol. 78, no. 3, p. 402,figs.3-4, meas. graphs only (holotype from Dry Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico, complete left femur, hab. Environmental BioI., Univ. Texas at El Paso, no. MALB 27-27; 87 paratypes include mandible, coracoid, humerus, prox. end of ulna, radius, carpal, carpometacarpus, dist. end tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, scapula).

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1978BRODKORB: CATALOCUE OFFOSSILBIRDS171MIDDLEPLEISTOCENE(Mindel-Riss interglacial).FRANCE:MasduCaveatLunel-Viel 1976,Doc.Lab. Geol. Fac.Sci.Lyon,no. 64, fasc. 2, p. 285).UPPERMIDDLEPLEISTOCENE(Riss glacial).FRANCE:AbfmesdelaFageatNoailles,Orgnac-I'Aven,CaunedeI'AragoatTautavel?,LeLazaretatNice,andGrotteduCapdelaBiehleatestier?(Mourer-Chauvire,1976,op.cit.,pp.294,312,323,332,336,338,340).LOWERUPPERPLEISTOCENE(FossilLakeFormation).OREGON:LakeCounty:FossilLake?(Shufeldt, 1892, Jour. Acad.Nat.Sci.Philadelphia,vol. 9,p.419,pI.15, figs. 14-16).UPPERPLEISTOCEE(interstadial,25,160-33,590 B.P.).EWMEXICO:EddyCounty:DryCave?(MagishandHarris,1977,Condor,vol. 78, p. 402).FamilyPARADISAEIDAE(Vieillot)ParadiseiVieillot (before Apr. 14), Analyse nouv.Om. elem., p.35 (famille; typeParadisea Linnaeus).-Paradiselll1aVigors, 1825, fideGray.-ParadiseidaeBoie, 1826, Isis von Oken, fideGray.-Paradiseil1aeGray, 1840 (before Apr.) List Genera Birds,p.39 (subfamily).Paradiseil1aeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 45(famiIia).-ParadisaeidaeStejneger, 1885, Standard Nat. Hist., vol.4,p.516 (family; typeParadislleaLinnaeus,1758).Paradisaeil1aeStejneger, 1885, op. cit.,p.516 (subfamily).Ptilol1orhYl1chil1aeGray, 1846 (Apr.), Genera Birds, vol. 2, p. 323 (subfamily; typePtilol1orhYI1c1l11sKuhl).-Ptilol1orhYl1chil1aeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.19(familia).-Ptilol1or hYl1chidaeSharpe, 1891, Review Recent Attempts to Classify Birds,p.85 (family).Ptilol1orhYl1chidaeStone, 1891, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,p.459.Phol1ygamil1aeGray, 1847 (June), List Genera Birds, ed.2,p.50 (subfamily; type Phol1lfgallla Lesson).Mal111codiil1aeCabanis,1847, fide Gray (type Mal111codia Boddaert).Epimachil111eGray, 1848 (Feb.), Genera Birds, vol. I, p. 93 (subfamily; typeEpimachllsCuvier).EpimachidaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1,p.411(famiIia).Epi7llachil111eSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.I,p. 45 (familia).TllmagridaeBuller, 1888, Hist. Birds ew Zealand, ed. 2, vol. I, p. 30 (family; type Tllnwgra Lesson).CI1e7l1ophilinaeMayr, 1962,illPeters, Check-list Birds World, vol. 15, pp.ix,181(subfamily; type CnemophilllS DeVis).eospeciesofParadisaeidaefromthePleistoceneSubfamilyPtilonorhynchinae1. Tllmagra capensis(Sparrman).'NEWZEALAND: North Island: Awakino-Mohoenui area (Medway, 1971, Notomis, vol. 18, p. 218). South Island: Pyramid Valley Swamp? (Scarlett, 1955, RecordsCanterburyMus., vol. 6, no. 4, p. 263).FamilyMENURIDAE(G. R. Gray)Mel111ril1aeG.R.Gray, 1847 (March), Genera of Birds, vol. I, p. 153 (subfamily: type Menllra Davies).-MenllrinaeCabanis,1847, Archivf.Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 23, vol.I,no. 2,p.337 (subfamiIia).-MenllridlleBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.I,p. 215(family).-MenllroidelleSte.jneger, 1885 Standard Nat. Hist., vol.4,p. 460 (super-family).o fossilrecord.ISystematic position fide Storrs Olson (personal communication).

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172 BULLETIFLORIDASTATE MUSEU 1 Vol. 23,No.3FamilyATRICHORNITHIDAEStejnegerAtrichomithidaeStejneger, 1885, Standard Natural History, vol.4,p.46 (family; typeAtrichornisStejneger, 1885, new name forAtrichiaGould, preoccupied).AtrichiinaeFurbringer, 1888, Untersuch. Morph. Syst. Vogel, vol. 2,p.1538 (subfamily; typeAtrichiaGould, 1844, preoccupied byAtrichiaSchrank, 1803, andAtrichiaDesv., 1830).Nofossilrecord.FamilyACANTHISITTIDAE(Sundevall)AcanthisittinaeSundevall, 1872, Methodi Naturalis Avium Disponendamm Tentamen, pt.1,p.47 (familia; typeAcanthisitta Lafresnaye).-AcanthidosittidaeNewton, 1896, Dictionary of Birds, pt. 4, pt.1055.-AcanthisittidaeWetmore, 1940, Smithsonian Misc. Coil., vol. 99,no.7,p.10.XenicidaeSclater, 1888, Cat. Birds Brit. Musm., vol.14,pp.xix,450 (family; typeXenicus Gray).-Xeniscidae[sic]Sharpe, 1891, Review of Recent Attempts to Classify Birds, pp. 28,88.XenicomithidaeMathews, 1930, System a Avium Australasianamm, vol.2,p.435 (family; typeXenicornislredale and Mathews).TraversiidaeMathews, 1930, Systema Avium Australasianarum, vol.2,p.435 (family; typeTraversiaRothschild).Nofossilrecord.FamilyPARIDAEBoieParidaeBoie, 1826, Isis von Oken, col. 000 (family; typeParus Linnaeus).-ParidaeBrehm, 1831, Handbuch Naturg. aller Vogel Deutchlands,p.459("Ordnung").-PariidaeBona parte, 1831, Saggiodiuna Distribuzione metodica degli Animali Vertebrati,p.51.ParinaeBonaparte, 1838, Geog. andCompoList of Birds Europe and North America,p.19(subfamilia).-ParianaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali Americana, pt.2,p.200(subfamily).-ParinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.17(familia).AegithalinaeReichenbach, 1850, Avium Systema Naturale,p.000 (subfamily; typeAegithalasHermann).-Aegithalidae Delacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31),LosAngeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no.16,p.5 (family).RemizinaeWetmore and W.D.Miller, 1926, Auk, vol. 43, no. 3,p.345 (subfamily; typeRemiz Jaracki).-RemizidaeDelacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31),LosAngeles Co.Mus.Contr. Sci.,no.16,p.5 (family).PsaltriparinaeWetmore and W.D.Miller, 1926,Auk,vol.43,no.3,p.345 (subfamily; typePsaltripamsBonaparte).NeospeciesofParidaefromthePleistoceneandHolocene1.Pams cristatusLinnaeus. FRANCE: Orgnac (Mourer-Chauvin\, 1975, Docum. Lab. Geol., Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64p.206). UKRAINE: Novgorod-Seversk? (Zubareva, 1950, Tmdi Inst. Zool. Akad. Nauk UkrainoskoiRSR,vol. 4, pp.SO,94,pI.3,fig.13).2.Pams ma;orLinnaeus. ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1922, Naturalist,nos.787-788,p.251); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.768). FRANCE: Combe-Grenal (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,p.360); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer Chauvire, 1974, Anthrapologie,vol.78,no.I,p.38); Campalou and Rond-du-Barry (Mourer Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol., Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.206). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Yolyn (Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit.,p.788); Veruncius (Skutil and Stehh"k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4,p.22); Stranska skala? (Janossy, 1972, Anthrapos, vol. 20 (n.s.12),p.60). HUNGARY: Puska poras (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4,p.206); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb.Kgl.Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 22, p. 403); Hundsheim? (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-naturw., pt.1,vol. 182, no..6-8,p.212). RUMANIA: Piispokfurdo [Betfia)

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1978BRODKORB:CATALOGUEOFFOSSIL BIRDS173(Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 30). UKRAINE: Novgorod-Seversk (Zubareva, 1950, Trudi Inst. Zool Akud. Nauk UkrainskoiRSR,vol.4,pp.BO,94,pI.3,fig.16); SyurenI, Azil, Tardenuaz, Murzak-Koba, and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, pp. 31, 34,35, 37, 58). ISRAEL: Abu-Usba Cave? (Bar-Yosef and Tchemov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool. vol. 15,p.134).3. Parus caeruLeusLinnaeus. ENGLAD:Camforth Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,p.403). AUSTRIA: Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit., p. 788). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Stranska akala (Skutil and Stehllk, 1939, Omitholog, vol. 6, nos.24,p.22). UKRAIE:Tar denuaz and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya,Obstanova i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, pp. 35,58).4.ParusaterLinnaeus. ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 403). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit., p. 788). UKRAINE: Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, p. 58). u 5.Parus lugubris (Temminck). RUMANIA: Piispokfurdo [Betfia](Parus lugubris fossilisCapek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol.5,pp. 31,72,typerostnllTIfrom GUl1z-Mindel state, ten tatively named). 6. ParttsmontanusConrad. FRANCE: Jean PierreatSaint-Thibaud-de-Couz (Mourer Chauvirci, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol., Fac. SCI. Lyon,no.64,p.206).7.ParuspalustlisLinnaeus. HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4, p.206).AUSTRIA: Hundsheim? (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-naturw., pt.1,vol. 182,no.6-8,p.212). RUMANIA: Piispokfurdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4, p.72).8.Parus gambeliRidgway. CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea?(A.H.Miller, 1929, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 19,no.1,p.10,pI.1,fig.d).9.Parus rttfescensTownsend. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria?(A.H.Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no.7,p.176,pI.14,fig.d).10.Aegithalos caudatus(Linnaeus). FRANCE: L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson? and Le Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.205). ITALY: Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol., Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 205). RUMANIA: Piispokfurdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 72). POLAND: Nietoperzowa Cave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 117,2(0). UKRAINE: Azil(Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 34). 11.Remiz pendulinus(Linnaeus). FRACEoL'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson (Mourer Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.206).FamilySITTIDAE(Bonaparte)SittinaeBonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzion Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati, p. 49 (subfamilia;typeSittaLinnaeus).-Sittinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, p. 47 (familia).SittidaeSeebohm, 1890, Birds Japanese Empire, p. 92 (family).ClimacterinaeCabanis, 1850, Mus. Heineanum, pt.1,p. 94 (subfamilia; typeClimacterisTemminck).-Ciimactelidae Mayr, 1963, Emus, vol. 63, no.1,p. 1 (family). Position tentative.TichodromeaeBonaparte, 1853 (seance du31Oct.), C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37,no.18,p.644 (series; typeTichodroma Illiger).-TichodrominaeGray, 1869 (after May 10), Hand List Gen. Sp. Birds, pt.1,pp.Xii,184(subfamily).-TichodromainaeDelacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31), Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 16, p. 5 (subfamily).-TichodrarnadinaeVaurie, 1959, Birds Palearctic Fauna, Passeriforrnes, p. 534 (subfamily).Salpominae[sic] MayrandAmadon,1951(Apr.2),Amer. Mus. Novit., no. 1496, pp. 23, 37 (subfamily; typeSalpomis Gray).-Salpomitinae[sic] DelacourandVaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31), Los Angeles Co.Mus.Contr. Sci.,no.16, p. 5(subfamily).-SalpomithinaeGreenway, 1967, in Peters, Check-list Birds World, vol. 12, p. 159 (subfamily). Position tentative.NeosittinaeDelacour and Vaune, 1957 (Oct. 31), Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 16, p. 5 (subfamily; typeNeosittaHellmayr). Position tentative.

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174BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.3DaphoenosittirweDelacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31, Los Angeles Co.Mus.Contr. Sci.,no.16, p. 5 (subfamily; typeDaphoenosittaDeVis). Position tentative.RhabdomithidaeGreenway, 1967,inPeters, Check-list Birds World, vol. 12, p.161(family; typeRhabdomisReichenbach). Position tentative.NeospeciesofSittidaefromthePleistoceneandHolocene1.Sitta europaea Linnaeus.EGLAND:Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 403); Langwith Bassett and Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 788). FRANCE: Rond-du-Barry 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78,no.1,p.38); Combe Grenal (Mourer-Chauvin!:, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol., Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.207,pI.17,fig.11); Couze stationinLalinde commune (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit.,fasc.2,p.505). DENMARK: Haag(0.Winge, 1903, Vidensk. Meddel. naturh. Foren., vol.6,p.104).SWITZER LAND: Grotte de Cotencher (Dubois and Stehlin, 1932, Mem. Soc. Pal. Suisse, vol. 52,p.29); Ettingen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 788). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Stranska skala and Balcarka (Skutil and Stehh'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6,nos.2-4,p.22).UKRAINE: Tar denuaz? and Krementsa (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pp. 35,43); Pololia (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil BirdsinCaves ofUSSR,p. 240).2.Sitta canadensisLinnaeus. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria(A.H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21,no.7,p. 176,pI.14,fig.e).VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 145,no.2,p.13).3. Sittad.carolinensisLatham. POLA0:Rock-shelter above Niedostepna Cave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 109,200,fig.70-71).4. Sitta pygrnaea Vigors. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria(A.H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21,p.177,pI.14,fig.a).5.Sitta pusil/a Latham. FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull.,no.44,p.193).6. Tichodrornarnuraria (Linnaeus). ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 788). POLAND: Mamutowa Cave? and Rock-shelter in Puchacza cave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 115,200,fig.72).FamilyCERTHIlDAE(Vigors)CerthiadaeVigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 452 (family; typeCerthiaLinnaeus).-CerthinaeBonaparte, 1831, Saggiodiuna Distribuzione Metodica degli Animali Verte brati, p.49).-CerthidaeBonaparte, 1838, Geogr.CompoList Birds Eur.N.Amer., p. 1O.-CerthiOlwe G.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List Genera Birds,p.18(subfamily).CerthiidaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.1,p. 224.NeospeciesofCerthiidaefromthePleistocene1.Certhia farni/iarisLinnaeus. ENGLAND: Chudleigh C,!lve (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). RUMANIA: Piispokfurdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 71). UKRAINE: Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p.58).FamilyCAMPEPHAGIDAE(Vigors) Carnpephagina Vigors, 1825, fide Gray (subfamily; type Carnpephaga Vieillot).-Carnpephaginae G.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 34 (subfamily).-Campo phaginae Sundeoall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.21(familia).-Campophagidae Sharpe, 1879, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 4,p.6 (family).-Campephagidae Newton, 1896, Dic tionary of Birds,p.70 (family). Ceblepyrinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 108 (subfamily; typeCeble pyris Cuvier, 1817, a junior synonym of Carnpephaga Vieillot, 1810).PericrocotinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.26 (familia; typePericrocotusBoie).No fossilrecord.

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1978BRODKORB: C.U.-\LOCl'E OFFOSSIL BIRDSFamilyPYCNONOTIDAE(Gray)175BrachypodinaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt.2,p.152(subfamily: typeBrachypllSSwainson, 1824, preoccupied byBrach'lpllsMeyer,1815).-BrachypodidaeCabanis,1851(Jan.),Mus.Heineanum, pt. I, p.107(familia).PljcnonotinaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds,p.28 (subfamily; typePycnonotusKuhl).-Pycnonotidae Blyth, 1849, Cat. Birds Mus-Asiatic Soc.,p.206 (family).-PI/cnonotinaeSundevall, 1872. Tentamen, pt.1,p. 20 (familia).PhyllomithinaeCabanis,1847, Arch. fur aturg., Jahrg. 23, vol.1,pt.2,p.326 (subfamilia; typePhyllomisTemminck, 1829, a junior synonym ofChLoropsisJardine and Selby, 1826).PhilomithidaeWallace, 1874, Ibis,p.406 (family).LxodinaeBlyth, 1849, fide Gray (subfamily; typeLxosTemminck).Aegithininl/eGray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt.1,pp. xvii, 314 (subfamily; typeAegithinaVieillot).-Aegin/hininaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.8 (familia).Spi.::ixidaeOberholser, 1919(.Jan.4),Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., vol.9,no.1,p.15(family; typeSpi.::ixosBlyth).ChLoropseidaeWetmore, 1960 (23 June), Smithsonian Misc. ColI., vol. 139,no.11, pp. 19,31(family; typeChloropsisJardine and Selby).NeospeciesofPycnonotidaefromthePleistocene1.Pljcnonotllsbarba/us(Desfontaine). ISRAEL: MlIgharet-el-Zuttiyeh? (Bate, 1927,inTurville-Petre, ResearchesinPrehistoric Galilee 1922-1926,p.28); Oumm Qatafa Cave, Kebara, El-Zuttiyeh Cave, and Abusba Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. I,no.3,pp. 104,106, 113).Family CINCLIDAE (Cabanis)Cinclinae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv. fur Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. I, pt.1,p.205 (subfamilia; type Cinclus Borkhausen).'-Cinclidae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. I,p.251(familia).-Cinclinae Sundevall, 1872, Methodi naturalis avium disponendarum Tentame, pt.1,p.5 (familia).HydrobalidaeGray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt.1,pp.xv,266 (family; typeHydrobataVieillot, 1816, a junior synonym ofCincLusBorkhausen,1797).-H'IdrobatinaeGray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt.1,pp.xv,266 (subfamily).NeospeciesofCinclidaefromthePleistoceneandHolocene1.CincLuscincllls (Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Chlldleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist,ser. 4,vol. 19,no.893,p.403). JERSEY: St. Brelade's Cave (Bell, 1922, aturalist, no. 787-788,p.251). FRA CE: Abtmes de la Fage at oailles 1965, C.R.Soc. Geol. France, no. 1,p.8);Rond-du-Barry at Sinzelles (Mollrer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78,no.1,p. 38); La CarriereatGerd, Soul abe atMontseron, Le Colombier at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc?, La Colombiere at euville-sur-Ain, Campalou at Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans, Le Blot at Cerzat, Pech de I'Aze at Cerzac, Baum de Gigny at Gigny-sur-Suran, and Le Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 195,pI.16,figs.14-15). CORSICA: Grotta de Funtanedu? (E.T.Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool.Soc.London, pt. 2, p. 230). SWITZERLAND: Pfahlbauten von Robenhauser (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2,p.599).AUSTRIA: Guenushohle and Schusterlucke (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 780). CZECHO SLOVAKIA: Balcarka and Katerinska (Sklltil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6,no.24,p.22).HUGARY:Pilisszant6 Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 480, 505); Otto Herman Hiihle (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22,p.190).IG.R.Gray (1841, List Cen. Birds. ed. 2.p.85) proposed the subfamily name Cinclinae forCinclus M.oehring, 1752, a senior synonymof Areullria Brisson, 1760.AsMoehring was a prebinomial author, his genera have no nomenclatorial validity. Therefore Gray's improper liseofCinclinae for the lumstones (Areuaria) doesnotpreclude the later liseofCinclinllefor the dippers.

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176BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMFamilyTROGLODYTIDAE(Swainson)Vol.23,No.3Troglodytaenae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2,p.316 (subfamily; type Troglo dytes Vieillot).-Troglodytinae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 131,319.-Troglodytidae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coil. Amer. Birds, p.16-Troglodytinae Sunde vall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 13 (familia). Campylorhynchinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv.R.R.Pacific, vol. 9, pp.xix,343, 354 (sub family; type Campylorhynchus Spix).GenusCistothorusCabanisCistothorus Cabanis, 1850, Museum Heineanum, vol.1,p.77 (type Troglodytes stelloris Naumann, Recent).1.CistothoTUS brevisBrodkorbCistothorus brevis Brodkorb, 1957 (Feb. 26), Jour. Paleontology, vol. 31,no.1,p. 133,pI.20,figs.10-13 (type from Reddick, right humerus, Brodkorb no. 788; referred coracoids, ulnas, tibiotarsi).-Hamon, 1964, Florida Ceol. Surv., Geol. Bull., no. 44, p. 194 (femur).MIDDLEUPPERPLEISTOCENE(Reddickbeds).FLORIDA:MarionCounty:DixieLimeProductsCompanymine,1miSEReddick.NeospeciesofTroglodytidaefromthePleistoceneandHolocene1.Troglodytes troglodytes (Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 403). FRANCE: Orgnac-I'Aven,LeLazaret, and Deux Avens at Vallon Pont-d'Arc (Mourer-Chauvinl, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.196,pI.17,fig.1).UKRAINE:'Tardenuazand'Krementsa(Voinstvenski, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Prosh logo, pt. 3, p. 35); 'Podolia (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,p. 240).2.Troglodytes aedon Vieillot. ILLINOIS:'MeyerCave? (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speological Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130). FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Palaeontology, vol. 31, no.1,p. 136, Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull.no.44, p. 144); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10,no.4,p.50).3.Salpinctes obsoletus (Say). IDAHO: Jaguar Cave(L.Miller, 1965, Tebiwa, vol. 8, no.1,p.19).NEWMEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H. Miller,l!:133,Condor, vol. J5, no.1,p.16).4.Salpinctes mexican us (Swainson).NEWMEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no.1,p.16).5.Campylorhynchus Brunneicapillus (Lafresnaye). CALIFORNIA: McKittrick?(A.H. Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39, p. 250).6.Cistothorus platensis (Latham). FLORIDA: Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10,no.4,p.150).FamilyMUSCICAPIDAEVigorsMuscicapidae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn.Soc.London, vol. 14, p. 435 (type Musicapa Brisson). Musicapinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2,p.200 (subfamily).-Mus cicapinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 25 (familia). Merulidoe Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14,p.435 (type Merula"Ray"=Leach, after Aug. 30, 1816, a junior synonym of Turdus Linnaeus, 1758, and preoccupied by Merula Koch, before July, 1816).-Merulina Vigors, Zool. Jour., vol. 2, p. 396. Cossyphina Vigors, 1825, Zool. Jour., vol. 2, p. 396 (type Cossypha Vigors). Saxicolina Vigors, 1825, Zool. Jour., vol. 2, p. 396 (type Saxicola Bechstein).-Saricolinae Swain son, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana,pt. 2, p. 2oo.-SaxicolidaeB.aird,1864(.June),Review of American Birds, sig.1,pp. 61, 453 (family).-Saxicolinae Sunde vall, 1872, Methodi Naturalis Avium Disponendarum Tentamen, pt.1,p. 4 (familia).

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1978BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OFFOSSILBIRDS177Turdinae Bonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzione Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati,p.31(subfamily; type Turdus Linnaeus).Turdidae Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr.CompoList BirdsEm.andN.Amer.,p.11.-TurdinaeSundevall, 1872, Methodi Naturalis Avium Disponendarum Tentamen, pt.1,p.4 (familia). Pachycephalinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 492 (subfamily; type Pachy cephala Vigors).-PachycepIUllinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.16(familia). Leiotrichanae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt.2,p. 400 (subfamily; type Leiothrix Swainson).-Leiotrichanae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol.2,pp. 71,249.Liotrichidae Cabanis, 1847, Arch.f.Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol.1,pt. 2, p. 323 (familia). Liotrichinae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.1,p.332. Crateropodinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 156 (subfamily; type Crater opus Swainson, 1831, a junior synonym of Turdoides Cretzschmar, 1826).-Crateropoditwe Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.9 (familia). Orthonycinae G.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p.19(subfamily; type OrthonyxTemminck).-OrthonychinaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Genemm Avium, pt.1,p.216 (subfamilia). Trimalinlle G.R.Gray, 1841, List of Genera of Birds, ed.2,p.36 (subfamily; type Timalia Horsfield).-Timaliinae Bonaparte, 1840, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.I,p.216.Timaliidae Wallace, 1874, Ibis, p.406.-Timaliini Delacour, 1946, Oiseaux, vol. 16,p.7 (tribe). Erythacinae G.R.Gray, 1846 (May), Genera of Birds, vol.1,p.177 (subfamily; type Erithacus Linnaeus). LuscinidaeG.R.Gray, 1848 (Aug.), Genera of Birds, vol.1,p.161(family; type Luscinill Lin naeus).-LlIScininae G.R.Gray, 1848 (Aug.), Genera of Birds,vol.1,p.171(subfamily). Lusciniinae Sundevall, 1872, Methodi Naturalis Avium Disponendarum Tentamen, pt. 1,p.3 (familia). Eupetinae Bonaparte, 1850 (March), Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.1,sig. 32,p.251(sub family; type EupetesTemminck).-EupetidaeG.R.Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt.1,pp.xv,267 (family).-Eupetinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.12(subfamilia). Napodinae Cabanis,1850, Museum Heineanum, pt.1,sig.10, p.76(subfamily; type Napodes Cabanis, 1850, a .junior synonym of Timalia Horsfield, 1820. Myillgrinae Cabanis,1850, Museum Heineanum, pt.1,sig.7,p. 56 (subfamily; type Myiagra Vigors and Horsfield).-Myiagrinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 24 (familia). Garruillcinae Bonaparte, 1853 (seance du31Oct.), C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 27,no.18, p. 644 (subfamilia; type Garrulax Lesson). Miminae Bonaparte, 1853,C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, p. 644 (subfamily; type Mimus Boie). Miminae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.14(familia).-Mimidae Sharpe, 1891, Review of Recent Attempts to Classify Birds, p.87(family). ParadoxomithinaeG.R.Gray, 1855, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds Brit. Mus., p.82(subfamily; type PlIradoxomis Gould).-Paradoxomithidae Wetmore, Smithsonian Misc. ColI., vol. 89,no.13, pp.2,10 (family). Ptilagonidinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv.R.R.Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix, 316, 318 (subfamily; type Ptilogonys Swainson).-Ptilagonydinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coli. Amer. Birds, p.47.Ptilogonatidae Ridgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt.1,p.21(family).-Ptila gonatidae Ridgway, 1904, op. cit., pt. 3, pp.Viii,113.-Ptilogonatinae Arvey, 1948, Wilson Bull., vol. 61,no.3,p.198. Chamaeanae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv.R.R.Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix, 343, 370 (subfamily; type ChanUlea Gambel).-Chamaeadae Baird, 1864 (July), Review Amer. Birds,p.75 (family).-Chamaeidae Coues, 1878, Birds Colorado Valley, pp.xi,108.-Chamaeinae Ridgway, 1887, Man.N.Amer. Birds, p.588.-ChamaeiniDelacour, 1946, Oiseaux, vol. 16, p. 7 (tribe). Myiadestinae Baird, 1866 (May), Review of American Birds, sig. 26, pp. 408, 417, 462 (sub family; type Myiadestes Swainson). Henicllrinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.5 (familia; type Henicurlls Cabanis,i.e. EnicuTIIs Temminck). Myiophonirwe Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 5 (familia); type Myiophoneus Temminck). Copsychinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 8 (familia; type Copsychlls Wagler).

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178BULLET1NFLORlDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.3BrachypteryinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.10(familia; typeBrachypteryxHorsfield).ToxostominaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.13 (familia; typeToxostomaWagler).FicedulinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 23 (familia; typeFicedulaBrisson).PlatystirinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 23 (familia; typePla/ystiraJardine and Selby).MuscipetinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 25 (familia; typeMuscipe/aCuvier).RhipidurinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 25 (familia; typeRhipiduraVigors, andHorsfield).-RhididuridaeOliver, 1955, New Zealand Birds, ed.2,pp.9,491 (family).Rhipiduri,weDelacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31), Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 16, p. 5 (subfamily).TimeliidaeSharpe, 1874, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol.4,p. 7 (typeTil1leliaSundevall, 1872, a .junior synonym ofTillwlia 1I0rsfield, 1821).FalctlnulidaeSundevall, 1874, OEfversigt Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akad. Fiirhandl., no. 3, p. 30 (familia; typeFalllnclilusVieillot).PicathartinaeLowe, 1938, Ibis, ser. 14, vol.2,p.267 (subfamily; typePica/hartesLesson).PicathartidaeBannerman, 1951, Birds Tropical West Africa, vol. 8,p.465 (family).PicathartiniMayr and Amadon, 1951 (April 2), Amer.Mus.Novitates, no. 1496, pp. 18,36(tribe).Pe/leomini[sic] Delacour, 1946, Oiseaux, vol. 16, p.14(tribe; typePe/lomelll1lSwainson).PellomeiniDelacour, op. cit., p. 22.POllwtorhininiDelacour, 1946, Oiseaux, vol. 16,p.15 (tribe; typePOl1la/orhinllsHorsfield).TlirdoidiniDelacour, 1946, Oiseaux, col. 16,p.19(tribe; typeTlirdoidesCretzschmar).TurdoididaeWilliams, 1963, Field Guide BirdsE.and Central Africa, p. 187 (family).CinclosomatiniMayrandAmadon, 1951 (April2),Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1496, pp.18,36(tribe; typeCinclosol1laVigors and Horsfield).ZeledoniidaeRidgway, 1907, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 4, pp. viii, 885 (family; typeZeledoniaRidgway).PalaeoscininidaeHoward, 1957 (June 28),LosAngeles County Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 9, p.15 (family;typePalaeoscinisHoward).MonarchinaeDelacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31),LosAngeles County Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 16,p.5 (subfamily; typeMonarclwVigors and Horsfield).PanurinaeDeignan, 1964, Check-list Birds of World, vol. 10, pp.ix,430 (subfamily; typePanurtlsKoch).SubfamilyMYADESTINAEBairdMyadestinaeBaird, 1866.PalaeoscinidaeHoward, 1957.GenusPalaeoscinisHowardPalaeoscinisHoward, 1957 (June 28), Los Angeles County Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 9, p. 6 (type by original designationPalaeoscinis turdirostrisHoward).1.Palaeoscinis turdirostrisHoward Palaeoscinis turdirostrisHoward, 1957 (June 28), Los Angeles County Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 9, p. 6,figs.1-2(type from Tepusquet Creek, skeleton impression, Los Angeles Mus. no.2604).MIDDLEMIOCENE(Mohnian stage,Montereyformation).CALIFORNIA:SantaBarbaraCounty:San Rafael Mountains: west sideTepusquetCreek,NE114ofNW1/4,section 15 ,Township10 North, Range 31 West.

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J978 BRODKORB:C. .... T:\LOCl'EOFFOSSILBIRDSNeospecies of Muscicapidae fromthePleistocene and"HoloceneSubfamily Miminae J79 1.Toxoslomo mfllm (Linnaeus). PENNSYLVANIA: ew Paris (Cuilday, Martin, and McCrady, 1964, Bull. Nat. Speleol. Soc., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 134, 143). VIRCIIIA:Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 145, no. 2,p.13).FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Ceol. Surv., Ceol. Bull.,no.44, p. 194); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State M us., vol. 10,p.150).2. Toxoslonw ocel/alum (Sclater). MEXICO: Valley of Tequixquiac? (Storer, 1954, Wilson Bull., vol. 66, no. 2,p.144).3.Toxostomo redivivum (Cambel). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea(A.H. Miller, 1929, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull Dept. Ceol.,vol.19,p.IJ;1937, Condor, vol. 39, no. I,p.250). 4. Toxoslomo bendirei (Coues). CALIFORNIA: McKittrick(A.H.Miller, 1937. Condor, vol. 39, no.1,p.250).5.Toxostomo dorsole (Henry).NEWMEXICO: Shelter Cave? (Howard andA.H.Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no.1,p.16).6.Oreoscoples montollus (Townsend). CALIFORNIA: McKettrick and RanchoLaBrea(A.H. Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39, p. 250).NEWMEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no.I,p.16).7.Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus). FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Ceol.SurY.,Ceol. Bull. no. 44,p.194); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10,p.150). DOMINI CAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Fram:isco (Bernstein, 1965. Quart. .lour. Florida Acad.Sci.,vol. 28,no.3,p.279). Abaco Island (Conklin, 1971, Quart. .lour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33,no.3, p. 238). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral and Cueva Clara (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 325). 8. Mimus gundlachii Cabanis. BAHAMAS: Cordon Hills Cave, Crooked Island, (Wetmore, 1938, Auk, vol. 55, no.1,p.52); Banana Hole, New Providence (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no.lip.365).9.Mimussaluminus(Lichtenstein). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania and Lapa da Lagoa do Sumidouro(0.Winge, 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol.1,no.2,p.49).10.Margorops fuscolus (Vieillot). BAHAMAS:CreatExuma Island (Wetmore, 1937, Bull. Mus. Compo Zool., vol. 80,no.12,p.441). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral and Cueva Clara (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer.Mus.Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 325).II.Dumetello carolinensis (Linnaeus). WISCONSIN: Raddatz rock shelter? (Parmalee, 1959, Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 40, no.2,p. 85).SubfamilyTurdinae12.Erithocus rubeculo (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Kesh Cave, Newhall Cave, and EdenvaleCave(Lambrecht, 1933. Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779). ENCLAND: Clevedon Cave, Chudleigh Cave, Ulhgcliffe Cave, Langwith Bassett Cave, and Merlin's Cave? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom.,p.779). FRA CE: Fontechavade? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Ceol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.199). CORSICA:CrottadiFuntanedu(E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2,p.230). ITALY: BucaTanadi Maggiano (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Pal aeom.,p.779). DENMARK: Oexnebjerg(0.Winge, 1903, Vidensk, Meddel. naturh. Foren., vol. 6, p. 105). HU CARY: Lambrecht Cave (Janossy, 1963, Acta Zoologica, vol. 9, p. 295). UKRAIE:SyurenI, Azil, Tardenuaz,Chemigov,and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro dnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 31, 34, 35, 49, 58). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchemov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11,p.IDO).13.Erithacus luscinio (Linnaeus). ENCLAND: Langwith Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, nos. 787-788, p. 251). FRA CE: Abfmes de la Fageand Arago actuel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Ceol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 199). ITALY: Buco della Volpe sopra Rovenna (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38,p.197);Crottad'Equi(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom.,p.779). SWITZERLAD:CrottedeCotencher (DuboisandStehlin, 1932, Mem. Soc. Pal. Suisse, vol. 52, p. 29). CERMAY:Westeregeln bei Magdeburg (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom.,p.779). UKRAINE: Krementsa and Rasponintsy (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 43, 44).

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180BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.314.Erithacus megarhynchosBrehm. UKRAINE: Azil,Tardenuaz,andPerevoloka (Voin stvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka iFaunyProshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 34,35, 45). ISRAEL: HayonimCave(Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15,p.132).15.Erithacus suecicus(Linnaeus). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.779); St"inska skala (Sku til and Stehlt"k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4,p.22). POLAJ D: Rebielice? (Janossy, 1974, Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, vol. 19, no. 21,p.558). UKRAINE: caves (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds inCaveofUSSR,p.237). ISRAEL: KebaraCave(Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol.ll,no. 3, p.1(6);Abu-Usba Cave (Bar-YosefandTchemov,1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15,p.134).16.Phoenicurus phoenicurus(Linnaeus). IRELAND: Kesh Cave, Newhall Cave, and Eden valeCave(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,p.403). ENGLAND: Clevedon Cave, Chudleigh Cave, Longcliffe Cave, and Langwith BassettCave(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,p.403). FRANCE:Grottede Lherm (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779); Lunel-Viel, Fontechevade?, Abri LafayeatBruniguel, Le BlotatCerzat,andRond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 199). CORSICA:GrottadiFuntanedu(E.T. Newton, 1921, Proc. ZooI.Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). DENMARK: Soe lager(0.Winge, 1903, Meddel. naturh. Foren., vol. 6, p. 104). AUSTRIA: Hund sheim? (.Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-natw., pt.I,vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.779). UKRAINE: Azil (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3,p.34). ISRAEL: KebaraCave(Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol.ll,no. 3, p.1(6).17.Phoenicurus ochrurosGme1in. POLAND: Zytnia Skala? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds LateQuaternaryPoland, pp.ll7,200). ISRAEL: KebaraCave(Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol.ll,no. 3,p.1(6);Abu-UsbaCave(Bar-YosefandTchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Sci., vol. 15, p. 134).18.Sialia sialis(Linnaeus). ILLINOIS: MeyerCave(Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleological Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130). FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull., no. 44, p. 195).19.Sialia mexicanaSwainson.CALIFORIA:Carpinteria(A.H.Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 179, pI. 13, fig.i;pI. 14, fig.i);Rancho La Brea?(A.H.Miller, 1929, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull.Dept.Geol. Sci., vol. 19,p.ll).20.Cercomela melanura (Temminck). ISRAEL: 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 24). 21.Saxicola rubelru(Linnaeus). IRELAND: KeshCave(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). ENGLAND: Carnforth CaveandChudleighCave(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Merlin's Cave? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779). FRA CE: Abfmes de laFageatNoailles, Orgnac I'Aven, Le Lazaretatice, Salpetre de Pompignan, Rond-du-Barry, Baume de GignyatGigny-sur-Suran?,andArago actuelatTautavel(Mourer Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.197). CORSICA:GrottadiFuntanedu(E.T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2,p.230). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 779). RUMANIA: Piispokfurdo [Betfial (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5,p.30). UKRAINE: Syuren I, Alimovsk,andOkunevki(Voin stvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 2, pp. 31, 58, 59).22. Saxicola torquata(Linnaeus). GERMANY: Voigtstedt (Janossy, 1965, Pal. Abhandl.,partA,vol. 2, p. '355). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779). RUMA lA: Piispokfurdo [Betfia] (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 779). ISRAEL: Hayonin Cave? (Bar-YosefandTchemov,1966, Israel Jour. Sci., vol. 15, p. 132).23.Oenanthe isabellina(Temminck). BELGIUM:GrotteMarie-Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63,p.ll).24.Oenantheteucuru (Gmelin). FRANCE: Arago actuelatTautavel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 198).25.Oenanthe oenanthe(Linnaeus). ENGLAND: IghthamCave(E. T. Newton, 1894, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 50,p.191,pI.10, figs. 13-14); Clevedon CaveandLangwith BassettCave(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Chudleigh Cave andGlastonbury (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, nos. 787-788,p.251); Merlin'sCave(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom.,p.779). FRANCE: Teyiat (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779); La Balau ziere atVers, Aurensan?, La ColombiereatNeuville-sur-Ain,CampalouatSaint-Nazaire-en-

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]978BRODKORB: CAT.-\LOCl'E OFFOSSIL BIRDS]8]Royans, Le BlotatCerzat,CrottedeCottieratRetournac, RondduBarry,GrotteSimardatPuymoyen,andBaumdeGignyatGigny-sur-Suran (Mourer-Chauvin\, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geo!. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 198). CORSICA:GrottadiFuntaneduandGrottadi Brietta (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zoo!' Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). GERMANY: Kleine Scheuer im Lonetal(Lambrecht,1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim? (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-natw., pt.1,vo!. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Malenice(Lambrecht,1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779); Stranska skala (Janossy, 1972, Anthropos, vo!. 20 (n.s. 12), p.60).POLAD:Yolyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Hangb. Palaeorn., p. 779). UKRAINE: Syuren 1 (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso.Internat.EtudeQuat., pt.1,pp. 103, 112); Kiik-Koba, Adzhi-Koba, Tankov,'Azil,'Novgorod-Seversk,'Chernigov,'Kiev,and'Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka iFaunyProshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 25,28, 30,34, 40,49,51,53, 58). ISRAEL: KebaraCave(Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no.3,p.106);Abu-UsbaCaveon Mt.Carmel(Bar-YosefandTchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 134).26. MonticoLa saxatilis FRANCE:Grottes inrerieure etsuperieured'Aurensan (Bouchud, 1972, Bull. Asso. Fran". EtudeQuatern.,vol.1,pp. 52, 54, 56); Abfmes delaFageatNoailles (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p.198, pI. 17, fig. 2). HUNGARY: Puskaporos(Lambrecht,1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4, p.206).27. MonticoLa solitarius(Linnaeus). FRANCE:FortduSerrat-d'enVacquer near Perpignan? (Paris, 1912, Rev. Fran". dOm.,vo!. 4, p. 285); Rousillon(Lambrecht,1918, Aquila, vol. 24, p. 216);GrotteduLazaretat NiceandCombeGrenalatDomme(Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 198).28. Zootheradauma(Latham). MONACO: L'Observatoire (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 202). ITALY:GrotteduPrinceatGrimaldi (Mourer Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geo!. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 202). CORSICA:GrottadiFuntanedu?(E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zoo!' Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230).29. Catharus minim us(Lafresnaye). FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geo!. Surv., Geol. Bull., no. 44, p. 195).30. Cathartls ustaLattls(Nuttall). CALIFORNIA:Carpinteria?(A.H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 178). UTAH:'Loperruin (Hargrave,1960,Univ. Utah Anthr.Papers, no. 44, p. 239). 31.Catlwrtls guttatus(Pallas). CALIFORNIA:Carpinteria?(A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.PubI.Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 178).32. TunLtls torquatusLinnaeus. SPAI :CavernadeSantimamifJe (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 98). FRANCE:Grottedu Lazaret at Pierre-Chatel (DesbrosseandMourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartiir, p. 153); Abri SuardatLa Chaise, La Balauziere atVers,GrotteJean PierreatSaint-Thibaud-de-Couz,andBaumedeGigny at Gigny-sur-Suran (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p.2(0);GrottedeCottieratRetournac (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 472). MO ACO: L'Observatoire (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p.2(0).SWITZERLAND:Schlossfelsen von VirsecknearBasel, Kaltbrunnental, Thierstein,andErmitage(Lambrecht,1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.788). GER MANY:Raumgrotte(Lambrecht,1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). HUNGARY:LambrechtCave? (lanossy, 1963, ActaZoologica Cracov., vol. 9, p. 308). CZECHOSLOVAKIA:Certova dJ'ra (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.internat. ornith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 940). POLAND:'Rock-shelterabove iedostepnaCaveand'MamutowaCave? (Bochenski, 1974, BirdsLateQuaternaryPoland, pp. 120,122, 200, fig. 76).33. Turdus meruLaLinnaeus. IRELAND: Doneraile Cave, Edenvale Cave, Newhall Cave,andKeshCave(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403).ENGLAND:Ighthamfissure (E. T. Newton, 1899,Quart.Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 55, no. 219, p. 420); Clevedon Cave,ChudleighCave,andLangwith BassettCave(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Merlin'sCave(Lambrecht,1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). GIBRALTAR: Devil'sTower(Bate, 1928, Jour. Roy. Anthr. Inst., vol. 58, p. 104). SPAIN:CavernadeSantimamifJe,CuevadelaCampana,andAvenc delGeant(Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 98). FRANCE: Balme-les-grottes (Chauvire, 1963, C.R.Sommaire Soc. Geol. France,fasc. 2, p. 53);GrotteduLazaretatNice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. Prehist. Monaco, no. 11,pp.62,64,76,78); Abfmes de laFage(Chauvire, 1965, C.R.Soc. Geol. France,no. 1, p. 8); Les RomainsatPierre-Chatel (DesbrosseandMourer-Chauvire, 1973, vol. 23-24, pp, 153, 155); RondduBarry

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182BULLETINFLORIDASTATE f-.\uSEUM Vol. 23, 1'\0. 3and'Ronddu BarryatSinzelles 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78,no.I, p. 38);MasRambaultatFrontignan[?,see p. 266], L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson,LWlelViel, Ognac l'Aven, Abri Suard at La Chaise, FontechevadeatMontbron, AldeneatCesseras?, EdenRocat Vaison-la-Romaine, Sal petre de Pompignan, Grotte Tournai at Bize,LaCrouzadeatGruissan,LaBalauziereatVers, La CarriereatGerde, Soul abe at Montseron,LesTrois Freres at Monte squieu-Avantes, Balazuc, Deux AvensatVallon-Pont-d'Arc, La Colombiere ateuville-sur-Ain, CampalouatSaint-Nazaire-en-Royans, Jean Pierre and'JeanPierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Jaurens at espouls, Combe GrenalatDomme, Pech de l'Aze at Carsac, Gare de CouzeatLalinde, Grotte SimardatPuymoyen, Grand Caveau and'GrandCaveauatFlavigny-sur Ozerain, Baume de Gonvillars and'Baumede Gonvillars, La Roche plate at Saint-Mihiel?, and'Aragoactuel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac, Sci. Lyon,no,64,p.2(0), MONACO: Grotte de l'Observatoire (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.778). CORSICA: Toga? (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,p.472,fig.2);Grotta di Funtanedu, Grotta di Brietta, and Gradicchia Cave(E. T.Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt.2,p. 230). SARDIIA:Grotta delCapo(E. T. ewton, 1921, Proc. Zool.Soc.London, pt.2,p.230). ITALY: Oliveto? (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Torino, ser.2,vol. 38, p. 198); Grotte de Grimaldi, Grotte du Prince, Grotta dei Colombi, Buca del Bersagliere, Grotte d'Equi, and Buca Tana di Maggiano (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). SWITZERLAND:Ennitageand Felsen bei Birseck near Basel (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). LUXEMBURG: Oetrange (Ferrant and Friant, 1940, Faune pleist. d'Oetrange, p. 200,pI.15).GERMANY: St. Wolfgang Cave and Kastelhang Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). CZECHO SLOVAKIA: Balcarova cave and Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.internat. ornith. Kongr. Berlin., p. 938); Stninska cave, Sipka, Kulna, Veruncina, and Katerinska (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol.6,nos.24,p. 22). AUSTRIA: Gudenus cave and Schusterlucke? (Lam brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.778). HUNGARY: Somlyohegy and 'Somlyohegy (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, pp. 286, 303, 306);'Legenycave near Pilisszentlelek (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). POLA D:'RajCave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Pleistocene Poland, pp. 124, 2(0). RUMANIA: Plispokfurdo and 'Plispokfurdo [Betfia] (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19,p.286). GREECE: NesakiaonCerigo Isle (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool.Soc.London, pt.2,p. 230). UKRAINE: Kiik-Koba, SyurenI,'Azil,'Tardenuaz,'SyurenII,'MurzakKoba, 'Shan-Koba,'NizhneeKrivche, 'Krementsa, 'Rasponinta, 'Chernigov, 'Kiev, and 'Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 25, 31, 34, 35,37,38, 42, 43,49, 51). MOLDAVIA:'Trinka(Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob stanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 47).RUSSIA:'Zhiguley Cave on River Volga (Burchak Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds CavesUSSR,p. 242). AZERBAIJA : Binagady (Burchak Abramovich, 1963, Ornitologiya, vol. 4, p. 463). GEORGIANUSSR:Gvardzilas-Klde (Burchak Abramovich, 1966, Peshchery Gruzii Speleolog. Sbornik, vol. 4,p.96);'Darkweti(Bendukidze, Tezisi Dokl.IVVsesouz.SOy.Izuchan. Chetvert. Perioda, p. 88). ISRAEL: Ownm Qatafa Cave and Kebara Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11,no.3, pp. 100, 104, 106); 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p.24). 34.TlIrdlls pilaris Linnaeus. IRELAND:KeshCave and Edenvale Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoolo gist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, nos. 787-788, p. 251), PORTUGAL:GrutadeFuminha(Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 97). BELGIUM: Trou de Sureau (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304); Trou de la Naulette, Trou de Chaleux, Trou des Nutons, and Trou du Frontal (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). FRANCE: Grotte du LazaretatNice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. prehist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 62, 78); Abfmes de la Fage (Chauvin\, 1965, C.R.Soc. Geol. France,no.I,p.8);Combe Grenal (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no. I, p. 360): Lunel-Viel, Aragoand' Atago actuel,Capde la Biehle, La Balauziere, Soulabe, Jean Pierre and'JeanPierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Les Fees at Chatelperron, Laugerie Haute Est at Les Eyzies,LaRoche Plate?, Baum de Gigny, Baum de Gonvillars, and'BaumdeGonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 199). MO ACO: Grotte de l'Observatoire? (Lam brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. ZooI.Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). ITALY: Buco della Volpe above Rovenna? (Portis, 1888,memoAccad.R.Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p.197);Grotta d'Equi, and'BucaTanadi Maggiano (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). SWITZERLAND: Schweizerbild bei Schaffhausen,

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1978 BRODKORB: C.U.-\LOCl'E OFFOSSIL BIRDS]83Schlossfelsen von Birseck, and Kesslerloch (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 777). GERMANY: Breitenberg Cave 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 199). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarova skala, Sipka, and Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.internat. omith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 938); Holubic and Zuzlawitz? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.777); Stranska skala, Kulna, Veruncina, Katerinska, and Predmost(Skutil and StehliK, 1939, Ornitholog, vol.6,nos.24,p.22). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304); Hundsheim? (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat., pt.1,vol. 182, no. 6-8,p.212). HNGARY:Puskaporos (Komlos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 19,p.151); Pilisszimt6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 480); Kies-Grube? (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22,p.195); Balla Cave and Pesk6 Cave (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19,p.276); Baj6t and PaIffy Cave (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila, vol. 20,p.425); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); Kalten-Szamos Valley (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 194); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. .Iahrb.Kgl.Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 22,no.6,p.403); O-Ruzsin, Sutto, HidegszamosinSiebenbugen, and Legeny Cave near Pilisszantlelek (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 777); Visegrad (Bokonyi and Jiinossy, 1966, Vertebrata Hungarica, vol.7,p.92); Breitenberg cave (Mourer Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.199). RUMANIA: Curata cave (Janossy, 1965, Vertebrata Hungarica, vol.7,p. 113). POLAND: Manutowa cave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 122,2(0). UKRAINE: Syuren 1 and Syuren II (Tugari nov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt. I, pp. 103,112):Tankov, Tar denuaz, and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 30, 35, 58).35. Turdus iliacusLinnaeus.[T.musicusLinnaeus suppressed by International Commission]. IRELA 'D:KeshCave, Edenvale Cave, Bantick Cave, and Newhall Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 402). ENGLAND: Clevedon Cave, Chudleigh Cave, Longcliffe Cave, and Langwith Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893,p. -t02). PORTU GAL: Gruta de Furninha (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.778).MALLORCA: Cueva de Son Bauza? (Ballmann and Adrover, 1970, Acta Geologica Hispanica, vol. 5,no.2,p.62).BELGIUM: Trou du Frontal and Trou du Sureau (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p.778).FRANCE:Grottede I'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,p.290); Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartiir,p.153); Rond du Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78,no.1,p.38); Le VallonnetatRoquebrune-Cap-martin?, L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-.Ianson, LunelViel, Abfmes de la Fage at Noailles, Orgnac 3 at Orgnac-I'Aven, Le Lazaret at Nice, La Chaise, Fontechevade at Montbnm, Soulabe at Montseron, Saint-Romans?, Campalou at Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans, Pech deI' Aze at Carsac, Grotte Simard at Puymoyen, Le Placard at Vilhonneur, Les Tanieres de Vergisson, Jean Pierre and Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Grand Caveau and Grand Caveau at Falvigny-sur-Ozerain, Baume de Gonvillars and Baume de Gonvillars, and Arago actuel at Tautavel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc, Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 201). MONACO: Grotte de I'Observatoire (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 778). ITALY: Grotte de Grimaldi and Caverna d'Equi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.778); Grotte du Prince (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 2,p.363). SWITZERLAD:Kesslerloch, Thierstein?, and Schweizersbild bei Schaffhausen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Pal aeorn., p. 778). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarova skala (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.internat. omith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 938); Holubice and Bulovka near Kosir (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.778); Certova dira, Sipka, Holstyn, and Katerinska (Skutil and StehlIK, 1939, Ornitholog, 1939, vol. 6, no.24,p. 22). AUSTRIA: Hundscheim? (Janossy, 1974, Sitz. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat., pt.1,vol. 182,no.6-8. p. 212). HUNGARY: Somlyohegy (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19,p.286); Sutto (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 201). RUMAIA: Puspokfurdo [Betfia] (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol.19,p. 286). UKRAINE: izhnee Krivche and Rasponints (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Prosh logo, vol. 3, pp. 42, 44); Murzan-Koba Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil BirdsinCaves ofUSSR,p. 237).RUSSIA:Zhiguley Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil BirdsinCaves ofUSSR,p. 242). GEORGIASSR:Krivachanska Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves ofUSSR,p. 239).36. Turdus phiiorneLosBrehm.[T.erecetorurnTurtonisa suppressed senior synonym. Much of the literatureisunder the nameT.musicus(not of Linnaeus) and henceisoftenconfused

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184BULLETINFLORIDASTATEMUSEUMVol.23,No.3withthatofT.iliacus.]IRELAND: Kesh Cave, Edenvale Cave, Bantick Cave, and Newhall Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 402). ENGLAND: Ightham? (E.T.Newton, 1894, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 50,p.191); Clevedon Cave, Chudleigh Cave, and Langwith Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893,p.402); Grimes Cave, "Dowkabottom Cave, and "London Wall (Bell, 1922, Naturalist,no.787-788, p. 251); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). BELGIUM: Trou du Sureau (Lam brecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304); Trou du Frontal (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). PORTUGAL:GrutadeFurninha (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). SPAI : Caverna de Santimamilie and Caverna de Lumentxa (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. IS,p.97). FRANCE: "Grotte de l'Hortus (Mourer-ChauvirEl, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,p.290). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu? (E.T.Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool.Soc.London, pt. 2, p. 230). SARDINIA: bone breccia (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol.2,p. 597); Monte San Giovanni? and Pietro Tampoia? (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,p.472,pI.37, figs. 6, 8). MALTA: Ghar Dalam Cave? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). ITALY: Buco della Volpe above Rovenna (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 197); Grotta Romanelli, Caverna d'Equi, Bucca del Tasso, and Grotta di Cucigliana (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p.777).SWITZERLAND: Saleve? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarova skala, Sipka, and Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.internat. ornith. Kongr. Berlin,p.938): Katerinska (Skutil and Stehh'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6,no. 24, p.22); Stninska skala (Janossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20 (n.s. 12), p. 60). AUSTRIA: Schreiberwand Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). HUNGARY: Puskaporos? (Kormos, 1911, Jahrb.Kgl.ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 19,p.151); Balla cave (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19,p.276); Oregko cave bei Bajot (Kormos and Lambrecht, 1914, Barlankutatas, vol. 2,p.106); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21,p.90); Pilisszanto and "Pilisszanto (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 480);OttoHerman Cave (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22,p.189); O-Ruzsin, Palffy cave, Siitto, "Devence, and Legenybarlang bei Pilisszentlelek (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). POLAND:RajCave, "Niedostepna Cave, and "Zytnia Cave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quarternary Poland, pp. 125, 127, 200,fig.77).RUMANIA: "Somlyohegy bei Piispok furdo [Betfia] (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 276); Puspokfurdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, pp. 30,71).UKRAINE: Kiik-Koba, Grotto Chokurcha, SyurenI,"Syuren II, "Krementsa, "Zaporozhya, "Alimovsk, Murzak-Koba, "Perevoloka, and "Kiev (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 25, 31,37, 43, 45, 51,53, 58); "Uzhn Donguzlausk (Burchak-Abramovich and Zalkin, 1971, Bull. Moscow Obshch. Ispit. Prirodi, vol. 76,no.5, p. 55).RUSSIA:"Zhiguley Cave on River Volga (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil BirdsinCaves ofUSSR,p. 242). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Re search Council Israel, vol. 11,no.3, pp. 106, 113);'Ubeidiya (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya,p.24).AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Burchak-Abramovich, "1963", 1962, Ornitologiya, vol. 4, p. 463).37. Turdus viscivorusLinnaeus. IRELAND: Doneraile Cave,KeshCave, and Edenvale Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 402). ENGLAND: Wye Valley Cave, Chud leigh Cave, and Grimes Cave? (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, p. 402); "London Wall (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, no. 787-788, p. 250); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). FRA CE: Lacombe-Thayac and Teyjat (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 777); Le Morin at Passac-sur-Dordogne (Chauvire, 1965, 89 Congr. Soc. Savantes, p. 255); Combe GrenalatDomme, Grottes de l'Hortus and "Grottes de l'Hortus at Valflaunes (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,pp. 279, 292, 360,figs. 5.0); Rond du Barry and "RondduBarry at Sinzelles (MourerChauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78,no.1,p.38); Les ValerotsatNuits-Saint-Georges?, L'EscaleatSaint-Esteve-Janson, Lunel-Viel, Abfmes de la FageatNoailles, Orgnac-l'Aven, L'Arago at Tautavel, Le LazaretatNice, Pech de l'Aze at Carsac, Fontechevade at Montbron, Pie Lombard at Tourrettes-sur-Loup, Eden Roc at Vaison-Ia Romaine, Sal petre de Pompignan, Grotte TournaI at Bize, La Balauziere at Vers, SoulabeatMontseron, Aurensan superieure, EspeluguesatLourdes, Deux Avens at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Saint Romans?, Abri GayatPoncin, Campalou at Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans, La ColombiereatNeuville-su-Ain, Jean Pierre and "Jean PierreatSaint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Cottier at Retournac, Grotte SimardatPuymoyen, and Baum de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.201). MONACO: L'Observatoire? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab.

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1978BRODKORB: c.n.-\LOCL'E OFFOSSIL BlRDS185 Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 202). BELGIUM: Trou de Sureau (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304); Trou de Frontal (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.777); Grolle Marie Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63,p.11).DEMARK: Soelager(0.Winge, 1903, Vidensk. Meddel. naturh. Foren., vol. 6,p.104). SPAll\": Cueva de laCampana(Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 97). GIBRALTAR: Devil'sTower(Bate, 1928, Jour. Roy. Anthr. Insl., vol. 58,p.104). MALLORCA: Son Bauza cave? (Ball mannandAdrover, 1970, Acta Geologica Hispanica, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 62). CORSICA: Grolla di Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pI. 2,p.230). ITALY: Cavernes de Verrezzi (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2,p.595);Grottadei Colombi? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.777). SWITZERLAND: Ermitage, Ettingen, Felsen bei Birseck,and"Bsetzi beiThayingen)JLambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.777). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: SipkaandCertova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.internal.Om.Kongr. Berlin,p.939); Balcarka cave and Veruncina cave (Skutiland Stehh'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4,p.22); Yolyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777); Stranska skala? (Janossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20, p.60).AUSTRIA: Schreiberwand caves (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.777). HUGARY:Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. AnsI., vol. 19, p. 151); Pesko (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19,p.281,pI.4, fig. 30); Palffy cave (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila, vol. 20,p.428); Remetehegy (Lam brecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. AnsI., vol. 23, p. 480);OlioHerman caveandKiskevely cave (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 189); Solymarer Felsspalte (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777); Istallosko (Janossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58,p.215); Csev Passage (Janossy, 1959, Ann. Mus. 'Hungarica, vol. 51, p. ]]7); "Lambrecht Cave? (Janossy, 1963, Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hungaricae, vol.9,fasc. 3-4, pp. 295, 308); "Visegrad (Bokonyi and Janossy, 1966, Vertebrata Hungarica, vol.7,p.92). YUGOSLAVIA: Krapina (Lambrecht, 1915, Barlangkutatas, vol. 3, p. 118); Drazica (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 189). RUMANIA: Puspokhlrdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5,p.30). POLAND: Zamkowa Cave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Pleistocene Poland, pp. 128,200). UKRAIE:"Azil, "Tardenuaz, "Rasponintsy, "Kiev, Alimovsky (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 34,35, 44, 51, 58); Tash-Air cave near Bakchisaray (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds Caves ofUSSR,p.243). MOLDAVIA: "Starye Druilory (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob stanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3,p.46). RUSSIA: Zhiguley Cave on River Volga (Burchak Abramovich, 1968, Fossil BirdsinCaves ofUSSR,p. 242). GEORGIANSSR:"Darkweti (Ben dukidze, 1973, Tezisi Doklad. Vsesouz. Sov. lzuchen. Chetverl. Periodi,p.88).38. Turdusplumbeus Linnaeus. BAHAMAS:GreatExuma Island (Wetmore, 1937, Bull. Mus. Compo Zool., vol. 80,p.441); Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quarl. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3,p.238). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco andCerrode San Francisco (Bernstein, 1965, Quarl. Jour. Florida Acad, Sci., vol. 28, no. 3,p.280). PUERTO RICO: "Cueva Catedral, "Cueva Clara, "Cueva TorallO, and "Cueva San Miguel (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer.Mus.Nal. Hisl., vol. 46,p.326).39. Turdus migratoriusLinnaeus. CALIFORNIA:Carpinteria(A.H.Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. PubI.Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no.7,p. 178,pI.13,figs.h,k);Rancho La Brea (Howard, 1962, Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 58, p. 23). NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave (Howard, 1952, Bull.So.Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pI. 2, p. 54). IDAHO: "Weiss rock shelter(L.Miller, 1963, Bull.So.Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 62, pI. 4,p.181). ARIZONA: "Indian site 35mi.N.of Flag staff(A.H.Miller, 1932, Condor, vol. 34,p.138).NEWMEXICO: Conkling Cavern andShelter Cave (Howard andA,H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, p. 16). TEXAS: Miller's CaveinLlano County (Weigel, 1967, Texas Jour. Sci., vol. 19,p,108). OHIO: "Indian Hills (Mayfield, 1972, Condor, vol. 74, no. 3, p. 345).NEWYORK:Colequarry (Moore, 1973, Bull.N.Y.Arch. Assn., no. 58,p.33). PENNSYLVANIA: "Sheep rock shelter (GuildayandParmalee, 1965, Pennsylvania Archaeologist, vol. 35, no.1,p. 39). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coil., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 14). FLORIDA: Vero Beach (Weigel, 1963, Florida Geol. Surv., Spec. Publ., no. 10, p. 30). Reports from Verrezzi, Italy (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 595) and Grottes de Menton, France (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.778exRiviere) must refer to some Palearctic species.Subfamily Leiothrichinae40. GarmluK davidi(Swinhoe). CHINA: Chou Kou Tien? (Howard, 1939, FortschrittederPalaonl., vol. 2, p, 314).

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186BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.341. Turdoides squallliceps Cretzschmar. ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol.II,no.3, p.100).SubfamilyChamaeinae42. Cha1llaea fasciata (Gambel). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria(A.H.Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21,no.7,p. 177,pI.13,fig.f).SubfamilyMuscicapinae43.Miraaustralis (Sparrman).EWZEALA0:Martinborough Cave (Yaldwyn, 1956, Rec. Dominion Mus., vol. 3,p.3); Pyramid Valley Swamp? (Scarlett, 1955, Rec. Canterbury Mus., vol. 6,no.4,p.263). 44. Muscicapa striata Pallas. BELGIUM: Grolle Marie-Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63, p.12).AUSTRIA: Hundsheim?(.Janossy,1974, Silz. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., Illath.-nal., pl.I,vol. 182,no.6-8,p.212). UKRAIE:Tardenuaz and Alilllovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 35, 58). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol.II,p. 100). 45. Muscicapa hypaleuca Pallas. FRANCE: Grolle de I'Hortus and Grolle de I'Hortus 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.I,pp. 280, 290); Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and MOllrer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartiir, p.153);MasRalllbault at Frontignan?, Orgnac-l' Aven, and Deux Avens at Vallons-Pont-d' Arc (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 205). 46. Muscicapa albicollis Temminck. FRANCE: L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson, Caune de L'Arago and Arago at Tautavel, Grand Caveau and Grand CaveauatFlavigny-sur-Ozerain (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 205,pI.17,fig.10).UKRAIE:Syuren II shelter (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3,p.37).FamilySYLVIIOAE(Vigors)Sylviana Vigors, 1825, fide Gray (type Sylvia Scopoli, I769).-Slllviadae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14,p.435.-SylvinaeBonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribu zione Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati,p.4.-SylvianaeBonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Compo List Birds Eur.N.Amer.,p.38.-SylviadaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 19 (family).-Sylviinae G.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), op. cit.,p.20 (sub falllily).-Sylviidae Baird, 1864, Review Amer. Birds, p.64.-SylviinaeSunde vall, 1872, Tentamen, pl.1,p.15(familia). Philomelinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, p. 200 (subfamily; type Philomela Swainson, 1832, a junior synonym of Ficedula Brisson, 1790). Calamoherpinae Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr.CompoList Birds Eur.N.Amer., p.II(subfamily; type Calanwherpe Boie, 1822, a junior synonym of Acracephalus Naumann,1819).Calamodyti,we Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pl.I,pp. xiii, 206 (subfamily; type Ca/alllodyta Myer, 1815,= Acrocephalus Naumann, 1819). MalurinaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p.19(subfamily; type Malurus Vieillot).-Maluridae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pl.I,p.2I6.-MalurinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pl. I, p. 7 (familia). Rhacnemididoe Cabanis,1847, Archiv fur Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol.1,pl.I,p. 204 (apparently not based on generic name). Polioptilinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv.R.R.Pacific, vol. 9, pp.xix,379 (sub-family; type Polioptila Sclater).-Polioptilidae Ridgway, 1904 (Dec, 31), Bull.U.S.Nal. Mus.,no.SO,pt. 3,p.693 in text (family tentatively proposed). Regulinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv.R.R.Pacific, vol. 9, pp.xix,207, 226 (sub-family; type Regulus Cuvier).-Regulidae LiIljeborg, 1866, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p.17.Cisticolinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pl.1,p.6 (familia; type Cistico/a Kaup). Bradypterinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.7 (familia; type Bradypterus Swainson). Phyllopseustinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pl.I,p.15(familia; type Phyllopseustes Meyer, an emendation of Phyllopneuste Boie).

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1978BRODKORB: CATALOCl'E OFFOSSILBIRDS 18, CaLamodytinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.15(familia; typeCaLamodytaMeyer).PtenoedinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.16 (familia; typePtenoedusCabanis).AeanthizinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. (familia; type Aeanthiza Vigors and Horsfield).-Aeanthizidae Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union, 1926, Official Check-list Birds of Australia, ed. 2,p.75.AeanthopneustaeSeebohm, 1881, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 5, p. 38 (typeAeanthopneusteBlasius, a junior synonym? ofPhylloseopusBoie).PhyLLoseopinaeRidgway, 1904 (Dec. 31), Bull.U.S.at. Mus., no. 50, pt. 3, pp. 693, 694 (sub family; typePhylloseopllsBoie).Hy/iidaeBannerman, 1923, Ibis, ser.II,vol.5,p.704 (family; typeHyliaCassin).PriniidaeRoberts, 1940, Birds South Africa,p.274 (family; typePriniaHorsfield).Neospecies of Sylviidae from the Pleistocene and HoloceneI.PhyLloseopllseollybita(Vieillot). FRANCE: Deux Avens at VaHon-Pont-d'Arc (Mourer Chauvin':, 1975, Doc. Lab. Ceol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.204,pI.17,fig.8).CZECHOSLO VAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.776); Stninska skala (Skutil and StehlIK, 1939, Ornitholog, vol.6,nos.2-4, p.22).ISRAEL: Abu-Usba Cave? (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15,p.134).2. PhyLLoseopus troehiLus(Linnaeus). CORSICA: (;ratta ctiJ:'untanectu (t.. I. Newton, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.776); Stranka skala (Skutil and StehlIK, 1939, Ornitholog, vol.6,nos. 2-4, p.22).3. Phylloscopus bonellii(Vieillot). FRANCE: Combe Crenal at Domme (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Ceol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 204,pI.17,fig.9).4.Aeroeepha/ussehoenobaenus(Linnaeus). KRAINE:" Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro dnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, p. 58). ISRAEL: Abu-Usba Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15,p.134); 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. invest. birdsinPleist. deposits of 'Ubeidiya, p. 24).5. AeroeephaLusarw,dinaeeus(Linnaeus). FRANCE: Ornac-I'Aven? (Mourer-Chauvin." 1975, Doc. Lab. Ceol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 202). HUNCARY: Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Ceol. Anst., vol. 23, p. -l81). UKRAINE: Kiev (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro dnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3,p.51).6.Aeroeepha/lls pa/ustris(Bechstein). FRANCE: Combe Crenal at Domme ovire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Ceol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no. 6-1, p.202). RUMANIA: Piispokfiirdo?[=Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol.5,p.30).7. Aeroeeplwills pa/udieo/a(VieiHot). FRANCE: Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar,p.153).8. SyLvia atrieapiLLa(Linnaeus). FRANCE:LesRomains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar,p.153); Abimes de la Fage, Orgnac-I'Aven, Deux AvensatVallon-Pont-d'Arc, Jean PierreatSaint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Combre Crenal, Puy Moyen, "Saint Thibaud-de-Couz,and"Arago actuel (Mourer-Chauvin':, 1975, Doc. Lab. Ceol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.203,pI.17,fig.5). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Yolyn? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 776). UKRAINE: "Tardenuazand"Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3,p.35, 58). ISRAEL: 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. invest. birds in Pleist. deposits of Ubeidiya,p.24).9. SyLviacommunis(Latham). ENCLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893,p.403). FRANCE:Crottesuperieure d'Aurensan? (Bouchud, 1972, Bull.Asso. Franc;. Etude Quatern., vol. I,p.5).Abimes de la Fage, Le Lazaret at Nice, Abri Campalou at Saint-J azaire-en-Royans?, Jean Pierre and "Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz (Mourer Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lap. Ceol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.204,pI.17,fig.6).RUMAIA:Piispokfiirdo[=Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 30). UKRAINE: "Tardenuaz (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Faupy Proshlogo, pt. 3,p.35).10. SyLvia eurruea (Linnaeus). HUNCARY: O-Ruzsin (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p.776).II.SyLvia nisoria(Bechstein). FRANCE: Saint-Esteve-Janson? and Orgnac-I'Aven (Mourer Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Ceol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, p. 203). UKRAINE: "Tardenuaz (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3,p.35).

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188BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUMVol.23,No.:312.Sylvia hortensisGmelin. FRANCE: Combe Grenal at Domme and "Grotte Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geo!. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.203,p!.17,fig.4).13.Sylvia sardaTemminck. MALLORCA: "Son Bauza cave? (Ballmann and Adrover, 1970, Acta Geologica Hispanica,vo!.5,no.2,p.62).14.Agrobates galactotes(Temminck). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave and Kebare Cave (Tcher nov, 1962,Bul!.Res.Council Israel,vo!.I I,p.100).15.Locustella naeviaBoddaert. CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.776); Stninska skala (Skutill and Stehh'k, 1939, Ornitholog,vo!.6,nos.2-4, p. 22).16.Regllius regulus(Linnaeus). FRANCE: "Rond du Barry at Sinzelles (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78,no.1,p.38). AUSTRIA: iederosterreich? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 788). POLAD:Nietoperzowa Cave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quater nary Poland, pp. 129,200).17.Moholla albicilla(Lesson). NEW ZEALAND: "Awakino-Mohoenui area (Medway, 1971, Notornis, vol. 18,p.218).18.Sylvia melanocephala(Gmelin). FRANCE: Orgnac-I'Aven (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 204,pI.17,fig.7).19. Sylvia hortensis(Gmelin). FRANCE: Combe Grenal at Domme and "Jean Pierre at Saint Thibaud-de-Couz (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 203,p!.17,fig.4).20. Hippolrlis icterina(Vieillot). FRANCE: Combe Grenal at Domme (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geo!. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.203,p!.17,fig.3).FamilyPRUNELLIDAERichmondAccentorinaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 22 (subfamily; typeAccentorBechstein, 1802, preoccupied byAccentorBechstein, Sept.orlater, 1797, the latter a junior synonym ofCine/lisBorkhausen,1797.-AccentorinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 2,p.30 (familia).-Accentoridae Hartert, 1910, Vogel der palilarktischen Fauna,vo!.1,pp. xlvii, 761.PNmellidaeRichmond, 1908 (Dec.16),Proc.U.S.at. Mus.,vo!.35,no.1656,p.585 footnote (family; typePrunellaVieillot, 1816).NeospeciesofPrunellidaefromthePleistoceneandHolocene1.Prunella col/aris(Scopoli). FRANCE: Grotte des RomainsatPierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartilr, vo!.23-24,p.153); Grotte du LazaretatNice, FontechevadeatMontbron, and Le ColombieratVallon-Pont-d'Arc (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geo!. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 196); Grotte de Cottier at Retournac (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc.2,p. 472). ITALY: Buco della Volpe sopra Ravenna? (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Torino, ser. 2,vo!.38,p.197);Cavemad'Equi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.780); Grotte du princeatgrimaldi (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geo!. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.196). SWITZERLAND: "Grotte de Cotencher (Dubois and Stehlin, 1932, Mem. Soc. Pa!. Suisse,vo!.52,p.29). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Stninska skala (Janossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20, p. 60).2. Prunella modularis(Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Ightham fissure(E.T. Newton, 1899, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 55,no.219,p.420); Chudleigh Cave, Langwith Bassett Cave, and "Caervent (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 403); Merlin's Cave (Lam brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.780). FRANCE:LeLazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,fasc.2, p. 336). UKRAINE: Adzhi-Koba, SyurenI,"Tardenuaz, and Rukomysh (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 28, 31,45).FamilyMOTACILLIDAE(Vigors)MotacillinaVigors, 1825, fide Gray (typeMotacillaLinnaeus).-Motacillidae Boie, 1826,Isisvon Oken, fideGray.-MotacillinaeBonaparte, 1831, Saggiodiuna Distribuzione Meto-

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]978BRODKORB: CAT.-\LOCL'E OFFOSSILBIRDS ]89 dica degli Animali Vertebrati,p.47.-MotacillinaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali Americana, pt. 2, p. 200(subfamily).-MotacillinaeSunde vall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I,p.26 (familia).AnthinaeBonaparte, 1850 (March), Conspectus Generum Avium,vol.I, sig. 31, p. 247(sub familia; typeAnthusBechstein).eospecies of Motacillidae fromthePleistocene and0Holocene1.Motacilla albaLinnaeus. [IncludesMotacilla lugubrisTemminck and .\1. !farrelliiGould]. IRELA'0:Kesh Cave and Edenvale Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893,p.403).EtGLAND: Langwith Bassett Cave, Chudleigh Cave, and Ightham Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 403). FRANCE: Balme-les-grottes 1963, C.R.Sommaire Soc. Geol. France,fasc.2,p.53); Grotte de I'Hortus at Valflaunes (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.I,p.280); Lunel-Viel, Orgnac-I'Aven, Saint-Romans?, Rond du Barry at Sinzelles, Laugerie Haute Est at Les Eyzies, Grotte Simard at Puymoyen, and Arago actuel at Tautavel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.191). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu? (E.T.Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool.Soc.London, pt.2,p.230). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Zechovice and Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.778); Kulna (Skutil and Stehh'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol.6,nos.2-4, p.22).HUNGARY: Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. .Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 480,506). RUMANIA: Ptlspok K,rdo [Betfia] 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 30). POLAND: Niedostepna rock-shelter? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 131,2(0). UKRAINE: Novgorod-Siverskii (Zubareva, 1950, Tmdi Inst. Zool. Akad. Nauk Ukrainsk.RSR,vol.4,pp. 80, 92,pI.3,fig.15); Azil and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 34, 40, 58). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol.ll,no. 3,p.106);Abu-Usba Cave? (Bar-Yosef and Tchemov, 1966, Israel Jour. Sci., vol. 15, p. 134); 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya,p.20).2. Motacilla cinereaTunstall. KRAINE: Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob stanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3,p.58).3. tHotacilla JWva Linnaeus. FRANCE: Abimes de la Fage at Noailles and Grotte Simard at Puymoyen (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.191); Grotte deCottierat Retoumac (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2,p.472).4. Ant/HIS campestris(Linnaeus). FRACEoMasRambaut at Frontignan?, Abimes delaFage at oailles, Pie Lombard at Tourrettes-sur-Loup, and Arago actuel at Tautavel (Mourer Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 190). HUNGARY: Pilisszant6? (Lambrecht, 1915, Mittl. .Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 481, 506). UKRAINE: Adzhi Koba, SyurenI, Novgorod-Seversk, and Chemigov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 28, 31, 41, 49).5.Anthustrivialis(Linnaeus). FRANCE: Grotte de' I'Hortus and Grotte de I'Hortus at Valflaunes (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.I, pp. 280, 292); Abfmes de la Fage at Noailles (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.190). HUNGARY: Kalten-Szamos-Tal (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22,p.194); Puskaporos (Lam brecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4,p.206).CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Stranska skala? (Janossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20,p.60).POLAND: Niedostepna rock-shelter? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 130,2(0). UKRAINE: Syuren I and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 31,58).6.Anthuspratensis(Linnaeus). IRELAND: Kesh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893,p.403). ENGLAND: Ightham fissure?(E.T. Newton, 1894, Quart..Jour.Geol. Soc. London, vol. 50, p. 191); Langwith Bassett Cave and Chudieigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 403). FRANCE: Grotte du LazaretatNice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. prehist. Monaco,no.ll,pp. 64-78); RoquefureatBonnieux (Mourer Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 190). CORSICA: GrottaeliFuntanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool.Soc.London, pt. 2, p. 230). SWITZERLAND: Schiossfeisen cave near Basel? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.789). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Yolyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 789). HUNGARY: Puskaporos? (Kormos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 19,p.151). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave(Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol.ll,pp.106,113).

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J90BULLETINFLORIDASTATEMUSEUMVol. 23,No.37. Anllllls cervinus (Pallas). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim? (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat., pt.1,vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212). POLA0:Rebielice (Kr6Iewskie? (Janossy, 1974, Acta Zool. Cracov., vol. 19, no. 21, p. 558).8.Antlllls spinoletta (Linnaeus). [IncludesA.petrosr,s (Montagu)]. ENGLAND: Langwith Bassett Cave and Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893,p.403). FRANCE: Abfmes de la fage at Noailles, Abri Suard at La Chaise?, Le Lazaret at Nice, FontechevadeatMontbron?, and Deux AvensatVallon-Pont-d'Arc (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 191,pI.16,fig.10); Pechde I'Aze at Carzac (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 492). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zoo!' Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). HUNGARY: O-Ruzsin (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.789).FamilyBOMBYCILLIOAE(Swainson)Bombycillinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt.2,p. 237 (subfamily; type Bomblf cillll Brisson).-Bo1llh'lcillidlle Baird, 1858, Rept. Exp!. Surv.R.R.Pacific, vol. 9, pp.xix,316 (family). Ptiliogonidinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv.R.R.Pac., vol.9,pt. 2, pp.xix,318 (subfamily;typePtiliogon'ls Swainson, 1827).-Ptiliogonatidae Ridgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt.1,p.21(family). Ptilogon'ldinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. ColI.Am.Birds,p.41(subfamily; type Ptilogonlfs Swainson, 1842).-Ptilogonatinae Baird, Review Amer. Birds, pp. 401, 408 (subfamily).-Ptilogon otidae Ridgway, 1904, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt.4,pp. viii, 113 (family). H'Ipocoliinoe Delacour and Amadon, 1949, Ibis, vol. 91, p. 427 (subfamily; type H'Ipocolius Bonaparte).NeospeciesofBombycillidaefromthePleistoceneand0Holocene1.B01llb'lcilla garrula (Linnaeus). FRACEoLherm (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 780); Orgnac-I'Aven (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Docum. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,pI.16,figs.12.-13). ITALY: Grotte du Prince at Grimaldj (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.780). BELGIUM: Grotte-Marie-Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63, p.11)CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarka (SkutilandStehliK, 1939, Ornitholog, va!. 6, no.24,p.22).2.Bomb'lcillo cedrorum Vieillot. CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea(A.H. Miller, 1929, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 19, no.1,p. 12,pI.1,fig.a);Carpinteria(A.H. Miller, 1932, op. cit., vol. 21, no.7,p.180,pI.14,fig.h).ILLINOIS: Meyer cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleological Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4,p.130).FamilyDULIOAE(Sclater)Dulinoe Sclater, 1862, Cat. Call. Amer. Birds,p.41(subfamily; type Dulus Vieillot).-Dulidoe 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt.1,p. 22 (family).eospeciesofDulidaefromthePleistocene1.Dulus dominicus (Linnaeus). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco (Bern stein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3,p.280).Family ARTAMIOAE BlythArtamidoe Blyth, 1849, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiatic Soc., p. 199 (family; type Artomus Vieillot). Artominae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.1,p.343 (subfamilia). Artaminae SundevaH, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1,p.21(familia).Nofossilrecord.Family LANlIOAE Swainson Laniidae Swainson, 1824, fide Gray (type Lanius Brisson).-Lanianae Swainson, 1824, fideGray.-LaniadaeVigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14,p.435 (family).-

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]978 BRODKORB: CH.\LOCL'E OFFOSSIL BIRDS ]91 LanianaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt.2,p.105(subfamily).-LanidaeBonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Camp. List Birds Eur.N.Amer.,p.26.-LaniinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I, p.17(familia).MalaconotinaeCabanis,1850, Museum Heineanum, pt. I,p.67 (subfamily: typeMalaconotus Swainson).-MalaconotinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I,p.12(familia).EuricerotinaeBonaparte, 1850 (March), Conspectus Generum Avium, vol.1,pt.1,sig.12,p.92 (subfamilia; typeEurlfcerosLesson,1830).-EurlfcerotinaeBonaparte, ]850 (Nov.), op. cit., sig. 53,p.423 (subfamilia; same type).PrionopidaeSharpe, 1877, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus.,vol.3,p.272 (typePrionopsVieillot).-Priono-pinaeMayr and Amadon, 1951, Amer.Mus.Novitates,no.1496,p.37 (subfamily).VangidaeShelley, 1896, Birds Africa, vol. I,p.48(family; typeVangaVieillot).L{miariinaeShelley, 1896, Birds Africa, vol.1,p.53(subfamily; typeLaniariusVieillot).AerocharidaeSharpe, ] 903, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, vol. 3, pp.xi,275 (family; typeAeroclwrisGistel, 1848, a .iunior synonym ofEurlfcerosLesson, 1831).PityriasidinaeMayr and Amadon, 1951, Amer.Mus.Novitates,no.1496,p.37 (subfamily; typePityriasis Lesson).-PityriasinaeRand,inPeters,1960,Check-list Birds World, vol. 9, p.364.HyposittidaeWetmore, 1930 (Jan. 8), Proc.U.S.Nat. Mus., vol.76,no.282],p.7 (family; typeHyposittaNewton).-HyposittinaeAmadon,1951(Apr.2),Amer.Mus.Novitates,no.1496, pp. 24, 37 (subfamily).GenusLaniusLinnaeusLaniusLinnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol.1,p.93 (typeLanius excubitorLinnaeus, Recent).1.Lanius miocaenusMilne-EdwardsLanius miocaenusMilne-Edwards, 1871, Ois.Foss.France, vol. 2, sig. 49,p.391,figs.1-3 (types from near Langy, 2 humeri, Paris Mus.).LOWERMIOCENE(Aquitanian).FRANCE:Dept.Allier:nearLangy. Neospecies ofLaniidaefromthePleistoceneand0Holocene1.Lanius collurioLinnaeus. ENGLAND: Ightham? (E.T.Newton, 1899, Quart ..Jour.Geol. Soc. London, vol. 55,no.2]9,p.420). FRANCE:CambreGrenalatDomme (Mourer Chauvin, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.191,pI.16,fig.11);CZECHOSLO VAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, ]933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.780). HUNGARY: Remetehegy (Lam brecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, pp. 90, 96,97).2.Lanius minorGmelin. HUNGARY: Polgardi (Lambrecht, 19]2, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 286); Pilisszanto and Pilisszanto (Lambrecht, 1915, .Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 480,505,508). RUMAN]A: Puspokfurdo (Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol.5,p.21).3.Lanius ludovicianusLinnaeus. CALIFORN]A: Rancho La Brea(L.Miller, ]912, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol.7,no.5,p.78); McKittrick(A.H.Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39,no.6, p. 250). ARIZONA:WupatkiPueblo (Hargrave, 1939, Condor, vol. 41,no.5, p. 209).NEWMEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35,no.1,p.16).FLORIDA: Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283); Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull.,no.44,p.195).4.Lanius cristatusLinnaeus. UKRAINE: SyurenI, Kara-Koba, Novgorod-Seversk, and Okunevki (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, pp. 31,36, 41,59).5. Lanius excubitorLinnaeus. ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, no. 787-788, p. 251). FRANCE: Fonte chevarde at Montbron (Mourer-Chauvire, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 194). AUSTRIA: Schreiberwand cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 780). SWITZERLAND: Ettingen? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p.780).ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave and Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull.Res.Council Israel, vol. 11, p.lDO);'Ubeidiya? (Tchemov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 21).

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192BULLETINFLORiDASTATE MUSEUMVol.23,No.36.Lanius senator Linnaeus. FRANCE: Le Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvin\, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.114). HUNGARY: Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 480, 506, 508); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlang kutatas, vol. 4, p. 206). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull.Res.Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 1(0); Hayonim Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p.132).7.Lanius nubicus Lichtenstein. ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull.Res.Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 1(0).FamilySTURNIDAEVigorsSturnidae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 445 (typeStumusLinnaeus). Stuminae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 274 (subfamily).-Stuminae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 40 (familia). Lamprotornina Stephens, 1826, Shaw's Gen. Zool., vol. 14,p.54 (type Lamprotornis Temminck, 1820).-Lamprotorninae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana,pt.2,p.274(sub family).-Lamprotomithinae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.1,p.414. Buphaginae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 131, 320 (subfamily; type Buphaga Latham=Buphagus Brisson).-Buphaginae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.41(familia). Gramlinae G.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds,p.39 (subfamily; typeGracuLaLinnaeus). Promeropinae Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p.12(subfamily; type Promerops Brisson).-Promeropidae Gray, 1847 (June), List of Genera of Birds, ed.2,p. 95 (family). Ptiloturinae Cabanis, 1850, Museum Heineanum, pt.1,p. 103 (subfamilia; type Ptiloturus Swainson, 1837, a .iunior synonym of Promerops Brisson, 1760). Iuidinae Gray, 1855, Cat. Genera and Subgen. Birds,p.65 (subfamily; type Iuida Lesson, 1831, a .iunior synonym of Lamprotornis Temminck, 1820). EuLabetinae Gray, 1855, Cat. Genera and Subgen. Birds,p.67 (subfamily; typeEuLabesCuvier, 1829, a .iunior synonym ofGracuLaLinnaeus, 1758.GenusfNecropsarSlaterNecropsar"H.H.Slater, MS,"A. Giinther andE.Newton, 1879, Philos. Trans., vol. 168,p.427 (type by monotypy Necropsar rodericanus"H.H. Slater").1.Necropsar rodericanusSlaterNecropsarrodericanus"H.H. Slater, MS,"A.Gunther and E. Newton, Philos. Trans., vol. 168, p. 427,pI.42, figs.A-G(type postcranial skeleton, Cambridge Univ.).HOLOCENE.RODRIGUEZISLAND.NeospeciesofStumidaefromthePleistoceneandHolocene1.Onychognathus tristramii (Sclater). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 1(0); Kebara Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, op. cit., pp.106,108,127,131,pI.2,figs.15-16;pI.6,figs.10-11).2.Stumus roseus (Linnaeus). FRANCE: FontechevadeatMontbran,GratteSimard at Puymoyen, and Baume de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.214,pI.17,fig.16).ITALY:Grottadei Colombi? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 785). HUNGARY: Felsnische Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 481, 508). UKRAINE: Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priradnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Prashlogo, vol. 3, p. 58).3.Sturnus unicoLor Temminck. FRANCE: Lespugue and FontechevadeatMontbran? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 214).

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1978BRODKORB: C.\T.-\LOCliE OFFOSSIL BIRDS1934.Stumusvulgaris Linnaeus. IRELAND: Knockninney Cave (Lydekker, 1891, Ibis, ser.6,vol. 3, no. 11,p.384); Bantick Cave, Edenvale Cave, Newhall Cave, Knockmore Cave,andGrimes Cave? (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,p.404). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser.4,vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). GIBRALTAR: Forbes quarry (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Pal aeorn., p. 784). FRACEoGrotte du Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvin':, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. prehist. Monaco,no.11, pp. 61-78);'Grottede I'Hortus at Valflaunes (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,pp. 280, 289); Lunel Viel, Le Lazaret at Nice, FontechevadeatMontbron, Soul abe at Montseron, Deux Avens at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Les Fees at Chatel perron, Laugerie Haute Est aux Eyzies, and Gare de Couze at Lalinde (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, pp. 213, 214). MONACO:Grottede 1'0bservatoire (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.784). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu? (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2,p.231). MALTA: Ghar Dalam cave (FischerandStephan, 1974, Zeitschr. geol. Wiss. Berlin, vol. 2, no. 4,p.520). ITALY: Grotta RomanelliandGrotta dei Colombi? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). SWITZERLAD:'lake-dwellings (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France,vol.2,p. 599).'DENMARK(Loeppenthin, 1967, Danske ynglefugle i fortid og nutid, pp. -t6, -t7, 492, 577). GERMANY: Beilstein Cave (Lam brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.784). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Stranska skala (Sku til and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol.6,no.2-4,p.22).HUNGARY: Bajat Cave (Lambrecht, 19]3, Aquila, vol. 20,p.433): Pilisszanta (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst., vol. 23,p.481);OttoHermmancaveandKiskevely cave (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila,vol.22,p.190); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4,p.206);Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb.Kgl.ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 22,p.403); Lambrecht Caveand'Lambrecht Cave (Janossy, 1963, Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hungaricae, vol.9,fasc. 3-4, pp. 295,297, 309). POLAND:RajCave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 132, 2(0). RUMANIA:CurataCave (Janossy, 1965, Vertebrata Hungarica, vol.7,p.113). UKRAI E: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt.1,pp. 101, 102);Adzhi-Koba,'ovgorod Seversk, 'Rasponints, Kiev,and Zaporozhya (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 27, 41,44, 51, 52,57, 59). RUSSIA:'ZhiguleyCave and'UpperDon River caves (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil BirdsinCaves ofUSSR,p.242). ISRAEL: Mugharet-el-Zuttiyeh (Bate, 1927, in Turville-Petre, Researches in Prehistoric Galilee 1922-1926, p. 28);OummQatafaCaveand Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3,p.1(0); Hayonim CaveandAbu-Usba Cave (Bar-YosefandTchernov, ]966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. IS, p. 132); 'Ubeidiya (Tchernov, 1968, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya,p.22).FamilyMELIPHAGIDAEVigorsMeliphagidae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 463 (family; type Meliphaga Lewin).-Meliphaginae G.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List ofGeneraof Birds,p.15(subfamily).-Melliphagidae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.1,p.389 (familia).-Melliphaginae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.1,p. 389 (subfamilia).-Meliphaginae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 49 (familia). MlJzomelinae G.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p.15 (subfamily;type MlJzomeln VigorsandHorsfield). Manorhinae G.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p.16 (subfamily; type Manorhina Vieillot). Melithreptinae Gray, 1841, List of Genera of Birds, ed. 2, p.21(subfamily; type Melithreptus Vieillot).-Melithreptidae Wetmore, 1934, Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 89, no. 13,p.11.Philedoninae Sundevall, 1872, Tenf:tmen, pt.1,p.51(familia;typePhiledon Cuvier, Philemon Vieillot).NeospeciesofMeliphagidae fromthePleistoceneandHolocene1.Prosthemadera novaeseelnndiae (Gmelin).NEWZEALAND: Pyramid Valley swamp (Scarlett, 1955, Rec.CanterburyMus., vol. 6, p. 263; Martinborough Cave V (Yaldwyn, 1956, Rec. Dom. Mus., vol. 3, p. 4); 'Swiss Cheese (Medway, 1967, Notornis, vol. 14, p. 160); Awakino Mahoenui area (Medway, 1971, Notornis, vol. 18,p.218).

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J94BULLETINFLORIDASTATEMSEUMVol.23,No.32.Anthomis me/anum (Sparrman).NEWZEALAND: Awakino-Mahoenui area (Medway, 1971, Notornis, vol. 18, p. 218).FamilyCALLAEATIDAE(Gray)CallaeatinaeGray, 1841, List Genera Birds,p.00 (subfamily; typeCallaeas Forster).-CallaeidaeStonor, 1942, Ibis,p.1(family).-Cal/lleadidaeOliver, 1955, ew Zealand Birds, ed. 2, pp. 10,519.-CallaeatidaeAmadon, 1962,inPeters, Check-list Birds World, vol. 15,p.157 note.PhilestllmidaeOliver, 1955, New Zealand Birds, ed.2,pp. 10, 512 (family; typePhi/estllTnllsGeoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1832, a junior synonym ofCreadionVieillot, 1816).NeospeciesofCallaeatidaefromthePleistoceneandHolocene1.Callaeas cinerea(Gmelin).NEWZEALA D: Pyramid Valley Swamp (Scarlett, 1955, Records Canterbury Mus., vol. 6,no.4,p.263); Martinborough Cave (Yaldwyn, 1956, Records Dominion Mus., vol. 3, pt.1,p.3);'RobbersHole (Medway, 1967, Notornis, vol. 14, p. 160); Awakino-Mahoenui area (Medway, 1971, Notornis, vol. 18, p. 218).2.Heter%chaaClltirostris(Gould).NEWZEALAND: 'Waingongoro (Lydekker, 1891, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus., p.5,fig.1); Awakino-Mahoenui area (Medway, 1971, Notornis, vol. 18,p.218). Exterminated by feather-hunters; last seen December 28, 1907.3.Creadion canmcll{atLlln(Gmelin). NEW ZEALAND: Pyramid Valley Swamp (Scarlett, 1955, Records Canterbury Mus., vol. 6,no.4,p. 263); 'Martinborough Cave (Yaldwyn, 1956, Records Dominion Mus., vol. 3, pt.1,p.4); Awakino-Mahoenui area (Medway, 1971, Notornis, vol. 18, p. 218).FamilyNECTARINIIDAE(Vigors)NectariniadaeVigors, 1825, Trans. Linn.Soc.London, vol. 14, p. 463 (family; typeNectarinia Illiger).-NectarinidaeBoie, 1826, Isis von Oken, fideGray.-NectarininaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 12(subfamily).-NectariniidaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.1,p.402(familia).-NectariniinaeSunde vall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 48(familia).-NectariniidaeGadow, 1884, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 9, p. 1 (family).CinnyridaeVigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 463 (family; type Cinnl/ris Cuvier).AmchnotherinaeCabanis,1850, Museum Heineanum, pt.1,p.104 (subfamilia; typeAmchnothemTemminck).FamilyPARDALOTIDAE(Bonaparte)PardalotinaeBonaparte, 1850, (30 Apr.), Conspectus Generum Avium, vol. 1, pt. 2, sig. 42, p. 334 (subfamilia; typeParda/otllsVieillot).DicaeidaeBonaparte, 1853 (seance du31Oct.),C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37,no.18,p.664 (familia; typeDicaeumCuvier).-Dicaeinae Bonaparte, 1853, loc. cit. (subfamilia).PammythiidaeSclater, 1893, Ibis, p. 244 (type Pammythia DeVis).Nofossilrecord.FamilyZOSTEROPIDAE(Bonaparte)ZosteropinaeBonaparte, 1853, C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37,p.644 (subfamilia; typeZos teropsVigors andHorsfield).-ZosteropidaeSharpe, 1891, Review Recent Attempts Clas sify Birds,p.86.Nofossilrecord.

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1978BRODKORB: C.\T.-\LOCL'E OFFOSSIL BIRDSFamilyVIREONIDAE(Swainson) 195 Vireoinae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2,p.249 (subfamily; type Vireo Vieillot). Vireoninae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv fur Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. I, no. 2,p.321 (subfamilia). Vireonidae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Call. Amer. Birds, p. 43 (family).Vireoninae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.14(familia). Hylophilinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.12(familia; type H'I1ophillls Temminck). Vireolaniidae Pycraft, 1907, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,p.352 (type VireolanillsDuBus).Vireolaniinae Blake, 1968,inPeters, Check-list Birds World,vol.14,p.108(subfamily). C'Iclarhidae Pycraft, 1907, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 352 (type C'Iciarhis Swainson).-C'I clorhinae Blake, 1968,inPeters, Check-list Birds World, vol.14,p.103 (subfamily).NeospeciesofVireonidaefromthePleistoceneand0HoloceneI.C'Iclarhis{!,lI;anensis(Gmelin). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania?(0.Winge, 1887,E.Museo Lundii, vol.1,no.2,p.49).2.Vireo calidris (Linnaeus). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC:Cerrode San Francisco (Bern stein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3,p.280). PUERTO RICO:CuevaCatedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer.Mus.Nat. Hist., vol. 46,p.328). 3. Vireo olivacells (Linnaeus). ILLINOIS:MillerCave? (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleological Soc. Bull., vol. 29,no.4,p.130. 4. Vireo solitarills (Wilson). BAHAMAS: Abaca Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33,no.3, p. 238). 5. Vireo grisells (Boddaert). FLORIDA: Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 150).6.Lowrencia nona (Lawrence). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco? (Bern stein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, p. 280).FamilyCOEREBIDAE(Gray)Sylvicolinae Bonaparte, 1838, GeographicalandComparative List of Birds of Europe and North America, p. 20 (subfamily; type S'llvicola Swainson, 1827, preoccupied by S'llvicolo Harris, 1792, by S'Ilvicolo Humphrey, 1797, and by S'llvicola Hubner, 181O),-S'Ilvicoli dae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 23, vol.1,pt. 2,p.315 (familia). Sylvicoleoe Bonaparte, 1853 (read 31 Oct.), C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, no. 18, p. 644 (section). Caerebinae G.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds,p.13(subfamily; type "Caereba Briss," i.e. Coereba Vieillot).-Caerebidae Bonaparte, 1850 (15 May), Conspectus Generum Avium, vol.1,pt. 2,sig.50,p.399).-Coerebidae Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt.1,pp.ix,116.-Coerebinae Sclater, 1886 (after May7),Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 11, pp.xi,2,29 (subfamily).-Coerebini Beecher,1951(Dec. 21), Wilson Bull., vol. 63, no. 4,p.286 (tribe). MniotiltinaeG.R.Gray, 1848 (Dec.), Genera of Birds, vol.I,p.195 (subfamily; type Mniotilta Vieillot).-Mniotilteae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv.R.R.Pacific, vol.9,pp.xix,235 (section).-Mniotiltidae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Call. Amer. Birds,p.25 (family).-Mniotiltae Ridgway, 1902 (Oct. 16), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2,p.428 (section). Setophageae Bonaparte, 1853 (read 31 Oct.), C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, no. 18, p. 644 (section; type Setophaga Swainson).-Setophaginae Baird, 1864 (Nov.), Review Amer. Birds, sig.11,pp. vi, 166 (subfamily).-Setophaginae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.27 (familia).-Setophagae Ridgway, 1902 (Oct. 16), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 430 (section). Helmithereae Bonaparte, 1853 (read31Oct.), C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, no. 18,p.644 (section; type Helmitheros Rafinesque). Geothlypeae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv.R.R.Pacific, vol. 9, pp.xix,240 (section; type Geothlypis Cabanis).-Geothl'lpinae Baird, 1864 (Nov.), Review Amer. Birds, sig.11,pp. vi, 166 (subfamily).

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196BULLETlFLORIDASTATEMUSEUMVol.23,No.3 Icterieae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv.R.R.Pacific, vol. 9, pp.xix,248 (section; type Icteria Vieillot).-IcterianaeBaird, 1864(Nov.), Review Amer. Birds, sig. 11, pp.vi,166 (subfamily.-IcteriinaeG.R.Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt. 1, pp.xx,384 (subfamily).-IctetiinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 28(familia).-IcteriaeRidgway, 1902 (Oct. 16), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 430 (section).VennivoreaeBaird, 1858, Rept. Expl.SUN.R.R.Pacific, vol. 9, pp.xix,251 (section; typeVemlivoraSwainson).HenicocichlinaeSclater, 1862, Cat. Coli. Amer. Birds, p. 25 (subfamily; typeHenicocichlaAgassiz, 1846=EnicocichlaGray, 1840, a junior synonym of Seiurus Swainson,1827).EllichocichlirweG.R.Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt.1,p.249 (subfamily).SiureaeBaird, 1864 ( ov.), Review Amer. Birds, sig.11,p. 166 (section; type Siul'tls Strick land, 1841=Seiurus Swainson, 1827). Teretristelle Baird, 1864 (Nov.), Review Amer. Birds,sig.11,p.166 (section; type Teretristis "Cabanis"=Teretristris Cabanis,1855). Trichadinae G.R.Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt.1,pp.xiv,242 (subfamily; type Trichas Swainson, 1827, a senior synonym ofCeothl'lpisCabanis, 1847, but apparently preoccupied byTrichasGloger, 1827).DendroecinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I, p. 26 (familia; typeDendroecaGray).-DendroicaeRidgway, 1902 (Oct. 16), Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 2,p.429 (section; typeDelldroicaGray).ArbelorhillilllleSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 48 (familia; type Arbelorhillll Cabanis, new name forCaerebaVieillot).HelinaiaeRidgway, 1902 (Oct.16),Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt.2,p.428 (section; typeHelinaiaAudubon, a synonym ofHelmitherosRafinesque).Compsothl'lpidaeOberholser, 1919 (Apr. 11), Proc.BioI.Soc. Washington, vol. 32, p. 46 (family; typeCompsothl'lPisCabanis, 1850, a junior synonym ofParulaBonaparte, 1838).ParulidaeAmerican Ornithologists' Union, 1947 (July 22), Auk, vol. 64,no.3, p. 451 (family; type Parula Bonaparte).-Parulinae Mayr and Amadon,1951(Apr.2),Amer. Mus. Novi tates,no.1496, pp.27,37(subfamily).Neospecies of Coerebidae fromthePleistocene and Holocene1.Coereba flaveola(Linnaeus). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 329).2.Mniatilta varia (Linnaeus). TEXAS: Miller's Cave? (Weigel, 1967, Texas Jour. Sci., vol. 19,no.1, p. 108).3. Prolonotaria citrea(Boddaert). BAHAMAS: Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33,no.3, p. 239).4.Limnothl'lpis swainsonii(Audubon). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco? (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28,no.3, p. 281).5.Vemlivora pinus(Linnaeus). BAHAMAS: Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33,no.3, p. 239).6.Dendroica corollata(Linnaeus). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46,p.329).7.Dendroica tigrina (Gmelin). BAHAMAS: Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 239).8.Dendroica adelaidae(Baird). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 329).9.Ceothl'lpismchas(Linnaeus). FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 31, no.1,p.136); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10,no.4, p. 151).10. Seiul'tls auricapillus (Linnaeus). ILLINOIS:MeyerCave? (Pannalee, 1967, Nat. Spe leological Soc. Bull., vol. 29,no.4,p. 130). BAHAMAS: Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 239). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 281).11.Wilsonia citrina (Boddaert). BAHAMAS: Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3,p.239).

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1978BRODKORB:CATALOCl'EOFFOSSIL BIRDS197FamilyTANAGRIDAE(Vigors)'TanagrinaVigors, 1825 (Oct.), Zool. Jour., vol.2,no.7,p.358 (typeTanagraLinnaeus).-Tana grinaeBonaparte, 1831, Saggio diuna Distribuzione Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati,p.51(subfamilia).-TanagridaeBoie, 1826, Isis von Oken, fideGray.-TarlllgrinaeSunde vall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 37 (familia).-TanagraeRidgway, 1902, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p.2.TangaridaeBoie, 1826, Isis von Oken, vol.10,p. 973 (typeTangaraBrisson).-"Tangaras"Lesson, 1828, Manuel d'Omithologie, vol.1,p.152(famille).ThrallpinaeCabanis, 1847, Archiv fur aturg.,Jahrg. 23, vol.1,no.2,p.316 (subfamilia; typeThrallpisBoie).-ThraupinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.36 (familia).ThraupidaeWetmoreand W.D.Miller, 1926, Auk, vol. 43,no.3, p.346.-Thraupididae(recte?).EuphoninaeCabanis, 1847, Archiv fur Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol.1,no.2,p. 316 (subfamily; typeEuphoniaDesmarest, 1806, a junior synonym ofTanagraLinnaeus,1764).-EuphoniaeRidgway, 1902, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 2,p.2.DacnidinaeCabanis, 1847, Arch. h,r Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol.1,no.2,p.325 (subfamilia; typeDacnisCuvier).-DacniniBeecher,1951(Dec. 21), Wilson Bull., vol. 63,no.4,p.286 (tribe).PitylinaeCabanis, 1847, Archiv fur Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol.1,no. 2, p. 329 (subfamilia; typePitylusCuvier).-PityleaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1,p.28 ("group").CyanospizinaeSclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds,p.106 (subfamily; type Cyanospi::a Baird, 1858, a junior synonym ofPasserinaVieillot,1816).-CyanospizaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt.I,p.28 ("group").ProcniatinaeSclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p.54(subfamily; typeProcniasTemminck, 1820, preoccupied byProcniasIlliger,18II).-ProcniatidaeRidgway, 1896 (June 24), Proc.U.S.at. Mus., vol. 95,p.449.HemithraupinaeSunde vall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I, p. 28 (familia; typeHe1llithraupisCabanis).PitylinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.34 (familia; typePitylusCuvier).CissopinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I,p.35 (familia; typeCissopisVieillot).TachyphoninaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I,p.36 (familia; typeTachyphonllsVieillot).Rha1llphocelinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I, p. 36 (familia; typeRha11lphocelusDesmeret).LlImprotinaeSclater, 1886, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol.II,pp. xiv, 50,231(subfamily; typeLa11lprotesSwainson, 1837, a senior synonym ofC011lpsothrallpisRichmond, 1915, but preoccupied byLa11lprotes"R.L.",1817).PhoenicophilinaeSclater, 1886, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol.II,pp. xiv, 50, 233 (subfamily; typePhaenicophilusStrickland).CardinaleaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.at. Mus.,no.50, pt. I, p. 28 ("group"; typeCardinalisBonaparte, 1838, preoccupied byCardinalisJarocki, 1821; a synonym ofRich11londenaMathews and Iredale,1918.-CardinalinaeSushkin, 1924 (Nov.), Bull. Brit. Om. Club, vol. 45, p. 38 (subfamily).Cata1llblyrhynchidaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt.1,p. 19 (typeCata11lbly rhynchlls Lafresnaye).-Cata11lblYThynchinaeMaYTand Amadon, 1951, Amer. Mus. Novi tates, no. 1496,p.38.RhodinocichlinaeRidgway, 1902, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 2,p.431 (subfamily; typeRhodinocichlaHartlaub).TersinidaeRidgway, 1907, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 4, p. 880 footnote (family; typeTersinaVieillot, 1812, a synonym ofProcniasTemminck,preoccupied).-?TersidaeRidgway, 1907, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 4,p.880 footnote (typeTersaVieillot; unidentifieable?).-TersininaeJ.Fisher and Peterson, 1964, World of Birds, p. 232 (sub family).IThe International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (1968. Bull.Zoo\.Nomencl.. vol. 25. pp. 74-75) placed Tanagritltre Bonaparte (l838) on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Family-Croup Names. without mention of the prior family-group names Tanagrina Vigors (1825)or Tanagrintre Bonaparte (1831). all basedonthe genus TanagraLin nacus(l764).which was likewise suppressed. The Commission overlooked the name Tangaridae Boie (1826), based on the genusTangaraBoie (1826, ex Brisson, 1760).itisdeplorable that the Commission continually violates its own fundamental principle, priority.,

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198BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.3RiehmondeninaeWetmoreandW. D. Miller, 1926, Auk, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 346 (subfamily;typeRiehmondenaMathews and lredale).PyrrhuloxiinaeMayrandAmadon, 1951, Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1476, p.38(subfamily;typePyrrlwloxiaBonaparte).Neospecies ofTanagridaefromthePleistoceneand0Holocene Subfamily Tersininae1.Tersina viridis(Illiger). BRAZIL:LapadaEscrivania(0.Winge, 1887, E. Museo Lundii, vol.1,no. 2, p. 50).SubfamilyTanagrinae2.Nesospingus speeuliferus(Lawrence).PUERTORICO:CuevaCatedralandCuevaClara(Wetmore,1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 331, figs. 24-25).3.Spindalis zena(Linnaeus). BAHAMAS: AbacaIsland cave (Conklin, 1971,Quart.Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 239).PUERTORICO:CuevaCatedralandCuevaClara(Wetmore,1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 332).4.Calyptophilus frugivorus(Cory).DOMINICANREPUBLIC:CerrodeSan Francisco (Bernstein, 1965,Quart.Jour.FloridaAcad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 281).5.Phaenieophilus palma rum(Linnaeus).DOMINICANREPUBLIC:CerrodeSan Francisco (Bernstein, 1965,Quart.Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 281).Subfamily Pitylinae6.Salta tor similisLafresnaye and d'Orbigny. BRAZIL:Lapada Escrivania(0.Winge, 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol.1,no. 2, p. 50).7.Pyrrhyloxia cardinalis (Linnaeus). WISCONSIN: Raddatz rock shelter (Parmalee, 1959, Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 85). ILLINOIS:Meyercave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleological Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130).FLORIDA:Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. FloridaStateMus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 286); Rock Spring (Woolfenden, 1959, Wilson Bull., vol. 71, no. 2, p. 185); Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull., no. 44, p. 199); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 15).8.Pheucticus melanoeephalus(Swainson). CALIFORNIA: RanchoLaBrea (Dawson, 1948, Condor, vol. 50, no. 2, p. 58).9.Passerina ciris(Linnaeus). BAHAMAS: Abaca Island cave (Conklin, 1971,Quart.Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3. p. 240).FamilyIcTERIDAE(Vigors)leterinaVigors, 1825, fide Gray(typeIcterus Brisson).-IcterinaeSwainson, 1832,FaunaBoreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 274(subfamily).-IeteridaeCabanis,1847, Archiv fur Naturg., vol.1,p. 332(familia).-IcterinaeSundevall, 1872,Tentamen,pt.1,p. 39(familia).leteriRidgway, 1902, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 174.AgelainaeSwainson, 1832,FaunaBoreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 274 (subfamily;typeAgelaius Vieillot).-Aglainae[sic] G.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), ListGeneraof Birds, p. 42 (subfamily).-AgelaiinaeBaird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv.R.R.Pacific, vol. 9, pp.xx,521 (subfamily).-AgelaeinaeSundevall, 1872,Tentamen,pt.I,p.38(familia).-AgelaeinaeSclater, 1886,Cat.Birds Brit. Mus., vol.II,pp. xvi, 308,330.-AgelaiaeRidgway, 1887, Man.N.Amer. Birds, p.365.-AgelaiiRidgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 174.ScaphidurinaeSwainson, 1832,FaunaBoreali-Americana, vol. 2, p. 274 (subfamily; typeScaphi durusSwainson).QUiscalinaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), ListGeneraofBirds, p.41(subfamily; typeQuis calus Vieillot).-QuiscaliRidgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 174.Cacici Lacepede (typeCacicus Lacepede).-CacininaeBrodkorb, 1959, Bull.FloridaStateMus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283 (subfamily).

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1978BRODl\:ORB:C.HALOCllE OFFOSSIL BIRDS 199 Cassicelle Bonaparte, 1853,C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37,p.644 (type Cassic/ls Illiger).-Cas sicinae Sclater, 1886, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 11, pp.xvi,308, 309 (subfamily). Chlllcop/wninae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p.38 (familia; type Chalcop/wnes Wagler, a synonym of QUiscalus Vieillot). Stumellinae Sclater, 1886, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 11, pp. xvii, 308, 355 (subfamily; type Stlane/loVieillot).-StumelloeRidgway, 1902, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt.2,p. 175. Cassidices Ridgway, 1902, Bull.U.S.at. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 173 (group; type Cassidix Lesson). Molothn Ridgway, 1902, Bull..5.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 174 (group; type Molothrus Swainson). Trupioles Ridgway, 1902, Bull..5. ;\fat. Mus., no. 50, pt.2,p.175(group; type Trupiolis Merrem). Dolichonyces Ridgway, 1902, Bull.U.S. 'Jat. Mus., no. 50, pt. I,p.175 (group; type Dolichonyx Swainson).-Dolichonychinae Blake, 1968,inPeters, Check-List Birds World, vol. 14, pp.ix,201(subfamily).GenusfCremasterBrodkorbCremaster Brodkorb, 1959 (May 22), Bull. Florida State Mus., vol.4,no. 9,p.284 (type by original designation Cremaster tytthus Brodkorb).1.Cremaster tytthus BrodkorbCremaster tytt/lIIs Brodkorb, 1959 (May 22), Bull. Florida State Mus.,vol.4,no.9,p.284,figs.10-12 (holotype from Arredondo1I,distal portion of left tibiotarsus, Brodkorb no. 1663; referred humerusanddistal part of femur).MIDDLEUPPERPLEISTOCE'E(Arredondo clay).FLORIDA:AlachuaCounty:ArredondoII(Brodkorb,lococit.);HaileXIB (Ligon, 1966, Bull.FloridaStateMus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 151).GenusfPandanarisA.H. MillerPandanonsA.H.Miller, 1947(.Jan.),Condor, vol. 49, no.I,p.22 (type by original designation Pandanans convexaA.H.Miller).2. Palldallaris floridallaBrodkorbPandanans f!ondano Brodkorb, 1957 (Feb. 26), Jour. Paleontology, vol. 31,no.1,p. 134, text-fig. I (holotype from near Reddick, rostrum, Brodkorb no. 294; referred 2 mandibles).-Hamon,1964, Florida Ceol. Surv. Ceol. BulL: no. 44, p. 197,fig.12(Reddick; descr. coracoid, humerus, ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus).MIDDLEUPPERPLEISTOCENE(Reddick beds).FLORIDA:MarionCounty:DixieLimeProductsCompanymine,1mi SEReddick(Brodkorb,lococit.).AlachuaCounty:HaileXIB (Ligon, 1966, Bull.FloridaStateMus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 151).3. Pandanaris convexaA.H.MillerPandanons convexaA.H. Miller, 1947(.Jan.),Condor, vol. 49, no.1,p.22, fig. 4 (holotype from Rancho La Brea, rostrum, Los Angeles Co. Mus. no. K7278).UPPERUPPERPLEISTOCENE(Rancholabreantar).CALIFORNIA:Los AngelesCounty:Los Angeles,pitA.

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200BULLETINFLORIDASTATEMUSEUMVol. 23,No.3GenusEuphagusCassinEuphagusCassin, 1867, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 18,no.5,p.413 (typePsaro colius clJanocephalusWagler, Recent).4.Euphagus magnirostrisA.H. MillerEuphagus magnirostris A.H. Miller, 1929 (Dec. 21), Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 19,no.1, p. 14,pI.1,figs.f,h (holotype from Rancho La Brea, mandible, Univ. Calif. Mus. Paleo. no. 29442; referred 2 femora; tentatively referred tibiotarsi, tarso metatarsus, mandible). Needs restudy.UPPERUPPERPLEISTOCENE(Rancholabrean tar).CALIFORNIA:Los Angeles County: Los Angeles: RanchoLaBrea.GenusfPyelorhamphusA.H. MillerP'IelorhamphusA.H. Miller, 1932(.Jan.),Auk, vol. 49,no.1,p. 39 (type by original designationPlJelorhamphus molathroidesA.H. Miller).5.Pyelorhamphus molothroidesA.H. MillerP'Ielarhamphus molothroidesA.H. Miller, 1932(.Jan.),Auk, vol. 49,no.1,p. 39,pI.4 (holo type from Shelter Cave, mandible, Los Angeles Co. Mus. no. 320; referred rostrum).QUATERNARY.NEWMEXICO:DonaAnaCounty:ShelterCaveon PyramidPeak, west slope ofOrganMountains. Neospecies ofIcteridaefromthePleistoceneandHolocene1.Psarcoliusdecumanus(Pallas). BRAZIL: Salpeter cave near Escrivania(0.Winge, 1887,E.Museo Lundii, vol.1,no.2,p. 50).2. Icterus galbula(Linnaeus). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea(A.H. Miller, 1929, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 19,no.1,p.13).3. Icterus gularis (Wagler). YUCATAN:'ActunCoyok (Fisher, 1953, Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33,p.83).4. Icterus daminicensis(Linnaeus). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedraland Cueva Clara (Wet more, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46,p.330).5. Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus(Bonaparte). OREGON: Fossil Lake? (Howard, 1946, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ., no. 551, pp. 190, 192). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea(L.Miller, 1912, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol.7,no. 5, p.78).NEWMEXICO:'RockyArroyo (Wetmore, 1932, Condor, vol. 34,no.3, p. 141); Burnet Cave(c.B.Schultz andE.B.Howard, 1935, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 87, p. 277).6. Agelaius xanthamus (Sclater). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Clara and Cueva Catedral (Wet more, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 330).7.Agelaius phoeniceus(Linnaeus). ONTARIO: Hamilton (Wetmore, 1958, Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 135, no. 8, p.9).OREGON: Fossil Lake? (Howard, 1946, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ., no. 551, pp. 189, 192). CALIFORNIA: RanchoLaBrea?(L.Miller, 1912, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol.7,no. 5,p.78);'BuenaVista Lake (DeMay, 1942, Condor, vol. 44,no.5, p. 228). NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave? (Howard, 1952, Bull.So.Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pt. 2, p. 54). IDAHO: American Falls (Brodkorb, 1963, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 26, no. 3, p. 280). UTAH:'SandDune Cave (Hargrave, 1970, Tech. Ser. Mus.N.Ariz., no. 9, pp. 40, 45). NEW MEXICO: Conkling Cavern (Howard andA.H.Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no.1,p.16).KANSAS:Jones Sink? (Downs, 1954, Condor, vol. 54, p. 213,fig.5c).lOWA:'MillCreek (Hamon, 1961, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 6, p. 211). WISCON SIN:'Raddatzrock shelter (Parmalee, 1959, Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 40,no.2, p. 85).

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1978BRODKORB: C.-\T.-\LOCL'E OFFOSSILBIRDS201ILLINOIS: Kingston (Baker, 1936, Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci., vol. 29,no.2,p.245);PlumIsland (Baker, 1941, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n.s., vol. 32,p.69); Modoc rock shelter (Parmalee, 1956, Illinois State Mus. Rept. Invest., no. 4,p.53). PENNSYLYANIA:Sheeprock shelter (GuildayandParmalee, 1965, Pennsylvania Archaeologist, vol. 35, no.1,p. 39). YIRGIlA;Natural Chimneys (Guilday, 1962, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 36,p.92). FLORIDA: Seminole Field (Wetmore, 1931, Smithsonian Misc. CoIl., vol. 85, no. 2, p. 41); Reddick (Brodkorb, 1956, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31,no.1,p. 136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9,p.283); Itchtucknee River (McCoy, 1963, Auk, vol. 80, no. 3,p.347);YeroBeach (Weigel, 1963, Florida Geol. Surv. Special Publ. no. 10,p.30). BAHAMAS: Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 240). CUBA: P{o Domingo cave?(Dolichonyx kruegeriFischer and Stephan, 1971, Wiss. Zeitschr. Humboldt Univ. Berlin, Math.-Nat.R., vol. 20,no.4-5,p.597,pI.3, 5, 6,figs.18-21; holotype right humerus, Univ. Habana no. 877/67; see Aves Incertae Sedis, postea). YUCATAN:ActunLara,ActunCoyok,andActun Spukil (H.I.Fisher, 1953, Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33, p. 83). 8.Stumel/amagna(Linnaeus). FLORIDA: Eichelberger Cave (Brodkorb, 1956, Auk, vol. 73, no.I,p. 136); Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no.I,p.136); Arredondo (Brod korb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus.,vol.4, no. 9,p.283); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 151).9.Stumel/a neglecraAudubon. OREGON: Fossil Lake (Howard, 1946, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ., no. 551,p.190). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea and San Pedro(L.Miller, 1912, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol.7,no. 5,p.78); Carpinteria(A.H.Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no.7,p. 180,pI.13,figs.g,j);McKittrick (Miller and DeMay, 1942, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., vol. 47, no.4,p. 68). IDAHO: Weiss rock shelter(L.Miller, 1963, Bull.So.Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 62, pt.4,p. 182). TEXAS: Miller's Cave? (Weigel, 1967, Texas Jour. Sci., vol. 19, no. I,p.108).10. Pseudoleistes guirahuro(Yieillot). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania(0.Winge, 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol. I, no. 2, p. 50). 11.Gnorimopsar chopi(Yieillot). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania(0.Winge, 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol.I,no.2,p.50).12. Quiscalus mexicanus(Gmelin). YUCATAN: Actun Lara (H.I.Fisher, 1953, Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33,p.83).13. QUiscalus maior(Yieillot). FLORIDA: Seminole Field (Wetmore, 1931, Smithsonian Misc. CoIl., vol. 85, no. 2,p.41);YeroBeach (Weigel, 1963, Florida Geol. Surv. Spec. Publ., no. 10,p.31).14. Quisca/us quiscu/a(Linnaeus). ONTARIO: Hamilton (Wetmore, 1958, Smithsonian Misc. ColI., vol. 135, no. 8,p.9).lOWA: Mill Creek (Hamon, 1961, Plains Anthropologist, vol.6,p.211). ARKANSAS:Zebreesite (GuildayandParmalee, 1971, Amer. Midland Naturalist, vol. 86, no. 1,p.228). ILLINOIS: Kingston (Baker, 1936, Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci., vol. 29, no. 2, p. 245); Cahokia (Parmalee, 1957, Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci., vol. 50, p. 239);MeyerCave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleolog. Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130); Apple Creek (Parmalee, Paloumpis,andWilson, 1972, Illinois State Mus. Rept. Invest., no. 23, pp. 31, 33). OHIO:CanterCaves (Goslin, 1955, Ohio Jour. Sci., vol. 55, no.6,p. 361);IndianHills (Mayfield, 1972, vol. 74, no. 3,p.345). PEN SYLYANIA: Yarner site? (Guilday, 1961, Penns. Archaeologist, vol. 31, p. 122). FLORIDA: Seminole Field (Wetmore, 1931, Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 85, no.2,p.41); Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no. I,p.136); Itchetucknee River (McCoy, 1963, Auk, vol. 80, no. 3,p.347); Yero Beach (Weigel, 1963, Florida Geol. Surv. Spec. Publ., no. 10,p.30); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 151).15. Quiscalus niger(Cassin). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 331).16. Euphagus cyanocephalus(Wagler). OREGON: Fossil Lake(ScolecophagusaffinisShufeldt, 1892, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 9, p. 418,pI.15, fig. 10, syntypes 2 left humeri, left coracoid, 3 right ulnae, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. no. 3466; see Howard, 1946, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ., vol. 551, p. 189). CALIFORNIA: Hawver Cave(L.Miller, 1911, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol. 6, no. 16, p. 399; error?, see Wetmore, 1940, Smithsonian Misc., Coli., vol. 99, no. 4, p.76note). KANSAS: Kentuck (Galbreath, 1955, Wilson Bull., vol. 67, no.1,p.62); Big Springs Ranch (Harrell, 1959, Proc.S.Dakota Acad. Sci., vol. 38, p. 105).lOWA: MilleCreek(Hamon, 1961, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 6, p. 211).

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202BLLETIIFLORIDASTATEM SEUMVol.23,No.317. MoLothrus ater(Boddaert). ORECON: Fossil Lake? (Howard, 1946, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ., vol. 551, p.190).CALIFORIA:Rancho La Brea (Howard, 1962, Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., vol. 58, p. 23).EWMEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H.Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no.I,p.16).KANSAS:Jones Sink? (Downs, 1954, Condor, vol. 56, p. 214,fig.5d,f).VIRCINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc., Call., vol. 145, no. 2, p.14).FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Ceol. Surv. Ceol. Bull., no. 44, p. 196); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10,no.4, p. 151).18. Dolichonyx oryzioorus(Linnaeus).lOWA: Mill Creek (Hamon, 1961, Plains Anthropolo gist, vol. 6,p.211). FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Ceol. Surv. Ceol. Bull., no. 44, p.197).FamilyEMBERIZIDAEVigorsEmberizidaeVigors, fide Brehm, 1831, HandbuchderNaturgeschichte aller Vogel Deutschlands, pp. 261, 289 (family; typeElIlberizaLinnaeus).-Emberizidae Boie, fide Brehm, 1831, Handbuch, p.1049.-EmberizinaeBonaparte, 1838, Ceogr.CompoList Birds Eur.N.Amer.,p.35(subfamilia).-ElIlberizinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1,p.33 (familia).GeospizinaeCabanis, 1847, Archiv fur Naturg., vol. I, no. 2,p.328 (subfamilia; typeGeospizaCould).-GeospizaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt.1,p. 28 ('"group"). GeospizidaeSwarth, 1929, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 18,p.29 (family).SpizinaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Cenerum Avium, pt.1,p. 468 (subfamily; typeSpizaBonaparte).-SpizaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. I, p. 26 ('"group'''' PassereLlinaeCabanis,1851(Apr.), Museum Heineanum, pt.1,p.131(subfamily; typePasserellaSwainson).SpizeLlinaeBaird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv.R.R.Pacific, vol. 9, pp.xx,406, 438 (subfamily; typeSpizellaBonaparte). Zonotrichiinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll.Am.Birds, p. 1I0 (subfamily; typeZonotrichiaSwainson).-ZonotrichinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 33(familia).-ZonotrichiaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.at. Mus.,no.50, pt.1,p. 28 ("group").Spennophi!inaeSclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds,p.99 (subfamily; typeSpennophilaSwain son, 1827, preoccupied bySpennophilaRichardson, 1825).ArrellloniaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. I,p.35 (familia; typeArrelllonVieillot).Sporophi!aeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 (group; typeSporophilaCabanis, 1844, a .iunior synonym ofSpennophilaSwainson, preoccupied).Ca!carieaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. I, p. 28 (group; typeCa!cariusBechstein).CalaT/lo51JizaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 1,p.28 (group; typeCa!anwspizaBonaparte).ChondesteaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.at. Mus., no. 50, pt. I, p. 28 (group; typeChandestesSwainson).Anl11wdrallliRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. I,p.28 (group; typeAlIllllodramusSwainson).Hap!ospizaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt.1,p. 28 (group; typeHap!ospizaCabanis).OryzoboraeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. I, p. 28 (group; type Oryzoborus Cabanis).CerthideinaeRidgway, 1902, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt. 2, p.431(subfamily; typeCerthideaCould).GenusfPalaeostruthusWetmorePalaeostrutlwsWetmore, 1925 (May), Bull. Mus.CompoZool., vol. 67,no.2, p. 192,figs.3-4 (type by original designationPaLoeospiza hatcheriShufelst).1.Palaeostruthus hatcheri(Shufeldt) Paiaeospiza hatcheriShufeldt, 1913 (Aug.4),Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 32, art. 16, p. 301,pI.55,fig.28 (holotype from QuarryE,Long Island, rostrum,U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.6647).LoWERPLIOCENE(RepublicanRiverFormation). KANSAS: PhillipsCounty:LongIsland.

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1978BRODKORB: C.H.-\LOCl'E OFFOSSIL BIRDS2. Palaeostrllthus ellrius Brodkorb 20:3 Palaeostrut}llIs euriusBrodkorb, 1963 (Feb.8),Florida Ceol. Surv. Spec. Publ.,no.2,Paper no. 4, p. 6,pI.3,figs.a-b (holotype from HaileVI,distal part of left tarsometatarsus, Brodkorb colI. no. 8502).MIDDLEPLIOCENE(AlachuaClay).FLORIDA:AlachuaCounty:Haile.GenusPipiloVieillotPipiloVieillot, 1816, Analyse nouv. Om. elementaire, p.32(typeFringilla erythorophthalmaLinnaeus, Recent).3. Pipilo angelensisDawsonPipilo angelensisDawson, 1948 (March16),Condor, vol. 5, no.2,p.59,fig.16(holotype from Pit A at Rancho La Brea, rostrum,LosAngeles Co. Mus.no.K7291).UPPERUPPERPLEISTOCENE(Rancholabreantar).CALIFORNIA:Los AngelesCounty:LosAngeles:RanchoLaBrea.GenusZonotrichiaSwainsonZonotriehiaSwainson, 1832, Fauna Bor.-Amer., vol. 2, p. 493 (type designated by Bonaparte,1832, Fringilla pensylvanieaLatham=F.aibieollisCmelin, Recent).4.Zonotrichia robllsta TonniZonotriehia robustaTonni, 1970(.June),Ameghiniana, vol.7,no. 2,p.161,fig.2a-d (holotype from Miramar, rostrum and mandible, Mus. La Plata,no.63-VII-30-6).MIDDLEPLEISTOCENE(MiramarFormation,Ensenadensanage). ARGEN TINA:ProvoBuenosAires:Miramar:900metersSWofPuntaHermengo.eospeciesofEmberizidaefromthePleistoceneand0HoloceneI.Tiaris bieoior(Linnaeus). DOMI 'ICA REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28,no.3, p. 282).2.Tiaris olivaeea(Linnaeus). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. at. Hist., vol. 46, p. 333).3. Lorigilla portorieensis(Daudin). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer.Mus.Nat. Hist., vol. 46,p.332).4.Lorigilla violaeea(Linnaeus). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco (Bern stein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28,no.3, p. 281). BAHAMAS: Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 240).5.Pipilo er'lthrophthalmus(Linnaeus). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria(A.H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Ceol. Sci., vol. 21,no.7,p.182,pI.12,fig.f);Rancho La Brea (Dawson, 1948, Condor, vol. 50,no.2, p. 50). UTAH: Catfish Canyon (Hargrave, 1960, Univ. Utah Anthr. Papers,no.44,p.239).NEWMEXICO: Conkling CavernandShelter Cave (Howard andA.H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. I, p.16).ILLINOIS:MeyerCave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleol. Soc. Bull., vol. 29,no.4, p.131).FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Pal., vol. 31,no.1,p.136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4,9,p. 286); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10,no.4, p. 152);VeroBeach (Weigel, 1963, Florida Ceol. Surv., Spec. Publ., no. 10, p. 31).6. PipilofuseusSwainson. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria(A.H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Ceol. Sci., vol. 21,no.7,p. 182,pI.12,fig.g.pI.13,fig.d);Rancho La Brea (Dawson, 1948, Condor, vol. 50, no. 2, p. 50).EWMEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no.1,p.16).

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204BULLETINFLORIDASTATEMUSEUMVol.23,No.37.Cala71lospiza melanocorys Ste.jne.ge.r. CALIFORNIA: (A.O.U. Checklist, ed. 5, 1957, p. 585).NEWMEXICO:ShelterCave(HowardandA.H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. I, p. 16).KASAS:Jones Sink (Downs, 1954, Condor, vol. 56, p. 214,fig.5 g-h, k-l). SOUTH DA KOTA:'BlackPartizan (Parmalee, 1977, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 22-27, p. 198).8.Passercllllls sandwichensis(Gmelin). FLORIDA: Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. FloridaStateMus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 286).9.AIIllllOdra71lllssavannart/Ill(Gmelin). FLORIDA: Haile I (Brodkorb, 1953, Wilson Bull., vol. 65, no.1,p.SO);Haile XI (Ligon, 1966, Bull. FloridaStateMus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 152).PUERTORICO:'CuevaClara(Wetmore,1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. at. Hist., vol. 46, p. 333).10.Ammodramlls henslowii(Audubon). FLORIDA: Reddick(Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Pal., vol. 31, no.1,p. 136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull.FloridaState Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 286); Haile XI (Ligon, 1966, Bull. FloridaStateMus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 152).11.Pooecelesgraminells(Gmelin). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Dawson, 1948,Condor,vol. 50, no.2,p. 60).12.Chondestes grammaclls(Say). CALIFORNIA: RanchoLaBrea (Dawson, 1948,Condor,vol.SO,p.60).13.Amphispiza bilineata(Cassin). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Sibley, 1939, Condor, vol. 41, no.3,p. 126).NEWMEXICO: ShelterCave(HowardandA.H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no.1,p.16).14. AlIlphispiza belli(Cassin). CALIFORNIA: McKittrick(A.H. Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39, no. 6, p. 250); RanchoLaBrea (Sibley, 1939,Condor,vol. 41, no. 3, p. 126).15.Spizella passerina(Bechstein). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Sibley, 1939,Condor,vol. 41, no.3,p. 127).FLORIDA:Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. FloridaStateMus., vol. 4, no. 9,p.286).16.Spizella arborea(Wilson). CALIFORNIA: RanchoLaBrea? (Dawson, 1948, Condor, vol.SO,no.2,p.61).17. Spizella pllsilla(Wilson). FLORIDA: Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. FloridaStateMus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 286).18.Junco hyemalis(Linnaeus).ILLIOIS:'MeyerCave(Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleological Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4,p.131). VIRGIIA:NaturalChimneys(Wetmore,1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 14.19.Zonotrichia lellcophrys(Forster).CALIFORIA: Rancho la Brea (Dawson, 1948,Condor,vol.SO,no. 2,p.61).20. Zonotrichia albicollis(Gmelin). VIRGINIA:NaturalChimneys(Wetmore,1962, Smith sonian Misc. Coli., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 14). 21.Zonotrichia capensis(Muller).DOMINICANREPUBLIC:CerroSan Francisco (Bern stein, 1965,Quart.Jour.FloridaAcad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 282).22. Zonotrichia melodia(Wilson).CALIFORNIA:RanchoLaBrea (Dawson, 1948,Condor,vol.SO,no. 2, p. 62). VIRGINIA:aturalChimneys, 1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 15).23. Zonotrichia iliaca(Merrem). CALIFORNIA:Carpinteria(A.H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 182,pI.13, fig. a-b); RanchoLaBrea (Dawson, 1948, Condor, vol. 50, no. 2, p. 62). PENNSYLVANIA: New Paris (Guilday, Martin,andMcCrady, 1964, Bull. Nat. Speleol. Soc., vol. 26,pp.134, 143). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys(Wetmore,1962, Smithsonian Misc., Coil., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 14).24. Plectrophenaxnim/is(Linnaeus).ENGLAND:Merlin'sCave(Lambrecht,1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 785). FRANCE: L'EscaleatSaint-Esteve-Janson(?),AbfmesdelaFageatNoailles,LaColombiereatNeuville-sur-Ain 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol., Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 208).SWITZERLAND:ThiersteinandKaltbrunnental(Lambrecht,1933, Handb. Pal aeorn., p. 785). CZECHOSLAVAKIA:Certova dlra (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.Intern.Om.Kongr. Berlin. p. 940). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke?(Lambrecht,1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 785). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 19, no. 3, p. 151); Remetehegy(Lambrecht,1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); SubalyukCave(.Janossy, 1962, Aquila, 67-68, p. 185). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso.Internat.EtudeQuat.,pt.1,pp. 102, 112);Tankovand'NizhneeKrivche (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka iFaunyProshlogo, vol. 3,pp.30, 42).GEORGIANSSR: KrivchanskaCave(Burchak Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in CavesofUSSR, p. 239).

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1978 BRODKORB: C.-\T:\LOCL'E OFFOSSIL BIHDS205 25. E/Ilberi.:a calandra Linnaeus. E:\GL:\1\'0: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoolo!;ist, ser. -to vol.19,no.893,p. -to-t).FRA:-:CE: A ven I des Abimes de la Fage at :\'oailles 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol., Fac. Sci. Lyonno.64p.207). Thiede (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 785). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber.V.Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 941): Stninska skala and Babirka (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939. Ornitholog,vol.6,nos.2-4, p.22).POLAND: (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p.785).HUNGARY: NoviIll?(Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304); Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23,p.481); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol.4,p.206).ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave and Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull.Res.CouncilIsrael, vol. 11, no. 3,p.100); Hayonim Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 133).KRAIE:Adzhi-Koba, SyurenI, Azil, Tardenuaz, Novgorod-Seversk, Rasponints, Alimovsk, and Okunevki (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Prosh logo, vol. 3, pp.27,31,34,35,44,58,59).26. Emberi.:a citrinellaLinnaeus. lRELA0:Newhall Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 404). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893,p.404). FRANCE: Abimes de la Fage 1965,C"R.Soc. Geol. France,no.1,p.8); Grotte de l'Hortus at Valflaunes (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, pudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,pp. 280, 292); Rond du Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Antliropologie, vol. 78, no.1,p.39); L'Escale at Saint-Est eve-Janson, Orgnac-l'Aven?, Le Lazaret at Nice, EdenRocat Vaison la-Romaine?, Salpetre de Pompignan, Deux AvensatVallon-Pont-d'Arc, and Rond du Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 207). GERMANY: Thiede? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 785). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 785); Stranska skala (.Janossy,1972, Anthropos, vol. 20,p.60).HUNGARY: Lambrecht Cave (Janossy, 1963, Acta ZooI.Acad. Sci. Hung., vol. 9, p. 295). UKRAINE: Azil, Tardenuaz, Novgorod-Seversk, and Krementsa (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob stanovka i Fauny Proshlogo,vol.3, pp.34,35,41,43).27. Emberi.:a sclJOeniclusLinnaeus. CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.785); Certova dira and Balcarka (Skutil and StehliK, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p.22).HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4, p.206).POLAD:RajCave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 136,201).28. Emberi.:a caesiaCretzschmar. ISRAEL: Hayonin Cave (BarYosefand Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 133); 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Uheidiya, p. 28).29. Emberi.:a ciaLinnaeus. UKRAINE: Azil, Tardenuaz, and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp.34,35,58).30. Emberi.:a IwrtulanaLinnaeus. FRANCE:: Grotte des Romains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar,p.153); Orgnac l'Aven?, Rond du Barry, and Rond du Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci.Ly,on,no.64, p. 207). UKRAIE:Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso.Internat. Quat., pt.I,pp. 102, 112); Tankov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 30).31. Calcarius lapponicus(Linnaeus).KANSAS:Jones Sink? (Downs, 1954, Condor, vol. 56,p.214,figs.5i-j).32. Spiza americanaGmelin. ILLINOIS: Meyer Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleolog. Soc. Bull., vol. 29,no.4, p. 130).FamilyPASSERIDAE(Illiger)PasseriniIIliger, 1811, Prodromus system atismammalium et avium, pp. 196, 220 (familia; type by tautonomyPasserBrisson).-Passerinae Bonaparte, 1853, C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, p. 644(subfamilia).-PasseroideaeStejneger, 1885, Stand. Nat. Hist., vol. 4, p. 481 (superfamily).-Passeridae Fiirbringer, 1888, Untersuch. Morph. Syst. Vogel, vol. 2,p.1567 (familia).Fringi/lidaeVigors, 1825, Trans. Linn.Soc.London, vol. 14, p. 445 (family; typeFringilla Linnaeus).-Fringi/linaeBonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzione Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati, p. 00(subfamily).-FringillinaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali Americana, pt. 2, p. 243(subfamily).-Fringi/linaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.I,p. 32(familia).-FringillaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.SO,pt.I,p. 28 ("group").

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206BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUM Vol.23,No.3-FringilloideiSushkin, 1924, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 45,p.30 (superfamily).-FringilloidaeHay, 1930, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ.,no.390, vol. 2, p. 354 (superfamily).CarduelinaVigors, 1825, fide Brehm (typeCarduelisBrisson).-Carduelinae Sushkin, 1924 (Nov.), Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 45, p. 38 (subfamily).LoxidaeVigors, fide Brehm, 1831, Naturgeschichte aller Vogel Deutschlands,p.239 (family; typeLoxiaBrisson).-Loxinae Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr.CompoList Birds EuropeN.Amer., p. 38 (subfamily; typeLoxiaLinnaeus).-LoxiinaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 49 (subfamily).-Loxianae G.R.Gray, 1845 (Feb.), Genera of Birds, vol. 2, p. 388 (subfamily).-Loxiinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 32 (familia).LoxiaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no.SO,pt.1,p. 28 ("group").PyrrhlllinaeSwainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana,pt. 2, p. 243 (typePyrrhlllaBrisson).PyrrhlliaeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus.,no.50, pt.1,p. 28 ("group").CoeeothrallstinaeSwainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp.108,276(subfamily; typeCoeeothraustinae Brisson).-CoeeothrausteoeRidgway, 1901, Bull.U.S.Nat. Mus., no.SO,pt.1,p. 28 ("group").PloeeinaeG.R.Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds,p.42 (subfamily; typePloeeus Cuvier).-PloeeidaeCabanis, 1847, Archiv fur Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol.1,no.2,p. 330(familia).-PloeeinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt.1,p. 29 (familia).DrepaninaeCabanis, 1847, Archivf.Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 23, vol.I,pt. 2, p. 325 (subfamilia; typeDrepanisTemminck).-DrepanidaeBonaparte, 1853(31Oct.), C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, no. 18, 644(familia).-DrepanididaeA.B.Meyer, in Wallace, 1876, Geo graphische Verbreitung der Thiere, vol.2,p. 312(family).-DrepaniidaeMayr, 1943, Condor, vol. 45,p.46(family).-DrepaniinaeAmadon, 1950, Bull. Amer.Mus.Nat. Hist., vol. 95, p.173(subfamily).SpennestinaeCabanis, 1847, Archiv fur Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 331 (subfamilia; typeSpennestesSwainson).VidllanaeCabanis, 1847, Archiv fur Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol.1,no. 2,p.331 (subfamilia; typeVidllaCuvier).-ViduinaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.1,p. 446 (subfamilia).-ViduinaeSundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1,p.29 (familia).EstreldinaBlyth, 1849, fide Gray (typeEstreldaSwainson, 1837, a .junior synonym ofEstrildaSwainson,1827).-EstreldinaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.1,p.450 (subfamilia).-EstrildinaeChapin, 1917, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 37, art. 9, pp. 243,251, 273 (subfamily; typeEstrildaSwainson).ChloridinaeSunde vall, 1872, TentalnEm, pt.1,p.31(familia; typeChlorisMoehring).TextoridaeChapin, 1917, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 37, art. 9, pp. 243, 250, 265 (family; typeTextorTemminck).BubalomithinaeW. L. Sclater, 1930, System a Avium Aethiopicarum, pt.2,pp.xi,715 (sub family; typeBubalomisSmith).PloeepasserinaeW.L.Sclater, 1930, Systema Avium Aethiopicarum, pt. 2, pp.xi,716 (sub family; typePloeepasserSmith).SporopipinaeW. L. Sclater, 1930, Systema Avium Aethiopicarum, pt. 2, pp.xi,728 (subfamily; typeSporopipesCabanis).PsittirostrinaeAmadon, 1950, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 95, p. 164 (subfamily; typePsittirostraTemminck).GenusPasser BrissonPasserBrisson,1760,Ornithologia, vol. 1, p. 36; vol. 3,p.71(typeFringillo domestieaLinnaeus, Recent, designated by Gray, 1841).1.Passer predomesticusTchernovPasser predomestiellSTchernov, 1962 (Nov.), Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 102, text-fig.1;pI.[3],fig.22;pI.[6],figs. 15-16 (holotype from Oumm-Qatafa Cave, premaxilla, Zool. Dept., Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem).UPPERMIDDLEPLEISTOCENE(middle Acheulean).ISRAEL:MugharetOumm-QatafainWadiKhareitoun,nearBethlehem.

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1978 BRODKORB C.U.. \LOCl'EOFFOSSIL BIRDS :207 GenusPetroniaKaupPetroniaKaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw. Nat. Syst., vol.1,p.158 (type by tautonomyFringi/la petroniaLinnaeus, Recent).2. Petronia brevirostrisTchernovPetronia brevirostrisTchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya,p.25,pI.3, figs. 9-17 (syntypes 67 elements from 'Ubeidiya, layers11-23and11-24,Hebrew Univ., Jemsalem).UPPERMIDDLEPLEISTOCENECUbeidiyaFormation).ISRAEL:'Ubeidiya,onSWbankofSeaofGalilee.NeospeciesofPasseridae fromthePleistoceneandHolocene1.Fringillo coelebsLinnaeus. IRELAND: Kesh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,p.404). ENGLAND: Ightham (E. T. Newton, 1899, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 55, no. 219, p. 420); Langwith BassettCave(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,p.404); Merlin'sCave(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.786). SPAIN: Casteldefels (Vil lalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 98). GlBRALTAR:Devil'sTower(Bate, 1928, Jour. Roy. Anthrop. Inst., vol. 58, p. 104). FRANCE: Balme-les-grottes 1963, C.R.Sommaire Soc. Geol. France, fasc. 2, p. 53); L'EscaleatSaint-Esteve-Janson, Le Lazaret at Nice, La BalauziereatVers,CampalouatSaint-Nazaire-en-Royans, Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz,CombeGrenalatDomme, Baume de Gonvillars, and Baum de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.208);GrottedeCottierat Retournac (Mourer Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p.472). CORSICA:GrottadiFuntanedu(E.T. Newton, 1921, Proc. ZooI.Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 231). SARDINIA: PietroTampoiacave on Tavolara Island (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. ZooI.Soc. London,p.472). ITALY:Grottadi Cucigliana?,Cavernad'Equi, BucaTanaeliMaggiano,andGrottede Grimaldi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786);GrotteduPrince (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, fasc. 2, pp. 363, 365). SWITZERLAND: EttingenandSchlossfelsen von Birseck bei Basel (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.786). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarka (Skutiland Stehlt'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4,p.22); Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.786). HUNGARY: Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 478,481, 507). POLAND: Zytnia Skala? (Boyhenski, 1974, Birds LateQuaternaryPoland, pp. 132, 200). RUMANIA: Piispokfurdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 29). UKRAINE: Tardenuaz, Novgorod Seversk,and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya ObstanovkaFaunyProshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 34, 41, 58); Murzan-Koba cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds CavesUSSR,p. 237). ISRAEL:OummQatafaCave(Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 100); Abu-Usba (BarYosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 134); 'Ubeidiya (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya,p.27).2. Fringillo montifringillaLinnaeus. SWITZERLAND:GrottedeCotencher(DuboisandStehlin, 1932, Mem. Soc. Suisse, vol. 52, p. 170). GERMANY: Westeregeln bei Magdeburg? and Zwergloch bei Pottenstein (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p, 786). HUNGARY: Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21,p.90).3. Carduelis chloris(Linnaeus). IRELAND: KeshCave(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403).ENGLAND:Clevedon Cave and ChudleighCave(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser.4,vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). FRANCE: Gourdan andTeyjat(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787); Mas RambaultatFrontignan?, L'EscaleatSaint-Est eve-Janson, and Orgnac-I'Aven (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 208). ITALY:GrottaRomanelli (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787);GrotteduPrinceatGrimaldi (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 208). MALTA:GharDalam cave (FischerandStephan, 1974, Zeitschr. geol. Wiss. Berlin, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 519). SWITZERLAND: BirseckandErmitage (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.787). HUNGARY: Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 481). POLAND: Raj cave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds LateQuaternaryPoland, pp. 134,

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208BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.3201). UKRAINE: Adzhi-Koba, Syuren1,'Tardenuaz,'Novgorod-Seversk,and'Alimovsk (Voin stvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 27, 31, 41, 58). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 1(0); 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p.27).4.Carduelis carduelis(Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser.4,vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). FRANCE: Le Lazaret at Nice, Grotte de Fontechevade at Montbron, La Colombiere at Neuville-sur-Ain, Combe Grenal at Domme?, Baume de Gonvillars, and'BaumdeGonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 209). UKRAINE: Adzhi-Koba, Syuren I, 'Azil, 'Novgorod-Seversk,'Nizhnee,'Alimovsk, and'Okunevi(Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 27, 31,34, 41, 42, 58, 59). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 100); Hayonim Cave and Abu-Usba Cave? (Bar-Yosef abd Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Sci., vol. 15,p.133).5.Carduelis spinus(Linnaeus). FRANCE: Mas Rambault at Frontignan? and Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz(Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 209). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Yolyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787); Balcarka (Skutil and Stehh'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol.6,no. 2-4, p. 22). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11,no.3, p. 1(0).6.Carduelis pinus(Wilson). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria(A.H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no.7,p.181,pI.13,fig.C);McKittrick(A.H. Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39, no.6,p. 250).7.Carduelis tristis(Linnaeus). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Sibley, 1939, Condor, vol. 41, no. 3,p.127).8.Carduelis citrinella(Linnaeus). FRANCE: Combe GrenalatDomme (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,p. 360); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, An thropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); Abfmes de la FageatNoailles?, Orgnac-I'Aven, and Sal petre de Pompignan (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 210,pI.17,fig.13).9.Carduelis cannabina(Linnaeus). IRELAND:KeshCave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 404). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893,p.404). BELGIUM: Grotte Marie-Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63, p.12).FRANCE: Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no.1,p. 39); Abfmes de la Fage at Noailles, Grotte de FontechevadeatMontbron, CampalouatSaint-Nazaire-en Royans, Baume de Gonvillars, and 'Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon.,no.64, p. 209). MALLORCA: Son Bauza cave (Ballmann and Adrover, 1970, Acta Geologica Hispanica, vol.5,no.2, p.62).CORSICA: Grotta di Fontanedu(E.T. Newton, 1921, Proc. ZooI.Soc.London, pt. 2, p. 231).ITALY: Verezzi (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 595). GERMANY: Thiede? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Yolyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). AUSTRIA: Schrei berswand cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). UKRAINE:'Krementsaand'Alimovsk(Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo,vor.3, pp. 43, 58); Kriv chananska Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds CavesUSSR,p. 239). ISRAEL: Hayonim (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 133); 'Ubeidiya (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p.27).10.Carduelis flammea(Linnaeus). SPAIN: Casteldefels (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol.15,p.98).FRANCE: 'Rond-du-Barry? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78,no.I, p. 39); Abfmesdela FageatNoailles,LeLazaretatNice, Deux AvensatValions-Pont-d'Arc, and Combe GrenalatDomme? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 209,pI.17,fig.12).ITALY: Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Stnl.nska skala (Skutil and StehlI'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22).II.Carduelis canaria(Linnaeus). FRANCE: GrotteduLazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. prehist. Monaco,no.11, pp. 62-78); L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 210). SARDINIA: Pietro Tampoia cave on Tavolara Island (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 472). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave? (Tchemov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 1(0).12.Carpodacus erythrinus(Pallas). FRANCE: L'EscaleatSaint-Esteve-Janson and Soulabe atMontseron (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 211). UKRAINE:

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1978BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSILBIRDS209'Chernigovand'Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 49, 58).13. Carpoc/acus rllbicilla(Gl.ldenstadt). GEORGIANSSR:Gvardzilas-Klde near Chiaturi (Burchak-Abramovich, J966, Peschery Gruzii Speleologiskiy Sbornik, vol. 4, pp. 96,108,fig.9).14. Carpoc/acltsmexicanus(Muller). CALIFORNIA: McKittrick(A.H.Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39, no.6,p. 250).NEWMEXICO: Conkling Cavern and Shelter Cave (Howard andA.H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35,no.J,p.16).15. PlJrrhll/a plJrrhll/a(Linnaeus). IRELAND: Edenvale Cave,'NewhallCave, andKeshCave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 404). FRANCE: Balme-les-grottes 1963, C.R.Sommaire Soc. Geol. France, fasc. 2,p.53); Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel (Des brosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, pp. 153, 155); Orgnac-l'Aven, Fonteche vade at Montseron, Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, and'JeanPierre at Saint-Thibaud de-Couz (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64, p. 211). SARDINIA: Monte San Giovanni (Lydekker, 1892, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 472). ITALY: Verezzi (Milne Edwards, J87J, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2,p.595). SWITZERLAND:Grottede Cotencher (Dubois and Stehin, 1932, Mem. Soc. Pal. Suisse, vol. 52, p. J69); Ettingen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom.,p.787). ACSTRlA: Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). GERMAY:Hohlefels beiUlm(Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19,p.303); Schelklingen (Lam brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). HUNGARY: Balla-Hohle (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19,p.276); Oregkohohle bei Bajot (Kormos and Lambrecht, 1914, Barlangkutallls, vol. 2, p.106);Remethehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21,p.90); Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, J915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 481); Otto Herman Cave (Lambrecht, J916, Aquila, vol. 22,p.190); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4, p.206).CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Stranska skala and Katerinska (Skutil and Steh1J'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p.22).16. Coccothrallstes coccothrallstes(Linnaeus). lRELAlD:'ewhall Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoolo gist,ser. 4, vol. J9,no.893,p.404). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,no.893, p. 404); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.787). MAL LORCA:Son Bauza cave (Ballmann and Adrover, 1970, Acta Geol. Hispanica, vol. 5,no.2,p.62). FRATCE:Grotte du Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. prehist. Monaco,no.11, pp. 64-78); Le Morin at Pessac-sur-Dordogne (Chauvire, J965, 89 CongresSoc.Savantes,p.255); Combe Grenal Domme, Grotte de l'Hortus and'Grottede l'Hortus at Valfaunes (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.J, pp. 280, 292, 360,fig.7);LesRomains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, J973, Quartar, vol. 23-24,p.J53); Rond du-Barry at Sinzelles (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no.1,p. 39); Lunel viel, Orgnac l'Aven, L'Arago at Tautavel?, Salpetre de Pompignan,LesBalmes de Villerever sure, CarnpalouatSaintazaire-en-Royans, Jean-PierreatSaint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Grotte de CottieratRetournac, Pech de l'Aze at Carsac Les TaniersdeVergisson, Baume de Gonvillars, and'Baumede Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,no.64,p.211,pI.17,fig.15).SARDINIA: Pietro Tampoia on Tavolar Island (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,p.472,pI.37,fig.7).MALTA: Ghar Dalam cave (Fischer and Stephan, 1974, Zeitschr. geol. Wiss. Berlin, vol. 2, no.4,p. 520). ITALY: GrottesdeMenton, Grotte du PrinceatGrimaldi, Bucca del Tasso, Grotta di Frola, and Caverna delle Arene candida (Lam brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.787). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). HUNGARY:OttoHerman cave (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. J90); Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 48J);'Remetehegy(Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb.Kgl.Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 22, p. 403). POLAND: Mamutowa Cave, 'J6zef6w, and'Niedzwiedz(Bochenski, 1974,.Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 134,201,figs. 84-&5). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber. V Internat. Om. Kongr. Berlin, p. 940); Stranska skala, Holst)1fiskala, and Katerinska (Skutil and StehhK, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6,no. 2-4, p. 22). RUMANIA: Puspokfurdo (Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 29); O-Ruzsin, Sutto, and'Devencse(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787); Istal l6sko (Janossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 213). UKRAINE: Adzhi-koba, SyurenI,'Azil,'Tardenuaz, Kara-Koba, 'Krementsa, 'Alimovsk, and 'Okunevki (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob stanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 27, 31, 34, 36, 43,44, 51, 58, 59); Staruni (Burchak-Abramo vich, 1973, Tezisi Dokladov k IV Vsesouznomu Soveshchaniu po Izucheniu Chetvertichnogo Perioda, p. 82). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, pp. 100, 102); Hayonim Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Sci., vol. 15,p.I33).

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210BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol.23,No.317.Coccothraustes vespertinusCooper. CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Dawson, 1948, Condor, vol. 50, no. 2,p.58).18. Pinicola enucleator(Linnaeus). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim? (.Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-natw., pt.1,vol. 182,no.6-8, p. 212). HUNGARY: Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 481); Ista1l6sko? (.Janossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58,p.213).19. Loxia curvirostraLinnaeus. FRANCE: Massat (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304); GrottedeFontechevadeatMontbron (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 210). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Certovawra(Capek, 1910, Ber.V.Internat. Ornith. Kongr. Berlin,p.940); Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787); Stranska skala (Skutiland Stehh1<, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 19, p. 150); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. .Iahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 481);OttoHerman cave (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 189); Ista1l6sko (.Janossy,1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58,p.213). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.Asso.Internat. Etude Quat., pt.1,pp. 102, 112); Tankov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Prosh logo, vol. 3, p. 30). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria(A.H.Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 181,pI.14,fig.f-g).EWMEXICO: Burnet Cave(c.B.SchultzandE.B.Howard, 1935, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 87, p. 277). ILLINOIS: Meyer Cave? (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleolog. Soc. Bull., vol. 29, p. 130).20. Loxia pityapsittacusBorkhausen. FRANCE: Le Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 211,pI.17,fig.14). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Yolyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786). UKRAINE: "Rasponits (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro dnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3,p.44).21. Montifringilla nivalis(Linnaeus). FRANCE: Massat (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786);Grottedu LazaretatNice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. AJ1throp. Prehist. Monaco, no.1,pp. 64-78);CombeGrenalatDomme (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Quatern., Mem. no.1,p. 360); Grottes inferieures d'Aurensan (Bouchud, 1972, Bull.Asso.Etude Quatern., vol.1,pp. 54, 56); Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel (DesbrosseandMourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 153); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no.1,p. 39;Grottede I'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson?, Abfmes de la FageatNoailles,Grottede Sal petre atPompignan, La Balauziere at Vers, Grotte de SoulabeatMontseron, Les Trois Freres at Montesquieu-Avantes, La ColombiereatNeuville-sur-Ain, Abri Gay at Poncin, Le Blot at Cerzat, Grotte deCottieratRetournac, Baum de Gigny at Gigny-sur-Suran,and"Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.213); Abri La FayeatBruni quel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 426). SWITZERLAND: Thierstein (Lam brecht, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Stranska skala? (.Janossy, 1972,Anthropos, vol. 20, p. 61). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 31).22. Petronia petronia(Linnaeus). FRANCE:Grottedu LazaretatNice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. Prehist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 62,64,72, 78);Grottede I'HortusatValflaunes, and"Grottede I'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no.1,pp. 281, 293, 360, fig. 8); "Rond-du-Barry at Sinzelles (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, 1974, vol. 78, no.1,p.39); Mas Rambault at Frontignan?, L'EscaleatSaint-Esteve-Janson, Abfmes de la Fage at Noailles, Eden RocatVaison-la-Romaine, Grotte TournaIatBize,and"AragoatTautavel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 213). UKRAINE: Syuren Iand"Azil (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 31, 34). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave and Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11,p.1(0); Hayonim Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 133).23. Passer moabiticusTristan. ISRAEL:OummQatafa Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull.Research Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 1(0).24. Passer montanus(Linnaeus). FRANCE: Le LazaretatNice, La Colombiere at Neuville sur-Ain,andGare de CouzeatLalinde? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 212). SWITZERLAND: ErmitageandFelsen near Birseck (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786). Balla (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 283).RUMANIA: Piispokfurdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 30). UKRAINE: Adzhi-

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1978BRODKORB: C.H.-\LOCl'E OFFOSSILB1RDS211Koba, SyurenI, Azil, Tardenuaz, and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 27, 31, 34, 58).25. Passer hispaniolensis(Temminck). SARDIIA: bnlches osseuses? (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 597). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave? (Tchemov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11,p.1(0).26. Passer italiae(Vieillot). ITALY: Bucco della Volpe? (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Tor ino, ser. 2, vol. 38,p.197); Caverna d'Equi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.786).27. Passer domesticus(Linnaeus). IRELAND: Kesh Cave and Edenvale Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,p.404). ENGLAND: Langwith Bassett Cave, Chudleigh Cave, and Ightham fissure (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,no.893, p. 404). FRANCE: Rond-du-Barry at Sinzelles 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78,no.I, p. 39); L'EscaleatSaint Esteve-Janson, Abimes de la Fage at Noailles,LeLazaret at Nice, La Colombiere at Neuville sur-Ain, Combe GrenalatDomme, and Arago at Tautavel 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.212); Gare de Couze? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit.,fasc.2,p. 505). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786). HUGARY:Puskaporos? (Kormos, 1911. Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 19,p.150); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 22, p. 403). UKRAIE:SyurenI, Azil, Fatma-Koba, Novgorod-Seversk, Pere-Voloka, Chernigov, and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 31, 34, 38, 41,45,49,58,59).ILLINOIS: Meyer Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleolog. Soc. Bull.,vol.29,no.4, p.130).AVESINCERTAESEDISI. AlalIClagypSOTIII1l PortisAlauda gypSOrtll1l Portis, 1888, Mem. :\ccad. R.Sci. Torino, ser.2,vol. 38,p.186.fig.4 (holo type from Sinigaglia, skeleton impression, colI. G. Scarabelli-Gommi-Flamini).LOWEllPLIOCENE(Messiniano). ITALY: Sinigaglia. Generic and familial position uncertain.2. Alallda maiorPortis AlmICla maiorPortis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Sci. Torino, ser.2,vol. 38p.190,fig.II (holotype from Gabbro, impression of legs, colI.G.Scarabelli-Gommi-Flamini).LOWEllPLIOCENE(Messiniano).ITALY:Toscana: Gabbro. Generic and familial position uncertain.3.AnasbenedeniSharpeAnascreccoidesVan Beneden, 1871, Bull. Acad.Roy.Belgique, ser. 2, vol. 32,no.11,p.260,figs.3-6 (syntypes left humerus lacking proximal end, right humerus shaft, proximal part of right ulna, distal part of left ulna, and proxjmalpartof tibiotarsus;no iliagnosis, il lustrated only; locality not stated but apparently from mouth of River Rupel).-Dollo, 1909, Ann.N.Y.Acad. Sci., vol.19,no.4,pt.1,p.113 (type locality restricted to Rupel monde, age Rupelian).-Brodkorb, 1962, Auk, vol. 79,no.4,p.706 (left humerus illus trated infig.3 designatedaslectotype; removed from Anatidae and Anseriformes to In certae Sedis).AnasbenedeniSharpe, 1899, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, vol.1,p.217 (new nameforAnascrec caidesVan Beneden, 1871, preoccupied byAnascreccoidesKing, 1828, Zool. Jour., vol.4,no. 13,p.99).-AnasBenediniLambrecht, 1918, Aquila, vol. 24,p.216 (lapsus).UPPEIlOLIGOCENE(Rupelian Sand).BELGIUM:East Flanders: Rupelmonde. ot anseriform.4.AntlwsboniaskiiPycraftAnthusboniaskiiPycraft, 1909, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 368,fig.47 (holotype from Gabbro,

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212BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol.23,No.3plateandcounterplate,with impression of femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, and hallux, Brit. Mus.).LOWERPLIOCENE(Messiniano).ITALY:Toscana: Gabbro,nearLivorno. Needs comparison withAlaudagypsorumPortisandAlaudamaiorPortis.5. Ardea rupeliensisVan BenedenArdea rupeliensisVan Beneden, 1873, Patria Belgica, p. 373. (holotype distalpartof tibiotar sus, Bmssels Mus.?).UPPEROLIGOCENE(Rupelian Sand).BELGIUM:East Flanders: [Rupelmonde?]. Practically a nomen nudum.Theentire referenceisgiven below. "Souscenom, nous designons un oiseaudurupelien dontM.IeprofesseurDewalquenous acommuniqueun tibia bien conserve danssupartie inferieure;cetas indique un oiseau unpeuplus petitqueIebutor."AsVan Benedenhada very poor record in assigning avian fossils to the correct family or order, we have no assurance that thetypeisreferable toBotaurus,or even to the Ardeidae.6.Colinus eatoniShufeldtColinus eatoniShufeldt, 1915 (Feb.), Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci., vol. 19,p.70, pI. 13, fig. 103 (typesshippedfromFortWallace, western Kansas,buthorizon, exact locality, and col lector not stated;complete "Ieff' [i.e., right]carpometacarpusand proximal phalanx of index digit, Yale Peabody Mus., no. 949).LOWERPLIOCENE(Ogallala Formation) or possiblyPLEISTOCENE(loess).KANSAS:nearFortWallace. Shufeldt saidthatthetypeisthoroughly fossilized, nearly white, with small,scatteredspots of reddish staining. Bones fromtheLower Pliocene Ogallala Formation are similarly pre served.TheOgallalaispresent in Wallace County, resting upon Cretaceous rocks (the SmokyHillChalk)andoverlain by Pleistocene loess (Elias, 1931, Univ. Kansas Bull., vol. 32, no.7,Kansas Geol. Surv. Bull., no. 18, pp. 131-180).Thatthis bird was acontemporaryofHesperar nisisinconceivable, and the typecamealmost certainly from the Ogallala or possibly from the loess.Thephotographclearly represents a right carpometacarpus, not a left. Shufeldt often had difficulty in distinguishing rights from lefts. Thisisneitherabobwhitequail, nor a phasianid, nor even a member oftheorder Galli formes.Itbelongs in the passerine family Icteridaeandisclose to and perhaps identical withSturnella.7.CorvusbetfianusKretzoiCorvusbetfianusKretzoi, 1962 (Feb.), Aquila, vol. 67-68, p. 172 (holotype from Betfia 5, distal portion of left carpometacarpus, Mus. Oradea, no. 1899 a/4).MIDDLELOWERPLEISTOCENE(Biharian).RUMANIA:Betfia5.Inadequately described, without measurements or illustration. Mourer-Chauvire (1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,p.237) suggested it may be a synonym ofCorvushungaricus,of which, however,thecarpometacarpusisunknown.8.CygnusbilinicusLaubeCygnusbilinicusLaube, 1909, Lotos, vol. 57,p.159, pI. 1 (holotype from Preschen, impression of radius, ulna, and incomplete carpometacarpus,TeplitzMus.).LOWERMIOCENE(Aquitanian plastic clay).CZECHOSLOVAKIA:Preschen,nearBilin,atfoot ofErzMountains. According toLambrecht(1933, Handb. Palaeorn., pp. 383, 674), it seems tobea bird of prey, not a swan.

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1978BRODKORB: CATALOCUE OFFOSSILBIRDS9. Dakotomis cooperiErickson213Dakotornis eooperiErickson, 1975 (Dec.19),Sci. Publ. Mus. vol. 3, no. I,p.I,figs.1-3 (holotype from \Vannagan Creek, right humerus, Science Mus. of Minnesota, no. P74.24.106).UPPEH PALEOCDIE (Tongue River Formation). NOHTHD.,"KOTA: Billings County: Wanna gan Creek, inNW1/4,Sec. 18, Township141N,Range 102 W). Type,byoriginal designation of genusDakotomisErickson and family Dakotornithidae Erickson (Ioc. cit.). Described as "closely allied to the ibises, yet similarity to a mmlber of diverse groupsisnoted." eeds comparison withProplegadis fisheriHarrison and Walker (1971), whichisof about the same sizeandwith whichitispractically contemporaneous.10.DoliehonyxkruegeriFischerandStephanDoliehonyx kruegeriFischer and Stephan, 1971, Wiss. Zeitschr. Humboldt-Univ. Berlin, Math. Nat.R.,vol. 20, no. 4-5,p.597, pis. 3, 5, 6, figs. 18-21 (holotype from Pio Domingo Cave, right humerus, Univ. Habana, no.Av.877 /67; paratypes prox. end humerus,.iuv.humerus, left ulna, 6 tibiotarsi, right tarsometatarsus, nos.Av.878-887/67).UPPEHPLEISTOCENE(cave deposit).CUBA:ProvoPinar del RIO:PIO Domingo Cave. Thisisalmost certainly the female of one of the two livingCubanspecies ofAgelaius,with which it was not compared.II.Eopteryx mississippiensisO.MeyerEopteryx mississippiensisO.Meyer, 1887, Ber. Senckenberg. Naturg. Ges. Frankfurt am Main for J886,p.14, pI.2,fig.22a-c (holotype from Jackson, fragmentary dorsal vertebra, Senckenbergian Mus.?).UPPEHEOCENEOackson Formation). Jackson.Typeby monotypy of genusEopteryxO.Meyer (Ioc. cit.).12. Falco falconel/usShufeldtFaLcofaLconel/aShufeldt, J915 (Feb.), Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci., vol. 19,p.40, pI. J5, figs.J39-143 (types fromDryCreek?, ungual phalanx,upperpartof"left"[=right] coracoid, distalpartof left humerus, pedal phalanx, and fragment of a condyle of a long bone, "be longing tothesame individual," Yale Peabody Mus., no. 863).MIDDLEEOCENE(Bridger Formation).WYOMING:Uinta County: Dry Creek?Wetmorestated (1936, Proc.U.S.Jat. Mus., vol. 84, no. 3003, pp. 77-78) that thetypematerial included a mammal bone (the last fragment listed above) and representatives ofatleast three orders of birds, none falconiformandnone identifiable.13.FringiLla troehantericaGiebelFringilLa trochantericaGiebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. I, pt. 2,p.15 (type from the Se veckenberg near Quedlingburg, right femur).PLEISTOCENE.GEHMANY:Seveckenberg near Quedlingburg. According toLambrecht(1933, Handb. Palaeoru.,p.644), this represents some living species. Giebelcomparedit with"Fr. 'linaria.14. HirundofossilisGiebelHirundo fossilisGiebel, 1847,Faunader Vorwelt, vol. I, pt. 2, p. 18 (types from the SeveckenbergnearQuedlingburg, 2 distal fragments of radius,upperpartof tarsometatarsus, cora coid, carpometacarpus).PLEISTOCENE.GERMANY:Seveckenberg near Quedlingburg. Giebelcompareditwiththe RecentH.rustica,with whichLambrecht(1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 636) tentatively synonymized it.

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214BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUM15.LaomisedvardsianusMarshVol.23,No.3LoomisedvardsianusMarsh, 1870 (March), Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 49, no. 146,p.206 (holotypefromPembertonMarlCompanyquarry, distal portion of right tibiotarsus, Yale Pea body Mus. no.820).-Shufeldt,1915, Trans.ConnecticutAcad. Arts Sci., vol. 19,p.21,pI.2,fig.10 (typerestudied).-Cracraft,1973, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 151,p.46,fig.20 (type restudied).UPPERCRETACEOUS(lowerpartof Hornerstown Formation, late Maestrichtian age).NEWJERSEY:Burlington County: Birmingham.Typeby monotypy of genusLoomisMarsh (lac. cit.) and family Laornithidae Cracraft (op. cit.,p.44).Marsh described it in the"OrderNatatores" andthoughtit related to the Anatidae. Shu feldt said it was not a swimmer and implied relationship with cranes or other large waders. FollOWingthis lead, Cracrafterecteda new family inthesuborder Ralli. Examination of the published photographs showsthatthe distal end of the external con dyleisunnotched, a condition that eliminates the Ralliformes, Ciconiae, and Phoenicopteri.Anunnotched condyleispresentinthe Pelecaniformes, Ardeae, Anseriformes, Accipitriformes, Galliformes, and Charadriiformes,butthe photographs are inadequate topermitordinal assign ment of the fossil.If1 had to make a guess, it wouldbePelecaniformes.16.Laurillardia longirostrisMilne-EdwardsLourillardia longirostrisMilne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, sig. 47,p.374,pI.161,fig.I (holotype from Montmartre, skeleton impression, Paris Mus.).UPPEREOCENE(Gypse de Montmartre).FRANCE:Paris: Montmartre.Typebyoriginal designation of genusLawillardiuMilne-Edwards. Apparently a member of one ofthehigher orders.17.Lauril!ardia1l1unieriFlotLourillardia IIlrmieri Flat,1891, Mem. Soc. Geol. France, Pateont. Mem., no. 7, text-fig. 3,pI.18,fig.3 (holotype from Montmorency, skeleton impression).UPPEREOCENE(Gypse de Montmartre).FRANCE:Seine-et-Oise: Montmorency.18.Lourillardia parisiensis FlatwurillardiaparisiensisFlat,1891, Mem. Soc. Geol. France, Paleont. Mem., no.7,p.I, text-fig.1,pI. 18,figs.1-2 (type from Montmorency, skeleton impression andcounterplate).UPPEREOCENE(Gypse de Montmartre).FRANCE:Seine-et-Oise: Montmorency. Flot places the genusbetweenthe Turdidae and Sturnidae.19.MacromistanaupusSeeleyMacromis tanal/pus Seeley, 1866, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. 18, p.llO(holotype from Hordwell, proXimal part of right tibiotarsus, Woodwardian Mus.).UPPEREOCENE(Hordwell beds).ENGLAND:Hampshire: Hordwell.Typeof genusMacromisSeeley (loc. cit.). Said tobea struthious bird as large asanemu,butshowing similarities to some waders and gallinaceous birds.20. Marinavis longirostrisHarrison and WalkerMarinavis longirostrisHarrison and Walker, 1977 (Sept.), Tertiary Research Special Paper, no. 3,p.6,fig.1 (holotype from Abbey Wood, fragment of right dentaryandassociated fragmentof left edge of rostrum, Brit. Mus.no.Z4267;paratypeterminal hook of premaxilla, no. A4268; referred left carpometacarpus, no. A4233).LOWEREOCENE(Blackheath beds).ENGLAND:Kent: Abbey Wood.

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1978BRODKORB: C.-\T.\LOCL'EOFFOSSILBIRDS 215 Type species of genus .\lari,wds Harrison and Walker and family Marinavidae Harri son and Walker (Ioc. cit.). Described in order Procellariiformes with similarities to Pelecaniformes. Better materialisneeded for definite assignment to a major taxon. 21. .\lelapleryx bifrons DeVisMelapleryx bifrons DeVis, 1892, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, ser. 2, vol. 6, p.453, pI. 23, fig. 8 (holotype from Queensland, Juvenile tarsometatarsus, Queensland Mus.).UPPERPLEISTOCDIE(Nototherium beds). QEENSLAND.Typebvmonotypy of the genus,\lelapleryxDeVis. Described in the family :\pterygidae, but almost certainly a partly grown emu. 22. .\lioCOT[uS larleli Corvus larleliMilne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol.2,sig. 48,p.381, pIs. 151-152, 153,fig.21(types from Sansan, tarsometatarsus, tibiotarsus, ends of femur, coracoid, scapula, humerus, ulna, carpometacarpus, phalanges,quadrate}.-MiocoraxlarleliLambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p. 636.-Miocorvus lartetiLambrecht, op. cit.,p.1005(in index).UPPERMIOCENE(Sansan limestone, Helvetian).FRANCE:Gers: Sansan. GenerictypeofMiocoraxLambrecht(op. cil., p. 636), preoccupied byMiocoraxLambrecht(p. 291) for a cormorant."Corrected"toMiocorvlIsonp.1005 (in index) and on p.1024(Dmckfehler). Needs restudy.23. ,\lolacilla IWlllala\Iilne-EdwardsMolacil/a IWlllalaMilne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 390,pI.158,figs.7-]];pI.159, figs.10-1I (type from Langy, tibiotarsus, Paris Mus.).LOWER MIOCDIE (Aquatanian).FRANCE:Allier: environs of Langy.24. .\lolacilla lIIaiorMilne-EdwardsMotacil/a maiorMilne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 391,pI.158,figs.1-6;pI.159, figs. 13-14 (types from Langy, tarsometatarsus, tibiotarsus, Paris Mus.).LOWER MIOCEKE (Aquatanian).FRANCE:Allier: Langy.Lambrecht(1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.641) pointedoutthatthe plate showed the hypo tarsus open, unlike the condition in Passeres.25.OnychopleryxsilllpsoniCracraftOnychopteryxsimpsoniCracraft, 197 I (April), Ibis, vol.]]3,no.2,p.230, pI. 9 (holotype from Canadon Hondo, proximal end of righttarsometatarsus, Amer. Mus. at. Hist., no. 3188).LOWEREOCENE(Casamayor Formation).ARGENTINA:Chubut:CanadonHondo near Paso Niemann, south of Rio Chico del Chubut).Typeby original designation of genusOllychopteryxCracraft(p.230)andfamily Ony chopterygidae (p. 229). Described in"order"Opisthocomiformes, to which it seems unrelated.26. Pa{aeollpterodyles iclus(Ameghino)ApterodylesiclusAmeghino, 1901, Anales Soc. Cient. Argentina, vol. 51,p.81(holotype from GolfodeSan .lorge, proximalpartof right humerus, Mus. Argentino Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires,unnumbered).-Simpson,1946, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 87, art. I, pp. 31, 49 (species indeterminate; pathological?).Pa/aeollpterodytes ictllsAmeghino, 1905, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, vol. 13,p.120,pI.3,fig.16(descr.,meas.).-Lambrecht,1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 229 (holotype seems broken, notatrophied).-Brodkorb,1963, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 7, no. 4, p. 236

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216BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUM Vol.23,No.3(as synonym ofPalaeosphenisc/lsgracilis).-Simpson,1972, Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 2488, p. 29 (holotypeisbroken and abraded, not pathological,butisindeterminatebe yond family level).MIOCENE(upperPatagonian).AHGENTINA:Golfo de San Jorge.Typeof genusApterodytesAmeghino, 1901 (preoccupied byApterodytesHermann, 1783).Typeof genusPalaeoapterod'ltesAmeghino, 1905 (lac. cit.). Probably a synonym of an earlier described species of Spheniscidae.27. Palaeolestes gareiDeVisPalaeolestes goreiDeVis, 1911, Ann. Queensland Mus.,no.10,p.15,pI.2, figs. 4-6 (holotype from Yandilla, toe phalanx, Queensland Mus.).UPPEHPLEISTOCENE(Darling Downs Clay).AUSTHALlA:Queensland: Yandilla.Typeby monotypy of genusPalaeolestesDeVis(lac. cit.). Describedasamemberof the Accipitres,butitisdoubtfully avian.28.Palaeospi;:;abellaAllenPalaeospi;:;l/bellaJ.A.Allen, 1878(3May), Bull.U.S.Geol. Geogr. Surv., vol.4,no.2, p. 443,pI.1 (holotype from Florissant, skeleton on plate andcounterplate, now in Mus.Camp.Zool.,HarvardUniv.).-Wetmore,1925, Bull. Mus.Camp.Zool., vol. 67,no.2, text-figs. 1-2,pIs.1-4(type restudied).UPPERMIOCENE(Florissant Lake Beds).COLORADO:Teller County: Florissant.Typebymonotypy of genusPaloeospizaAllen (lac. cit.) and family Palaeospizidae Wet more (op. cit.,p.190). Usuallytreatedasa primitive oscine passerifonn,buteventheordinal assignment may be incorrect.29. Palaeotringo vettiSMarshPoloeotringa vettiSMarsh, 1870 (March), Amer. Jour. Sci., ser.2,vol. 49, no. 146, p. 209 (holotypefrom Arney town, three fragments of distal portion of left tibiotarsus, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia).-Shufeldt, 1915, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci., vol. 19,p.24,pI.8,fig.59 (type restudied).UPPEHCHETACEOUS(Navesink Formation).NEWJERSEY:Burlington County: Arney town. Appears to be indeterminate.30.Pelophiltls radob0'lensisTschudiPelophiltls radoboyensisTschudi, 1839, Mem. Soc. Sci. Neucha.tel, vol.2,art. 3, pp. 22, 47, 84, pI.1,fig. 2 (holotype from Radoboj, impression of legs,K.Hof-Mineralienkabinet,Wien).Fringilla? radobo'lensisH.von Meyer, 1865 (Aug.), Palaeontographica, vol. 14, no. 3,p.125,pI.30, fig. 1 (new name forPelophilus radob0'lensisTschudi).UPPEHMIOCENE(diatomite beds).RUMANIA:Croatia: Radoboj.Thegeneric type,Pelophilusagassi;:;iTschudi,isa large from theUpperMiocene Oeningen chalk of Baden, Germany.Pelophilus radobo'lensiswas also described by Tschudi as a member oftheAnura. MeyerrenameditFringilla? radob0'lensiswhen he transferred it tentatively to Fringillidae. While itisavian,thefamily cannotbedeterminedfrom the very poorfi !,'ure. 31. Piscator tenuirostrisHarrison and WalkerPisco tor tentlirostrisHarrison and Walker, 1976 (Dec.), Zool. Jour. Linn. Soc., vol. 59, p. 328,pI.2, figs. A-D (holotype from HardIe,anteriorendof premaxilla, Brit. Mus. no. AI46).UPPEHEOCENE(Hordwell beds).ENGLAND:Hampshire:Hardie(Hordwell). DescribedinPhalacrocoracidae.

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1978BRODKORB:CATALOCL'EOFFOSSILBIRDS21732.PlenomisSeeleyPlenomisSeeley, 1866, Ann.&Mag. NaL Hist., ser. 3, vol. 18,p.109 (sternalendof right cora coid,Woodwardian Cambridge;no species name included). LOWERTERTIARY.ENGLANO:IsleofWight:Hempstead.33. Si//a."weieri GervaisSiHa? weieri Gervais, 1852, Zoologieetpaleontologiefran<;aise, ed.I,p.228, pI. 50, fig. 2 {holotypefrom rvlontmartre,obverseandreverseskeletonimpression, ParisMus.).-Pa/aegiIha/us weieri Milne-Edwards,1871, Ois. Foss.France,vol. 2,p.378, pI. 161, figs. 2-3(typerestudied).-Pa/aegilha/us(?) eUeieri Lambrecht,1933,Handb.Palaeorn., p.640(placedin Paridae).UPPEREOCENE(GypsedeMontmarte).FRANCE:Paris:Montmartre.Typebymonotypyof genus Pa/aegilha/usMilne-Edwards(Ioc. ciL). Familyuncertain;doesnotbelongin Sittidae.3-1.Sitta senogalliensis Portis Sitta senogalliensis Portis, 1888, R.Accad. Sci. Torino. ser. 2, vol. 38, p.18-1,fig. 3 (type from Sinigaglia,skeletonimpression lacking legsandpelvis).LOWER PUOCE:\!E (Messiniano).ITALY:Sinigaglia.eedsrestudy.35.Tllrdiells temlis Kretzoi TurdiellstenuisKretzoi, 1962 (Feb.), Aquila, vol. 67-68, p. 173(holotypefrom Betfia 5,erodedleftcoracoid,Mus.Oradea,no. 3).UPPERLOWERPLEISTOCENE(Biharian).RUMANIA:Bihar: Betfia 5. Size of T,m/liS eiseiwrIIs, butmoreslender;procoracoidlong and slender,withdoublemedial margin. Species dubia.Typebymonotypyof genus Turdiells Kretzoi.36.Tllre/us bresciensisGiebelTun/lis breseiensisGiebel,]8-17,Faunadel' Vorwelt, vol. I, pt. 2, pp.]3,39(holotypefrom Rizza, humerus).UPPERPLEISTOCENE(bone breccia). SARDI:,
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218BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMPLUMAEVol. 23,No.3Threegeneric andsixspecific names have been based on feather impres sions, none identifiableatthose levels.1.Archaeopteryx lithographica MeyerArchaeopteryx lithographica Hermann von Meyer,]86](after]] Oct., before 9 Nov.), Neues Jahrb. Geognos., Geol., Petref.-Kunde, Jahrg. 1861, no.5,p. 679 (holotype from Solen hofen [now Solnhofen], obverse of left remex, nowinGeol.-Pal. Abt., Mus.f.'aturkunde, Berlin; reverse nowinPal. Staatssammlung, Munchen; no descr.butbased on short descr.andmeas.inMeyer, after 30 Sept. 1861, op. cit.,p.561).-Meyer,1862, Palaeon tographica,vol.10, pt. I, p. 53,pI.8,fig.3 (descr. holotypefeather).-Lambrecht,] 933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.80,fig.29 (reverse of holotype).-Ostrom, 1970, Science, vol. 170,p.537 (holotype said to be probably not identifiableatany taxonomic level).Archeopteryx[sic]lithographicaOwen, 1864, Philos. Trans.Roy.Soc. London,p.33 (holotype said tobenot specifically identifiable).UPPERJURASSIC(middle Kimmeridgian, Solnhofen limestone).BAVARIA:Solnhofen (exact locality unknown).Typeby monotypy of the nominal genusArchaeopteryxMeyer (Ioc. cit.), the nominal family Archaeopterygidae Huxley (1872) and the nominal order Archaeopterygiformes Fl.r bringer (1888). Transferred fromPart1 of the Catalogue. The holotype and only specimenismuch smaller than theotherknown Jurassic remiges.2.Fontinalis pristinaLesquereuxFontinalis pristi,wLesquereux, 1883, Rept.U.S.Geol. Surv. Terr.,vol.8, p. 135,pI.21,fig.9 (holotype from Florissant, "moss,"U.S.Nat. Mus.).-Knowlton, 19]6, Proc.U.S.Nat. Mus., vol.5],p.245 (typeisa feather fragment, not a moss).-Wetmore, ]925, Bull. Mus. Compo Zool., vol. 67, no.2,p.]84(Aves incertae sedis).MIDDLEOLIGOCENE(Florissant lake beds).COLORADO:Teller County: Florissant.Typeby monotyp)' of the nominal genusFonti,wlisLesquereux.3.Omitholithes bosniaskiiPortisOmitholithes bosniaskiiPortis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Torino, ser.2,vol. 38,p.]89,figs.9-10(syntypes from Ancona, 2 feathersincoli. Cav. Sigismondo de Bosniaski; 1 un figured featherinMuseo di Pisa).LOWERPLIOCENE(Messiniano). ITALY: ProvoLivorno: Ancona.4.Omitholithes [auiasiZignoOmitholithes [auias;Zigno [MS.], Omboni, 1885, AttiR.1st.Veneto Sci. Lett. Arti,ser.6,vol.3, p. 772,pI.12,figs.1-3(syntypes from Vestena Nuova, 2 feathers, Paris Mus.).MIDDLEEOCENE(Lutetian).ITALY:Verona: Monte Bolca: Vestena Nuova.Omitholitheswas proposedasa French vernacular by Gervaisinhis thesis (1844, Re marques sur les Oiseaux Fossiles, pp. 5-7etseq.) for all fossil remains of birds, whether of bones (for which heerectedthe form genusOsteomisto include those not specifically identifiable), footprints (for which he adopted Hitchcock's form genusOmithichnites),feathers, or eggs.Omitholithesisapparentlya translation ofOmitholithusLinnaeus (1768, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 3, p. 157), used in the same sense, although Gervais fails to cite Linnaeus.TheItalian paleontologists Zigno, Omboni, and Portis later usedOmitholithesexclusively for fossil feathers.AsIhavebeen unable to find an earlier use of this nameasa form genus, I hereby designate0.[auiasiZignoastypeof the form genusOmitholithesZigno (in Omboni, 1885).

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1978 BRODKORB: C\T.\LOClTE OFFOSSIL BIRDS5. Ornitholithes gabbrensisPortis 219 OmitholithesgabbrensisPortis, 1888, "Iem. Accad. R.Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 192, figs. 13-17 (syntypes from Gabbro, 5 feathersincoil. Sigismondo de Boniaski; an additional feather said tobein Museo Geologico di Bologna onauthorityof Capellini).LOWERPLIOCENE(Messiniano).ITALY:Livomo: Gabbro.6.OmitholithesprocacciniiPortisOmitholi/hesprocacciniiPortis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 188, figs. 5-8 (holotype from San Angelo, feather in colI. Prof. Scarabelli, Bologna).LOWERPLIOCENE(Messiniano).ITALY:Sinigaglia: San Angelo.7.Ornitholithes tenllipennisZignoOmitholithestenuipennisZigno [MS.], Omboni, 1885, AttiR.1st.Veneto Sci. Lett. Arti, ser. 6, vol. 3, p. 772, pI. 13, figs. -1-7 (syntypes from Monte Bolca, 2 feathersincoIl. AchilleDeZigno; 1 feather in Geol. Coil., Univ. Padova).MIDDLEEOCENE(Lutetian).ITALY:Verona:MonteBolca.PUTAMINAOVORUMTwogenericand10 speCific names of birds have been proposed on the basis of egg shellsortheir fragments, all ofratitesize.Inthe present stage ofourknowledge itisvery doubtful that assignment finerthanfamily can bemadein the absence of association with identifiable osteological remains.1.AepyornisgrandidieriRowleyAepyornisgrandidieriRowley, 1868 (Apr.), Proc. Zool. Soc. for 1867, pt. 3, p. 892 (holotype fromCapeSte. Marie, egg shell fragment, coli. Alfred Grandidier).QUATEHNAIW.MADAGASCAH:CapeSainte Marie. 2. Psa/ll/llornis lybicIIs MoltoniPsammornislybicusMoltoni, 1928, Ann. Museo Civico Storia NaturaleGiacomoDoria, vol. 52, p. 399, fig. (not seen by me,orthographyfromLambrecht;holotype from Giarabub, egg shell fragment, Mus. Civico Giacomo Doria, Genoa, no. MSNG 25172).PsammornislibycusSauer, 1969, Bonner ZooI.Beitrage, vol. 20, no. 1-3, p. 293,figs.6-8 (not separable fromStTU/hio).CENOZOIC(sand dune).LIBYA:Giarabub.3.Psammomisro/hschildiAndrewsPsamnwrnis rothschildiAndrews, 1911, Ver. 5Internat.Om.Kongr. Berlin, 1910, p. 169 (syn types from east of Touggourt, egg shell fragments, Brit. Mus. no. A 1334,andTringMus.).-Sauer,1969, op. cit., p. 292,figs.1-5 (not separable fromS/ru/hio).CENOZOIC(sand dune).ALGEHIA:Touggourt.Typebymonotypyofthenominal genusPsammomisAndrews.4. S/TU/hio anderssoniLowe S/TU/hio anderssoniLowe, 1931 (Oct.), Palaeontologia Sinica, ser C. vol. 6, fasc. 4, p. 26, text-

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220BULLETINFLORIDASTATEMUSEUMVol.23,No.3fig. 2 (syntypes from banksofHwangHo,completeegg shell, Brit. Mus. no. A.1308, and 2completeegg shells inTringMus.).PLEISTOCENE(loess).CHINA:Honanprovince: banks ofHwangHoatWuan,Ho-Yin Hsien, Hsin-An-Hsien,andMien-Chih-Hsien. Shansi province: P'ing-Lu-Hsien (Uppsala Mu seum).5.Struthio indicus Bidwell Struthio indicus Bidwell, 1904, Ibis, ser.9,vol. 4, p. 760, fig. 7 (syntypes from Nullas, 3eggshell fragments in Brit. Mus., 2 inTringMus., 1 inCalcuttaMus.).LOWEnPLIOCENE?(Siwalik series).INDIA:UttarPradesh: Nullas (on Kain River, SW of Allahabad).6.Struthio mongolicus Lowe Struthio mongolicus Lowe, 1931 (Oct.), Palaeontologia Sinica, ser. C, vol. 6, fasc.4,p. 34, pI. 4, fig. 5 (syntypes in Uppsala Mus., 15eggshell fragments fromErtemte,25 fragments from OlanChorea,2 fragments from Doshen,and1 fragment from Tiel-gol-Tabool; figured fragmentisfrom Olan Chorea).LOWEnPLIOCENE(Ertemtestage).MONGOLIA:Olan Chorea,Ertemte,Doshen,andTiel gol-Tabool.7.Struthio os/wnoi Sauer Struthio oshonoi Sauer, 1966, Cimebasia, no. 14, p. 18, figs. 2-15 (holotype from Beisebvlakte, egg shell fragment,StateMuseum Windhoek, no.PA15340; 82 referred fragments).PLIOCENEonPLEISTOCENE?(wellcoreatdepthof 114 feet). (formerlySOUTHWESTAFHlCA):Etosha Pan: Beisebvlakte.8.Struthiolithlls odzolycensis Roshin Struthiolithlls od;;alycensis Roshin, 1962,TrudyOdesskogo um-ta im.1.1.Mechnikova, vol. 152, ser. geol.-geog. Nauk, no. 8 (holotype from Buldyka,entireegg shell; reference fromGanyaandKurochkin, 1967, Mesto iZnachenieIskopaemykh Mlekopitayushikh Mol davii v Kainozoe SSSR, p. 106).LOWEnPLIOCENE.UKRAINE:village of Buldyka (near Odessa).9.Struthiolithlls oIexe;evi Roshin Struthiolithlls olexe;evi Roshin, 1962,TrudyOdesskogo Mechnikova, vol. 152, no. 8 (holotype from Buldyka,entireegg shell; reference fromGanyaand Kurochkin,lococit.).LOWEnPLIOCENE.UKRAINE:village of Buldyka (near Odessa).10.Struthiolit/lIls chersonensis Brandt Struthiolit/llls chersonensis Alexander von Brandt, 1873, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, vol. 18, p. 158 (holotype from near Malinkova, egg shell fragments, presentwhereaboutsunknown).-Lambrecht,1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 104 (history ofholotype).-BurchakAbramovichandVekua, 1971, Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, vol. 16, no.1,p. 22 (age uncertain).LOWEllPLIOCENE?UKRAINE:Kherson province:nearvillage of Malinkova.Typeof genus Struthiolithus Brandt, by monotypy.VESTIGIAAVIUMThis section includestwogenericandsix specific names based on fossil footprintsthatareapparentlytraces of birds ofCretaceousorTertiaryage.It

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1978BRODKORB: C.-\T.-\LOCLTE OF FOSSIL BIRDS ZZI doesnotinclude the numerous TriassicandJurassic"ornithichnites"originallythoughttohavebeenmadebybirdsbutnow known tobeofamphibianorrep tilian origin. Naming footprints has muddied the taxonomicliteraturebadly.1.Anlarctichnlls ftlenza{idae Coacevich and Lamperein Antarcticlll1t1s ftlen::.alidae CoacevichandLamperein, 1970, Inst. Antartico ChilenoSer. Cient., vol. I, no. I,p.68, text-fig. 6, pis.2-3(holotype from Peninsula Fildes, 3 imprints of a pair of tracks ofbothfeet, Inst. Antart. Chileno, no. IRJ8;3 para types and 7othertrack ways).OLIGOCENEorMIOCENE(Unit 4 interbeddedinvolcanic tuff with Nothofagtlsandotherplants).SOUTHSHETLANDARCHIPELAGO:King George Island: 1200 meters south of Base Presi dente Frei.Typebyoriginal designation of the nominal genus Anlarctich,llIs CoacevichandLam perein (p. 66). Described in the family Rallidae.2.19nolomis mcconnelli Mehl 19notornis mcconnelli Mehl,1931(May), Amer. .Jour. Sci., ser.5,vol. 21,no.125,p.494,fig.1 (holotype fromnearGolden, trackway of 3 leftand3 right footprints, Univ. Colorado Mus., Boulder, no. 17614).UPPERCHETACEOUS(Dakota Sandstone,Cenomanianage).COLORADO;Jefferson County: 11/2miles northwest of Golden.Typeby original designation ofthenominal genus 19notomis Mehl (p. 443). Not certainlyavian.3.Omilhichnites argenterae Portis Omitichnites [sic] argenlerae Portis, 1879, AttiR.Accad. Sci. Torino, vol.15,p. 221,pI.15(holotypefrom Argentera, track, Istituto GeologicodiBologna).UPPEHEOCENE(Liguriano).ITALY:Piemonte: Argentera. Portis consistently misspelled Omithichnites and did not intend to propose a new genus.4.Omithichnites tatlrintls Portis "Ornitichniti diVerma(collinadiTorino)" Portis, 1879, AttiR.Accad. Sci. Torino, vol. 15,p.381 (descr.birdtracks). Ornitichnites [sic] tatlrintls Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad.R.Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p.201(holotypefrom Verma,butthe nameisbased on the tracks described in 1879).UPPEREOCENE(Liguriano).ITALY:Piemonte:VermaSavoia on Collina di Torino.5.Omithoidichnites badensis Bahm Ornithoidichnites badensis Bahm, 1896,FreiburgerUniversitiits-Festprogramm zum seibzigstenGeburtstagseiner Kaniglichen Hoheit des Grossherzogs Friedrich, p. 229,fig.(type from Bellingen, 10 3-toed tracks, Mus. Badischen Geologischen Landesanstalt).UPPEROLIGOCENE(Cyrene marl,Chattianage).GERMANY:Baden-Wurttemberg: Kreiss Larrach: Bellingen.6.Unniornis abeliLambrechtUrnliornis abeli Lambrecht, 1938, Palaeobiologica, vol. 6, pt. 2,p.242, pI. 19 (holotype from Jebel Hamrin, 3 footprints).PLIOCENE(upperlevel of lower Fars beds).IRAN:Jebel Hamrin.

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222BULLETIN FLORIDA STATEMUSEUMNOMIANUDAVol.23,No.31.Anas arcensisKretzoi, 1962, Aquila, vol. 67-68,p.170 (hill on Royal Palace grounds, Budapest, Hungary).2.Anas creccaMilne-Edwards, 1871, Oiseaux Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 573 (Aquitanian, Lower Miocene, Langy, France).3.AnasmacropteraMilne-Edwards, 1871, op. cit., p. 573 (Aquitanian, Langy, France).4.Anser brumeliMilne-Edwards, 1871, op.cit., p. 585 (Helvetian, Middle Miocene, Faluns de Suevres, France).5.Anser eldaricusBurchak-AbramovichandGadzier, in AnslanovaandBurchak-Abram ovich, 1968 (30 July), Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, vol. 13, no. 14, pp. 326, 335(UpperSar matian, Lower PlioceneHipparionfauna, Eldar, GeorgianSSR).6.Archaeopteryx vicensisAnonymous, in Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.80 (Vicensa, Italy). A pterosaur, fideOttoKleinschmidt.7. Arclea effasaLepsius, 1887, Geologie von Deutschland,p.623 (Lower Miocene, Weisenau, Germany).8.ArdeafomwsaMilne-Edwards, op. cit.,p.572 (Aquitanian, Langy, France).9. Arclea talipesLepsius, 1887, Geologie von Deutschland,p.623 (Lower Miocene, Weisenau, Germany).10.Argala arvemensisMilne-Edwards, 1871, op.cit.,p.572 (Aquitanian, Langy, France).11.Biziura latouriForbes, 1891, Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 24,p.188 (Quaternary, New Zealand, Brit. Mus.). A synonym of RecentBiziura lobata(Shaw) fide HarrisonandWalker(1970, Bull. Brit.Om.Club,vol. 90, no. I, pp. 6-10,pI.I).12.Carbo 'risgoviensisOskar Fraas, in Engel, 1908, Geologischen Handweiser durch Wiirttemberg, ed. 3,p.567 (Upper Miocene Ries chalk, the Spitzberg, Germany, Stuttgart Mus.).13.Gal/us steinheilllensisTheodorFraas, in Engel, 1908, op.cit.,p.567(UpperMio cene, Steinheim, Germany, Stuttgart Mus.).14.Gypaetus osselicusBurchak-Abramovich, 1973, Theses of Reports presented toIVAll-Union Conference ofQuaternaryPeriod, p. 82 (paleolithic, GeorgianSSR).15.Himanlopus brevipesMilne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2,p.572 (Aqui tanian, Langy, France).16. Osteomis sc%pacinusGervais, 5 Aug. 1844, Remarques sur les Oiseaux Fossiles,p.38, cf. alsop.12(Cretaceous [i.e. Oligocene], Glaris canton, Switzerland, skeleton of passerine bird size of a lark; no descr., based on report by Meyer, 1839, Jahrb.f.Min., pp. 684-685, which also has no descr.). Later calledProtomis glamiensisMeyer, also a nomen nudum.17.Otis agilis Milne-Edwards, 1871, op. cit.,p.572 (Aquitanian, Langy, France).18.PalaeocicomiaRomer, 1966, Vert. Paleontology, ed. 3, p. 376.Anapparentlapsus forl'alaeociconiaMoreno and Mercerat.19.Paleorlyx mediaMilne-Edwards, 1871, op. cit.,p.571(Aquitanian, Langy, France).20. Palaetus rapaxMilne-Edwards, 1871, op. cit., p. 571 (Aquitanian, Langy, France).Thegenericnameisalso a nomen nudum. 21.Parapavo oklahomensisStovallandSandoz, 1936, Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci., vol. 16, p. 77 (Chicakasha, Oklahoma, horizon not indicated, left tarsometatarsus withcompletespur core, Univ. Okla. Mus. Paleo. no. 4500). Abstract only, no description.22. Phalacrocorax maiorForbes, 1892, Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 24,p.189 (Pleis tocene, New Zealand).23. Phasianus nichetiGaillard, in Bastin, Apr. 1933, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Ardennes, vol. 28, no. 30, p. 52 (Pleistocene,Grottede NichetatFromelennes. Ardennes, France).24. Protomis glamiensisMeyer, 1844, Jahrb.f.Min.,p.338 (Cretaceous [Oligocene], Glaris, Switzerland).Laterdescribed asProtomis glaronensisMeyer.25. TilanornisRomer, 1966, Vert. Paleontology, ed. 3, p. 376. Apparent lapsus forTilanisBrodkorb.26. TomodusRomer, 1966, Vert. Paleontology, ed. 3, p. 376. PreoccupiedbyTomodusTrautschold, 1879, andbyTonwdusDavis, 1883.Anapparentlapsus forTolmodusAmeghino.

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1978 BRODKORB:C:\T:\LOCL'E OFFOSSIL BIHDSlaMINAONAVIM:223This sectionenumeratestaxa described in Avesbutbelonging elsewhere.Itisa witches'brewwhose ingredients include a catfish skull, some moss, bones of flying dragons, a wooden fetish, the snout of a crocodile, a rat's foot, the Leviathan'shipbone, toe nails of ananteater,dinosaur traces, bits oftheLoch Ness monster, vestiges oftheFlood,andotherscarcecommodities. I have included names founded onthe"birdtracks" described byEdwardHitchcockunderthetermsOmithichnitesandOrnithoidichnitesas forthemostparttheywere based on describedandfigured specimens. Many authors have refused toaccepttheseandtheir binomials as genericandspecific terms because hispracticeofrepeatedlychanging names wassocapricious.Fortunately for avian paleontology all the tracksnamedbyHitchcock are from de positsthatlongantedatethe origin of birds.1.Alabal1lomis giganteaAbel, 1906 (Aug. I), Centralblattf.Min. Ceol. Pal.,no.15,p.458,figs.3-4 (Upper Eocene Jackson Formation, Choctaw County, Alabama,U.S.Nat. Mus.).Typeby monotypy of the genusAlabal1lomisAbel. Describedasthe coracoid of a giant pen guin, itisthepelVisofBasilosaliTlIS cetoides(Owen), a zeuglodon, Cetacea, Basilosauridae (see Lucas, 1900, Proc..S.Nat. Mus., vol. 23,p.327, pis. 5-7; Richmond, 1917, op. cit., vol. 53, p.575).2.AqllilaantiqllaShufeldt, 1913(4Aug.), Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 32, art.16,p.297,pI.55,fig.26 (holotype from Church Buttes, Wyoming, Eocene Bridger Fomlation, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. no. 511H, claw core).Typeof genus ,\finerca Shufeldt, 1915, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci., vol.19,p.42,pI.15,figs.131-136, 148-152a-b, 154a-i. Shufeldt described itasan eagle, then transferred it to the owls, but Wetmore (1933, Amer.Mus.'ovitates, no. 680,p.I) showed it to be from anedentatemammal, probably of the same speciesasAqllila ferox. 3. Aqllila feroxShufeldt, 1913, op. cit.,p.297 (holotype from Henrys Fork, Wyoming, Lower Eocene Bridger Formation, claw core and median phalanx, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., no. 5163). Shufeldt also described thisasbelonging to an eagle and then placed itinhis supposed genus of owls, Minerca, but itisprobably from the same species ofedentatemammalasAqllila antiqlla(see Wetmore,lococit.).4.BradycnemedraclilaeHarrison and Walker, Aug. 1975, Palaeontology, vol.18,p. 565, text-fig. Ie,pI.65,figs.1-5(holotype from Szentpeterfalva, Hatszeg, Transylvania, Romania, Upper Cretaceous, Maestrichtian, distalendof right tibiotarsus, Brit. Mus.no.A 1588).Typeby original designation of genusBradycnellleHarrison and Walker (p. 565)andfamily Bradycnemi dae HarrisonandWalker (p. 564). Describedinorder Strigiformes. The holotype had been doubtfully referred toElopteryx nopcsaiby Andrews (1913, Ceol. Mag., n.s., decade 5, vol.10,no. 5,p.195),butit almost certainly represents a theropod dinosaur.5. Blickiandillln diltwii C.D.E. Koenig, "1825" =1838, leones Fossiles Sectiles, Cen turia Prima, fig.91(Isle of Sheppey, Kent, England, London Clay, Upper Paleocene, Brit. Mus.). Type by monotypy of genusBlickiandil/Ill.Originally describedasfrom aweb-footedwaterbird, itisa skull of the oldest known catfish according toA.S.Woodward (1932, Text-book of Palaeontology, 2nd English ed. of Zittel, p. 158).6.Caenagnathl/s collinsiR.M.Sternberg, Jan. 1940, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 14, no. I, p. 81,figs.1-5(holotype lower jaw from southeast of mouth of Sand Creek, Steveville area, south-central Alberta, Canada, Pale beds of Belly River series, Upper Cretaceous, Campanian age, Ceol. Surv. Canada no. 8776).Typeby monotypy of genusCaenagnathl/s,family Caenag nathidae,andorder Caenagnathiformes (Ioc. cit.).Chaenagnathl/sW.K.Cregory (1951, Evolu tion Emerging, vol. I,p.322), andCaenognathllSand Caenognathidae (T. E. White, 1973,Annals Carnegie Mus., vol. 44, no.9)are misspellings. A coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur nearOViraptorinfamily Ornithomimidae (see Brodkorb, 1976, Smithsonian Contr. Paleobiology, no. 27,p.67).

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224BULLETINFLOHIDASTATE MUSEUMVol. 23,No.37.Caellagllathlls stembergiCraeraft, Sept. 1971, Jour. Paleontology vol. 45, no.2,p.806,fig.2 (holotype posterior end of right mandibular ramus, Steveville loeality, Alberta, Upper Cretaeeous, Nat. Mus. Canada no. 2690). Somewhat smaller thanC.collillSi. 8. Cimoliomis diol1ledellsOwen, 1846 (preface dated Feb.), Hist. Brit. Foss. Mam.&Birds, p. 545,figs.230-231 (Cretaceous Wealden Formation, Neocomian age, near Maidstone, England, distalendof tibia, shaft of wing bone).Typeby monotypy ofCimoliomisOwen. A pterosaur, possibly synonymous withOmithocheirusSeeley, 1866, over which it has priority.9. Cretomis hlavaci Anton Fritseh, 1881, SitZllngsber. B6hm. Ces. Wiss. for 1880,p.275 (Upper Cretaceous bird wing bones,Bohemia).-CretomishlavatsehiA.S.Woodward, 1932, Text-Book Palaeontology, 2nd English ed. of Zittel, vol.2,p.423 (Pterosauria, Ornitho chei ridae).10. Diatryl1la e) filiferaCockerell, 1923 (16 \<\arch), Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 62,p.4,fig.IB-C (Eoeene, above Seller's ranch, Roan Creek, western Colorado, 2 slabs with supposed feather impressions). Moss filaments, not feathers (W.N.Edwards, 7 July 1923, Nature, vol. 112, p.9).II.Dromaells(?)sivalellsisLydekker, 1879, Reeords Geol. Surv. India,vol.12,pt. I,p.53.-Lydekker,1884, Palaeontologia Indiea, ser.10,vol. 3, pt.4,p.145,figs.2, 4-6 (Plioeene, western Punjab, India, phalanges I and 2 of 4th toe).-Lydekker, 1886, op. cit., preface,p.xxiv ("the described on pp. 145-6...really belong to an ungulate mammal allied to Hippopotamlls ").12.GobipteryxrninlltaElzanowski, 1974, Palaeontologia Poloniea, p.104, text-figs. 1-2a, pis. 32-33 (holotype from Khulsan, Nemegt basin, Mongolia, Upper Cretaeeous Barum Goyot Formation, Campanian age, badly crushed mandible and skull lading oceipital region, Palaeo zool. Inst. Polish Acad. Sei. Warsaw, no. MgR-1I12).-Elzanowski, 4 Nov. 1976, Nature, vol. 264,p.51,figs.1-2 (another erushed skull deser.). Typeby original designation of genus Gobipteryx, family Gobipterygidae,andorder Gobipterygiformes (all onp.104),insuperorder Palaeogna thae. I believe thisisa small dinosaur.Thequadrateistotally unlike that of any bird.13.GryplwsalltiqllitatisGervais, 1844(5Apr.), Remarques sur les Oiseaux Fossiles (These de Geologie),p.30 (ile de Laehow and coasts of Bering Sea;"appartientau groupe des Vautours...mais nous ignorons ses caracleres;" nodescr.).-Gryp/wsalltiqllitalis[sic] Lam brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 62. Based on Ami Boue, 1837, Guide du geologue voyageur, vol.2,p.256 (not seen by me),butthis apparently refers to the woolly rhinoceros,Coelodollta alltiqllitatis. 14. J-1eptasteomis alldrewsiHarrison and Walker, Aug. 1975, Palaeontoloh'Y, vol.18,p. 566, text-fig. I C,pI.65,figs.6-7;pI.66,figs.1-7(Szentpeterfalva, Hatszeg, Transylvania,Romania, Upper Cretaceous, Maestriehtian age, holotype distal end left tibiotarsus, Brit. Mus.no.A 4359;paratypedist.endleft tibiotarsus, no. A 1528).Typeby original designation of genusJ-1eptasteomis(p. 566). Describedinorder Strigifonnes, family Bradycnemidae, but likeBrady ellemeit tooisalmost certainly a theropod dinosaur andisdefinitely not avian.15. J-1ypomithes ;lIrassicliJaekel, 1929, Pal. Zeitsehrift, vol.II,p.211,fig.20 (tracks from Upper Jurassic Solnhofen limestone, Bavaria).Typeby monotypy of genusJ-1ypomithesJaekel. Aecording to Abel (1930, Palaeobiologica, vol. 3, p. 372) itisidentical withKOllphicllllill11l litho graphiellll1 Oppel, the track of a coelurosaurian dinosaur of the family Comsothgnathidae.16. /-/ypselornis sioalellsisLydekker, 1891, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus.,p.354 (Upper Plio eene, Siwalik Hills, India, phalanx 2 or right pedal digit III, Brit.Mus.no. 39733). See also Lydekker, 1884, Palaeontologia Indica, ser. 10, vol. 3, pt.4,p.146,pI.4,fig.8.Typeby mono typy of genusHypselamisLydekker, deseribedinfamily Casuariidae. Aceording to Lowe (1929, Ibis, ser.12,vol. 5, no.4,p. 571,pI.18,fig.3)itisa erocodile.17. Laopteryx priscusMarsh, Apr. 1891, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. 21,p.341 (quarry9,Como Bluff, Albany County, Wyoming, Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, holotype posterior part of skull, Yale Peabody Mus.).-Simpson, 1926, op. eit., ser. 5, vol.12,p.3 (type restudied; Marsh's descr. inaccurate; may be pterosaur rather thanbird).-LaopteryxpriscaBrodkorb, 1971, Avian Biology, vol. I, p. 29 (gender corrected; angle between basitemporal and oceiput re sembles pterosaur not bird). Almost eertainly a pterosaur.18.Laruspriseus Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. I,p.31(the Seveekenberg near Quedlingburg, Germany, diluvium, holotype ankle bone). Itisthe metatarsus of the living jerboa,Alaetaga ;acuills,Dipodidae, Rodentia ( ehring, 1880, Zeitschr. aturwiss., vol. 53, p. 524).

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I9i8BRODKORB: C.UALOCL'E OFFOSSIL BIRDS 225 19. Leglwlia gigantea Schlegel, 1858, Verslag. Mededeel. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, vol.7,p. 142 (Mauritius;typea wooden model, Leiden Mus., based on the account of Le Geant (Francois Leguat, l708, Voyage et aventures en deux isles desertes des Indes Orientales, p. 171).Typeby monotypy of Legualia Schlegel. For discussion see Stresemann (1923, Journ.f.Orn., vol. 71, pp. 158-160; 451-456; 511-512), Lambrecht (1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,p.479), and Green way (1958, Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World,p.109).Thebirdisfictitious andsoap parentlyisLeguat.Thebookisanantecedentof Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe (l719). 20. LitllOsteomis Gervais, 5 Aug. 1844, Remarques sur les Fossiles,p.7 note (preferablealternateto Osteomis, but considered too long a word). In the event that Lithosteomis be considered validly proposed, I designate as its tvpe species Osteomis ardeacells Gervais, whichislikewise thetypeof Osteomis. 21. Omithichnites caudatus Jaekel, 1929, Pal. Zeitschr., vol.II,p.211, fig. 20 (tracks from Solnhofen limestone,UpperJurassic, Bavaria. According to Abel (1930, Palaeobiologica, vol. 3, p. 372) thisisa synonym ofKOllpiclll1iu1l1lilhographicum Oppel, 1862, a coelurosaurian dinosaur of the family Compsothgnathidae. 22. Omithichnites crass usE.Hitchcock. Listed without description bv Giebel (1847,FaunaderVorwelt, vol.1,pt.2,p.36in text), but I have been unable to trace its place of publi cation by Hitchcock.ItisnotinHay's Catalogues. 23. Omilhichnites CIllbertsonii A.T.King, Dec. 1844 (1845), Proc. Acad. l\at. Sci. Phila delphia, vol. 2,p.176, fig. 2("bird"tracks, Carboniferous, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania). Amphibia? 24. Omilhichnites dicersllsE.Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 316, 319 (new Red Sandstone,UpperTriassic, Horse Race, Massachusetts, tracks). Reptilia. 25. Omithichnites dicersusclawsE.Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 317, 320,fig.(bird tracks,UpperTriassic Newark sandstone, Montague and Horse RaceinGill, prob ably alsoNorthamptonandSouth Hadley canal). Reptilia. 26. Omithichniles diuersus plallJdacllJ/usE.Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp.317,321,fig.(Triassic bird tracks, Horse RaceinGill, Mass.). Along withO.dicersus it was later named Sieropoides ele/!,ans E.Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Assn. Amer. Geol ogists&'aturalists,p.2-1).Reptilia. 27. Omithichnites fu/icoidesE.Hitchcock, 1843, Reports 1st, 2d,3dMeetingsAssn.Amer. Geol.&Nat.,p.258,pI.11,fig.3 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts). Later renamed Plesior nis minorE.Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Amer.Assn.Geol. Nat.,p.23).O.fllli coidesistype of the genus Deanea Reichenbach (1852, Avium System a Naturale,p.xxii).Rep tilia. 28. Omithichniles gallillll/oidesA.T. King, 1845, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia for Dec. 1844, vol. 2,p.l76,fig.1 (Carboniferous bird track, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania). Amphibia? 29. Omilhichniles /!,iganteus E.Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29,p.316, fig. (Triassic tracks, Northampton, Mass., Amherst Mus.).Itisthetype by elimination of Omithich nites Hitchcock, 1836 (Bonaparte, 1856,C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 43, no. 18,p.840).Itisthe type of EubronlesE.Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat.,p.23)designated by Hay (1902, Bull..S.Geol. Surv., no. 179, p. 543).Itisthetypeby monotypy of Bellona Reichenbach (1852, Avium Systema Naturale,p.xxx). Reptilia. 30. Omithichnites ingens E.Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 316, 319,fig.(Triassic tracks, Horse Race in Gill, Mass.). Later called Steropoides ingens and Silliman ius adamsanusE.Hitchcock (1845, Proc.6thAnn. Meeting Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat.,p.24). Reptilia. 31. Omithichnites in/!,ens minorE.Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 316, 319,fig.(Triassic tracks, Horse Race in Gill, Mass.).-OrnithicJlI1ites robustusE.Hitchcock, 1837, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. I, vol. 32, p. 175 (new name for above).Latercalled Ar/!,oides robustus. Reptilia. 32. Ornithichnites1I1inimusE.Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 317, 325,fig.9 (Triassic tracks, Horse Race in Gill, Mass.). Renamed Ornithoidichnites isodactlJlusE.Hitchcock (1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2,p.496,pI.45, figs. 38-39). Hay (1902, Bull.U.S.Geol. Surv., no. l79,p.540) deSignatedE.mini1l1usas generictypeof ArgoidesE.Hitchcock, 1845. Reptilia. 33. Omilhichnitesminuscu/usHitchcock, in Giebel, 1847,FaunaderVorwelt, vol.1,

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226BULLETINFLORIDASTATE MUSEUMVol.23,No.3pt.2,p.36 (bird tracks, no descr.). I have been unable to trace this name. Bronto=Ol/l)] lIlinllScu/llm Hitchcock, 1858 (Ichnology of New England,p.65,pI.11,fig.1;pI.40, fig.2;pI.41, fig. 1;pI.42, fig. 3;pI.47,fig.2)is much later. Reptilia.34.OmithichnitespalllwtllsE. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 317, 324,fig.15(Triassic tracks, Horse Race inCill, Mass.). Later calledSallroidichniles pallllaillsE. Hitch cock (1841, Final Rept. Ceol. Mass., vol.2,p.483,pI.34,fig.15)and still later renamedPalallloplIs anomaillsE. Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. MeetingAssn.Amer. Ceol. Nat.,p.24). Reptilia.35.Omilhichniles lell'lldaclylus E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser.1,vol. 29, pp. 317, 323,fig.(Triassic tracks, Horse Race inCill, Mass.).Later calledSillimanius lelradaclylusE. Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. MeetingAssn.Ceol. Nal.,p.24)andthen renamedOmil/lOplIS gallinacellsE. Hitchcock (1848, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts St:i., ser.2,vol. 3,p.192,pI.8,fig.1).Reptilia.36.Omilhie/milesIlIueroslIsE. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser.1,vol. 29, pp. 316, 318,fig.(Triassic tracks, Northampton, Mass., and apparently also Horse Race). Type by mono typy of genus Cyuele Reichenbach, Avium Syst. Nat.,p.xxx).Hitchcock renamedit Bronlo;:.olllll loxonyx(1848, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts St:i., ser.2,vol. 3,p.172,pI.2, figs. 1-2) and laterBranlo =011111wlidllm (1858, Ichnology of New England,p.67,pI.12,fig.2;pIs.38-51;pI.57,fig.3).Reptilia. .37.OmilhichnitesIlIheroslIs d',[Jills E.Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jom. St:i., vol. 29, pp. 316, 318, fig. (Triassic tracks, Northampton, Mass.). Later renamedOmithichniles)JaralleillsE.Hitch cock (1837, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser.1,vol. 31, p. 175), which was still later referred to his genera Bronlo=Olllll andCral/alor.Reptilia. 38.Omii/lOdes/II liS clunicu/usSeeley, 1887, Quart. Jour. Ceol. Soc. London, vol. 43,p.206 (sacrum, Wealden, Lower Cretaceous, Neocomian age, Brook, Isle of Wight, England).Typeof genusOmilhodeslIllIsSeeley (loc. cit.), deSignated by Richmond, 1902, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., vol. 24, no. 1267,p.701). Reptilia, Pterosauria, Ornithocheiridae.39. OmilhodeslIllIs lalidellSSeeley, 1887, Quart. Jour. Ceol. Soc. London,vol. 43, p.220,pI.12(skull, Wealden Lower Cretaceous, Isle of Wight). Ornithocheiridae.40.Omilhoidie/mitesc,mealllsE.Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. Mass., vol.2,pp. 476,484 (Triassic tracks, ConnecticutandNew Jersey). Later calledCral/alor CllllealllS (E. Hitch cock, 1858, Ichnology of New England,p.72).I deSignateO.CllllealllSastype species of bothOmilhoidichniles Hitchcock (1841) andCral/alorHitchcock (1858), since apparently none has been previously selected. Reptilia.41.OmilhoidichnilesdanaeE. Hitchcock, 1844, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 47,p.306,pI.3,fig.5 (Trillssic tracks, Massachusetts). Reptilia.42. Omil/lOidichniles deaniiE. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. Mass., vol.2,p.493,pI.42,figs.31-32 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut). Reptilia.43. Ornithoidichnites delicatulusE.Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. Mass., vol.2,p.497,p.45, fig. 40 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut). Later calledCalopus delicatulaE.Hitchcock (1845, Proc.6thAnn. Meeting Assoc. Amer. Ceol. Nat., p.25).Reptilia.44. Ornithoidichnites divaricatusE.Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. Mass., vol.2,p.495,pI.44, figs. 36-37;pI.48,fig.63 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts).-OmilhopusloripesE.Hitchcock, 1848, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., ser.2,vol. 3, p. 193,pI.7,fig. 3 (new name for the above). Reptilia.45.OmithoidichniteselegansE. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. Mass., vol.2,p.491,pI.41,figs.28-29;pI.48,figs.57-62 (Triassic tracks,Massachusetts).-Sterapaides elegansE.Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. MeetingAssn.Amer. Ceol. Nat.,p.24). Reptilia.46.OmithoidichniteseleganliorE.Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. Mass., vol.2,p.493,pI.42,fig.30;pI.48,fig.58 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts). Reptilia.47. Ornilhaidichniles expansus E.Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. Mass., vol.2,p.487,pI.38,fig.23;pI.39,fig.24 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts). Reptilia.48. Ornilhoidichniles graci/iarE. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. Mass., vol.2,p.498,pI.46, fig. 43 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut). He later called itSillilllaniusgraci/ior (1845) andOmilhapusgraci/iar(1848). Reptilia.49. Ornilhoidichnites gracilisE.Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. Mass.,vol.2,p.489,pI.48,fig.44 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut). Reptilia.50. Ornithoidichnites graciLlilllus E.Hitchcock, 1844, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 47,p.305,

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1978BRODKORB: C.-\T:\LOCl'E OFFOSSIL BIRDSpI.3,fig.4 (Triassic tracks,Massachusetts).-Hilchcockio gracillillloReichenbach, 1852, Avium Systema Naturale,p.xx.-Hilchcockiof"/icol'ioReichenbach, 1852, op. cit.,p.xxi(new name for the above?). Referred by Hitchcock to his generaEllbrollies(1845), BrOlllo::lJ1I1Il(1848), Grallolor (l858), andAllollloeplIs(1865).Itisthe tvpe species ofHilchcockioReichenhach (l852, op. cit., p.xx).Reptilia.51.OmilhoidicllllilesIyelliiE.Hitchcock,J 843, Reports 1st, 2d,3dMeetings Assn. Amer. Ceol. Nat.,p.257,pI.II,fig. I (Triassic tracks, \lassachusetts).-Fu/icoplIsIyelliollllsE.Hitch cock, 1845, Proc. 6th Ann. MeetingsAssn.:\mer.Ceol.l\at.,p.23 (newnamefor the ahove).Type species ofFll/icoplIsE.Hitchcock (loc. cit.). Later referred by him to his generaAelhyoplIs(l848)andAlIlblollY.r(1858). Reptilia.52. OmilllOidichlliles lIlocrodoclylllsE.Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. Mass., vol. 2,p, 494, pI. 43, fig.35 (Triassic tracks, Horse RaceinCill,;vlass.).-Plolyplenll/ deollionoE.Hitch cock, 1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Assn. Amer. Ceol. Nat.,p.25 (new name).-Argo.::D1I1Il dis poradigilolulll E. Hitchcock, 1848, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., ser. 2, vol. 3, p. 186,pI.6,fig.3.Reptilia.53.Omilhoidichniles pOrL'lI/l1s E.Hitchcock. 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. \Iass ..vol. 2,p. 489, pI.39, fig. 26; pI. 48, fig. 44 (Triassic tracks,Connecticut).-Souroidicllllilesdeu;eyiHitchcock, 1843, Repts. 1st, 2d,3dMeetings Assn. Amer. Ceol. Nat.,p.261,pI.II,fig.9 (new name for the above).-Bolrachoplls deweyw1/Is E.Hitchcock, 1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meet. Assn. Amer. Ceol. Nat.,p.25 (new name forS.dell;eyi).Amphibia.54.OmilhoidichllilesredfieldiiE.Hitchcock, 1844, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 47, p.304,pI.3,fig.I (Triassic tracks,Massachusetts).-Omilhoidichnilesred{ieldiw1/IsHitchcock. 1845, Proc.6th Ann. Meet. Assn. Amer. Ceol. p. 24 (new name for the ahove).-Argoidesml{ieldiol1llsE. Hitchcock, 1845, loc. cit. (alternate new name for theabove).-BerecYlllhiored{ieldiReichen bach, 1852, Avium Systema Naturale,p.xxx.Type species ofBerecy"lhioReichenbach. Reptilia.55.Omilhoidiclllliles rogersi E. Hitchcock, 1843, Repts. 1st, 2d,3dMeetings Assn. Amer. Ceol. Nat.,p.256,pI.II,fig.7 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts).-Sillilllollills rogersiwlIIs E.Hitch cock, 1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meet. Assn. Amer. Ceol. Nat.,p.24 (new name for the ahove). Rep tilia.56.OmilhoidichllilessillilllolliiE. Hitchcock, 1843, Repts. 1st, 2d,3dMeets.Assn.Amer. Ceol. Nat.,p.256, pI.II,fig.2 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut).-BroIlIO.::D1I1IlsillilllOllillll'E.Hitch cock, 1841, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser.2,vol. 4, p. 49 (new name for the above). Reptilia.57.OmilhoidichllileslenuisE.Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Ceol. vol. 2,p. 494, pI.43, figs. 33-34 (Triassic tracks,Connecticut).-Plolyplenwle'1/IisHitchcock, Proc. 6th Ann. Meet. Assn. Amer. Ceol. :'-Iat., p.25 (new name for the ahove). Reptilia.58. Osleornis ardeoceusCervais, 5 Aug. 1844, Remarques sur les Oiseallx Fossiles,p.38,d.alsop.12 (\,yealden Formation, Tilgate Forest, Sussex, England, tarsus, humerus, radius;nodescr.; based on Mentell, 1835, Proc. Ceol. Soc. London,p.205). Thisisonly an ahstract (with out description or illustration) of CideonA.Mantell'spaperread before the Ceological Society. Mantell'spaperdescribingtheremains was not published until 1837 (Trans. Geol. Soc. London, ser.2,vol.5,no. I, pp. 175-177, pI. 13), and Cervais's thesis presents no evidencethathe had seen it.O.ordeocellsisthus a nomen nudumwith no status in nomenclature. CervaisproposedOsleomis(p.7)asa catchall for any fossil bird bones whose specific identification seemed impossible.Hestated (p.7,note)thatLilhosleomiswould have been pref erablebutconsidered it too long a word. Nevertheless, Cervais (p. 38) proposed three new spe cies inOsleomis,O.ordeoceus,O.diollledeus,andO.scolopoci'Hls.Richmond (1902, Proc.U.S.Nat. Mus., vol. 24,p.701) selectedO.ardeocellsas the type species, andlater(1908, op.cit., vol. 35,p.618) treatedLilhosleomisas an alternative name forOsleomis.Possihly this would makeLilhosleomisavailable ifOsleomiswere found to be preoccupied, but not otherwise. But for present purposes this questionisacademic, as thetypespeciesisa nomen nudum, andthebonesattributedto it are from a pterosaur (see Owen, 1846, Quart. Jour. Ceol. Soc. London, vol.2,pp. 96ff;Romer, 1966, Vertebrate Paleontology, ed. 3,p.369).59.OsleomisdiollledeusCervais, 5 Aug. 1844, Remarques sur les Oiseaux Fossiles,p.38,d.alsop.12(Cretaceous, near 'vIaidstone, England, humerus and fragmentary tibia). A nomen nudum based on Owen (1840, Proc. Ceol. Soc. London,p.298), an abstract of apaperread be fore the Geological Society. Thepaperwaslaterpublished hyOwen(l842, Trans. Ceol. Soc. London for 1840, ser. 2, vol. 6, pp. 411-413,pI.390),butthereisno evidencethatCervaishadseen it. SeeCillloliomis diollledeusOwen, discussed above. A pterosaur.

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228BLLETINFLORIDASTATEMUSEUMVol.23,No.360. PII/oeollomiss/mlhiolloidesEmmons,1857,American Geology, p.148, fig. 114(Upper Triassic Newark sandstone, Anson County, North Carolina, fragment of "sacrum,"' present loca tion unknown).Typeby monotypy ofPO/lleollomisEmmons. Donald Baird (personal cOlnmunica tion) writesthatit has a high degree of recognizabilityandconsists of the mid-section ofthe rostrumofa phytosaur (d. Rllliodoll),exposedinpalatal view, with the lateral marginsofthe premaxillae destroyedandtheemptyalveoli filled with matrix.The "d." wasindudedonlvasan act of punctiliousness.61.P%eomisdifftiMantell,1835,Philos. Mag., vol.7,p.518(Wealden LowerCretaceous,TilgateForest, Sussex).Typeof genusP%eomisMantell, whichispreoeeupiedbyPII/oeor Ilis Vigors,1825.A pterosaur, possibly of the genusOmilhocheirllsSeeley. See Lambreebt,1933,p.933;Romer,1966,p.369.62. Prolorheoo;:,{//'oe MorenoandMercerat,5Aug.1891,Anal. Mils. La Plata, vol. I,p.69,pI.19,fig.7(Pampeanstage, Monte Hermoso, Argentina, left femurandphalanges, MuseoLaPlata). A synonym ofthe extinct camelAllchellio /lljollemis Ameghino, and tbe locality sbouldbeLujan (see Amegbino,1891,Revista Arge. Hisl. Nat., vol. I, p. -148). 63. Pr%misbowdclI Jaekel,1929,Pal. Zeitschr., vol.II,p.211, fig. 20(Upper Jurassie tracks, Solnhofen limestone, Bavaria). Acompsothgnathiddinosaur, KOllpicllrlillll1/ilhoCl'IIl'hiclIlI/ Oppel(1862,Pal. Mitteil. Mus.Kgl.Bayer. Staates, vol.2,pp.121-125).See Abel (1930, Paleo biologiea, vol.3,p.372ff.).64. Pr%mis h/II/lled1865,Urwelt del' Scbweiz, p.236. fig. 143(partial skeleton from Lower Oligocene slate quarries on the Plattenberg, Matt parish, Glarus canton,Switzerland).Heel',J87G,PrimaevalWorldof Switzerland, vol. I, p.249, fig. 143.Transferred from familvHakvonidae(pI. -1, p.253).Thetype, whose presentwhereaboutsisunknown, was said to rep resent the lower mandible, wings, tibiae, tarsi,andtoes of a small bird, butthe figure almost cer tainly represents the pelvis, urostyle, arms,and legs of a frog. See also Olson, 1976, Smithsonian Contr. Paleobiol., no.27,p. IJ7.65.Wy/eyill w/dellsis Harrison and Walker, Nov.1973,Palaeontologv, vol. IG, pI. -1, p. 721, text-figs.1-2,pI.I (LowerCretaeeousWealdClay, Henfield, Sussex England, proximal portion of right humerus, Brit. Mus. no.A3(58).Typeof genusWIJ/eyioHarrison and Walker, by original designation. Almost certainly a reptilianhumeruswith the epiphysis Ilnfllsed or eroded.

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Contributions to the BULLETINOFTHEFLORIDA STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOCICAL SCI ENCES SERIES, may be in any field of biology. Manuscripts dealing with natural history of systematic problems involving the southeastern United States or the New World tropics are solicited especially. Manuscripts should be of mediumlength-circa35 to 200 pages(J0,500 16,000 words). Examination for suitabilityismade by an Editorial Board.TheBULLETINisdistributed worldwide through institutional subscriptions and exchanges.Itisconsidered the responsibility of the author to distribute hispaperto all interested individ uals.Toaidinthis the author(s) receive(s) 50 copies free,andhe may purchase additional separates at cost if ordered wben page proofisreturned.Theauthorisalso responsible for any charges incurred for alterations made by him on galley or page proofs.TheMuseum will send an invoice to the author for this amount upon completion of publication. PREPARATIONOFMANUSCRIPT Contributors should consult recent numbers of the BULLETIN for preferred style and format. Highly recommendedasa guideisthe CBE Style Manual,3rdEdition, 1972 (Washington, D.C., Amer. Inst.BioI.ScL).MSSmust be submittedinduplicate (please no onionskin) and satisfy the folloWing minimal re quirements:Theyshould be typewritten, double-spaced (especially tables, figure captions, and..Literature Cited"), on one side of numbered sheets of standard (8-112X11in.) bond paper, with at least one-inch margins all around. Figure legends and tables should be typed on separate sheets.Allillustrations are referred toasfigures. They must comply with the following stan dards: Photographs should be sharp, with good contrast,andprintedon glossy paper. Drawings should be made with dense black waterproof ink on quality paper or illustration board.Allillustrations should have a cover sheet.Alllettering will be medium weight, sans-serif type (e.g.FuturaMedium, News Cothic)incutout, dry transfer, or lettering guide letters. Make allow ancesothat after reduction no lowercase letter will belessthan 1 mm high(2mmispreferred) nor any capital lettergreaterthan 5 mm high. The maximum size for illustrationsis8-5/8X14in.(twice typepage size); illustrations should not be less than typepage width (4-5/16 in.). Designate thetopof each illustration and identifyonthe back with soft pencil by author's name,MStitle,andfigure number.Allmanuscripts not submittedinBULLETIrformat will be returned to the author for retyping. MonT/scripts andall editorialmaNers slwrdd IJe addressedto:Managing Editor of the BULLETIN Florida State Museum Museum Road University of Florida Gainesville,FL32611


Catalogue of fossil birds ( Part 5 : Passeriformes )
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Title: Catalogue of fossil birds ( Part 5 : Passeriformes )
Physical Description: 228 p. 23 cm. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Brodkorb, Pierce
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Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1978
Copyright Date: 1978
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Subjects / Keywords: Birds, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Classification   ( lcsh )
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Full Text





U


of the
FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM
Biological Sciences

Volume 23 1978 Number 3




CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS
PART 5 (PASSERIFORMES)


PIEI CE BiHOKORB




0


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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Numbers of the BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES,
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OLIVER L. AUSTIN, JR., Editor
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Consultants for this issue:
J. ALAN FEDUCCIA
STORRS OLSON
















Communications concerning purchase or exchange of the publications and all manuscripts should
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Publication date: December 15, 1978


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $5219.66 or
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CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS
PART 5 (PASSERIFORMES)
PIERCE BRODKORB'

SYNOPSIS: The fifth installment of the Catalogue of Fossil Birds includes the Passeriformes, birds
of uncertain position, trace fossils, nomina nuda, doubtful birds and a list of non-avian species
deleted. Addenda and corrigenda to previous parts and an index to the whole work will be sup-
plied later.


TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .
Order PASSERIFORMES (Linnaeus). Perching Birds
Suborder EURYLAIMI (Seebohm). Suboscine Birds .
Family EUHYLAIMIDAE Swainson. Broadbills
Eurylaiminae gen. indet
Family PHILEPITTIDAE (Sharpe). Asities and False Sunbirds
Family PITTIDAE Bonaparte. Pittas .
Family FURNARIIDAE (Gray). Ovenbirds and Woodhewers
Neospecies of Furnariidae
Family THAMNOPHILIDAE (Vigors). Antbirds
Neospecies of Thamnophilidae
Family SCYTALOPODIDAE (Miiller). Tapaculos
Family TYRANNIDAE (Vigors). Tyrant Flycatchers
Neospecies of Tyrannidae ..
Family OXYRUNCIDAE Ridgway. Sharpbills...
Family PHYTOTOMIDAE (Swainson). Plant-cutters
Family 'U ER ULIDAE (Swainson). Cotingas
Family PIPRIDAE Vigors. Manakins
Suborder PASSERES Linnaeus. Oscine Birds
Family ALAUDIDAE (Vigors). Larks .
Melancorypha Boie .. ...... ...
Alauda Linnaeus ... .. ... ....... .....
Neospecies of Alaudidae .. .. .... ....... ..
Family HIRUNDINIDAE Vigors. Swallows..... ..........
H irundo L innaeus .......... ........ ............ ....... ... ......
Tachycineta C abanis ... ....... .......... .......... ....... .......
Neospecies of Hirundinidae .........
Family DICRURIDAE (Vigors). Drongos .
Neospecies of Dicruridae ..
Family ORIOLIDAE (Vigors). Old World Orioles and Fairy Bluebirds....
Neospecies of O riolidae... ...... ... .... .............
Family CORVIDAE Vigors. Crows and Jays .
Subfamily GARRULINAE (Boie). Jays...... ....... .. .......


142
... 143
144
144
144
145
145
145
145
146
146
147
147
.. .. 147
148
149
149
149
150
150
150
...... .. 150
151
151
153
153
153
154
155
156
156
156
156
157


'The author is Professor of Zoology at the University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.


BRODKORB, PIERCE. 1978. Catalogue of fossil birds, Part 5 (Passeriformes). Bull. Florida State
Mus., Biol. Sci. 23(3):139-228.


























Ilk















14-









tm NAM-









BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)

I Miocitta Brodkorb .....157
f Protocitta Brodkorb ..157
fHenocitta Holman 158
Subfamily CORVINAE (Vigors). Crows ...1.... 158
Corrus Linnaeus 158
Neospecies of Corvidae .. 160
Family PARADISAEIDAE (Vieillot). Bowerbirds and Birds of Paradise 171
Neospecies of Paradisaeidae ...171
Family MENURIDAE (Gray). Lyrebirds... 171
Family ATRICHORNITHIDAE Stejneger. Scrub-birds 172
Family ACANTHISITTIDAE (Sundevall). New Zealand Wrens 172
Family PARIDAE Boie. Tits 172
Neospecies of Paridae 172
Family SITTIDAE (Bonaparte). Nuthatches 173
Neospecies of Sittidae 174
Family CERTHIIDAE (Vigors). Creepers 174
Neospecies of Certhiidae 174
Family CAMPEPHAGIDAE (Vigors). Cuckoo-shrikes 174
Family PYCNONOTIDAE (Gray). Bulbuls. 175
Neospecies of Pycnonotidae 175
Family CINCLIDAE (Cabanis). Water Ouzels ... 175
Neospecies of Cinclidae ......... 175
Family TROGLODYTIDAE (Swainson). Wrens 176
Cistothorus Cabanis 176
Neospecies of Troglodvtidae 176
Family MUSCICAPIDAE Vigors. Thrushes, Babblers, and Old World Flycatchers 176
Subfamily MYADESTINAE Bonaparte. Solitaires 178
fPalaeoscinis Howard ..178
Neospecies of Muscicapidae 179
Family SYLVIIDAE (Vigors). Old World Warblers 186
Neospecies of Sylviidae ... 187
Family PRUNELLIDAE Richmond. Accentors ..... 188
Neospecies of Prunellidae .. .. ...... 188
Family MOTACILLIDAE (Vigors). Wagtails 188
Neospecies of Motacillidae ..... 189
Family BOMBYCILLIDAE (Swainson). Waxwings 190
Neospecies of Bombycillidae 190
Family DULIDAE (Sclater). Palm-chats 190
Neospecies of Dulidae ... .... ..... 190
Family ARTAMIDAE Blyth. Wood-swallows ......... .... 190
Family LANIIDAE Swainson. Shrikes ... ..... .. 190
Lanius L innaeus ...... .... .. ....... ... .. .. 191
Neospecies of Laniidae .. .... ... .... ......... 191

FIGURE 1.-Some workers in avian paleontology, XVI International Ornithological Congress,
Canberra, Australia, 17 August 1974. Left to right: G. F. van Tets, Lyneham, A. C. T.; Pat Vickers
Rich, Clayton, Victoria; C. J. 0. Harrison, Tring; Joel Cracraft, Chicago; Thomas Rich, Clayton;
Pierce Brodkorb, Gainesville; Charles T. Collins, Long Beach, California; Ron J. Scarlett,
Canterbury, New Zealand; Storrs L. Olson, Washington; Cyril A. Walker, London; Robert W.
Storer, Ann Arbor; Joseph R. Jehl, San Diego; Peter Ballman, Koln. Photograph by C. A. Walker.








142 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 23, No. 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)
Family STURNIDAE Vigors. Starlings ....... .... .... ... ........ ..... .. 192
SN ecropsar Slater ... .......... .... ...... ... ............. 192
Neospecies of Sturnidae .... .. .. .............. 192
Family MELIPHAGIDAE Vigors. Honey-eaters .. ................................................. 193
Neospecies of Meliphagidae ...... ................. 193
Fam ily CALLAEATIDAE (Gray). W attled Crows ............... ............................... ............ 194
N eospecies of C allaeatidae ...................................................... ......... .......... 194
Fam ily NECTARINIIDAE (V igors). Sunbirds .......... ....................... .................................. 194
Family PARDALOTIDAE (Bonaparte). Flower-peckers...................................................... 194
Family ZOSTEROPIDAE (Bonaparte). White-eyes ............... 194
Fam ily VIREONIDAE (Sw ainson). Vireos ......... .. .... .............. .................................. 195
Neospecies of Vireonidae .ae ................. 195
Family COEREBIDAE (Gray). Wood Warblers and Honey Creepers ......... 195
N eospecies of Coerebidae .. ....... ....... ........ .......... 196
Family TANAGRIDAE (Vigors). Tanagers ..... ......... .. .. ...... .. 197
N eospecies of Tanagridae .... .. .. ...... .. ...... .. ..... ....... ......... 198
Family ICTERIDAE (Vigors). Troupials and Blackbirds ......................................... .... 198
I C rem aster B rodkorb .................... ...................................... ............................... 199
fPandanaris A H M iller ....................................... ............................................... 199
E uphagus C assin ...................... ........................ ...... ...... .. .... .. 200
L Pyelorham phus A H M iller . ..... ............................... ................ .. 200
N eosp ecies of Icteridae .. ................................................ .............................. 200
Fam ily EMBERIZIDAE Vigors. Buntings ........... .............. ............................ .. ..... 202
/ Palaeostruthus W etm ore ............. ............... ................. ............... 202
P ip ilo V ie illo t .. .. ..................... ........... .............. .. ..........20.... ........... .......... 2 0 3
Zonotrichia Sw ainson ... ................. ... ........... .. .............. ................................. 203
N eospecies of E m berizidae ............ .. ............. ............... ................. ... ..... 203
Family PASSERIDAE (Illiger). Sparrows and Finches ... ............... .......................... 205
P asser L in n aeu s .. .. ................. ... .. ............. .................. .......... .... ................ 206
P etro n ia K au p ..... ...... ..... ..... ..... .... ...... ....... .... ................... .... ....... ..... .... 2 0 6
N eospecies of P asseridae .................. .............. ................ ........................ ... 207
A VE S IN C ERT A E SED IS ......... ..... .. ................ ................................. ............... .................... .. 2 11
IN D IC IA A V IU M ... .. .. ... ............. ... ... ....... . ....... .. .. ... ... .. .. ...... ....... 2 17
P L U M A E .. ................. . ....... . . .. ....... 2 18
PUTAM INA O VORUM ........... ... ....... ..... ....... ......... 219
V ESTIGIA A VIUM ...... ......... ........ ................. .. 220
N O M IN A A VIU M N U DA .. .. ...... .. .............. .... .. ..... .... ...... ...... ...... ....... ............ .. 222
SPECIES N ON A VIUM D ELETAE........ ............... .. .............. .... .......... .............................. 223





INTRODUCTION

In the recent avifauna the Passeriformes include almost twice as many
genera and species as all the other avian orders combined, but their fossil
record is very poor except for neospecies. We have no proof that they came
into existence before the Miocene epoch, although in the 1800's four alleged
passerines were described from the late Eocene of the Paris Basin. A presumed








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


nuthatch, Sitta? cuvieri Gervais 1852, later became the type of Palaegithalus
Milne-Edwards 1871, who said it combined the characters of Sylvia, Parus,
and Parula (genera belonging to three distantly related families)! In 1871
Milne-Edwards described Laurillardia longirostris, and in 1891 Flot added
two more species, L. munieri and L. parisiensis, all said to be either starlings
or thrushes. Both genera need restudy and close comparison with Coracii-
formes as well as various oscine and suboscine families.

Four suborders of Passeriformes are ordinarily recognized, the Eurylaimi,
Tyranni, Menurae, and Passeres, but I agree with Feduccia in uniting the Old
World and New World "suboscines" on the one hand versus the Passeres
sensu strict, Menuridae, Atrichornithidae, and Acanthisittidae on the other.
The derived condition of the stapes in the Eurylaimi1 eliminates that group
from the ancestry of the Passeres, which retain a primitive stapes. The Eury-
laimi and Halcyones' have similar stapedes, whereas it has long been recog-
nized that Passeres and Piciformes share many osteological characters.
The orders of birds are too finely split. Relationships would be better
expressed by reducing Piciformes and Coraciiformes to suborders of Passeri-
formes. The earliest record for Piciformes is early Eocene, for Coraciiformes
middle Eocene, for Passeres early Miocene, and for Eurylaimi middle Mi-
ocene. All could have been derived from the same stock. The presumptive
ancestor is the late Cretaceous Alexornithidae (see Addenda).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The consultants for this issue, Alan Feduccia and Storrs Olson, have long been interested in
the phylogeny of the Passeriformes. They have made many pertinent suggestions that have im-
proved my work. Special thanks go to Dr. Olson, my former student, for his generous help in
so many ways.
Friends acknowledged in previous parts have continued their valued cooperation. It is now
my pleasure to thank the following additional persons for sending publications or specimens:
Rafael Alvarez, Ann Arbor; 0. G. Bendukidze, Tbilisi, Georgian SSR; Zygmunt Bochenski,
Krak6w, Poland; Richard Brooke, Salisbury, Rhodesia; Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr., Los Angeles;
Graham S. Cowles, London; P. A. Clancy, Durban, Republic of South Africa; Andrzej Elzan-
owski, Warszawa, Poland; C. J. 0. Harrison, Tring, U. K.; F. Clark Howell, Berkeley; J. Howard
Hutchison, Berkeley; Carl Johanson, Cleveland; M. P. Stuart Irwin, Bulawayo, Rhodesia;
William Morris, Los Angeles; C6cile Mourer-Chauvir6, Lyon; Stephen A. Nesbitt, Gainesville;
Oscar T. Owre, Coral Gables; Pat Vickers Rich and Thomas Rich, Clayton, Australia; Horace
G. Richards, Philadelphia; David W. Steadman, Washington; John A. Talent, Melbourne,


Feduccia used Tyranni for this suborder, which he raised to ordinal rank, naming it Tyranniformes.
Although order-group names are not covered by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, it seems
preferable to follow the Code's "basic principle of zoological nomenclature," priority, a practice with which
I believe Feduccia now concurs. For order-group synonymies of Passeriformes see postea.
2 In splitting the Coraciiformes into four separate orders Feduccia proposed another new ordinal name,
Aleediniformes, based on the most junior of four order-group names for the todies, kingfishers, and motmots.
For synonymies, see Part 4 of this work, pp. 248 and 252.


1978








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Australia; G. F. van Tets, Lyneham, Australia; M. A. Voinstvenski, Kiev; John S. Waldrop,
Lake Wales, Florida; Alick D. Walker, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, U. K.; C. A. Walker, London;
Clayton M. White, Provo, Utah.
As the earlier parts of the Catalogue are out of print and the literature on avian paleon-
tology has increased greatly during the 15-year interval since the publication of Part 1, a re-
vised edition is contemplated. I therefore request correspondents to continue their cooperation.


Order PASSERIFORMES (Linnaeus)
Passeres Linnaeus 1758, Systema Naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, pp. 82, 85, 162 (ordo; not based on
generic name).-Passeres Linnaeus 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, pp. 119, 279 (ordo; type by
autonomy Passer Brisson 1760).-Passerinae Nitzsch 1820, Deutsche Archiv fiur Physi-
ologie, vol 6, p. 253.-Passerini Johannes Mflller 1847, Abhandl. K. Akad. Berlin, Phys.
Kl., p. 366 (ordo).-Passeriformes Garrod 1874, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 117, 122
(order).-Passeres Sharpe 1877 (July 24), Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 3, p. 1 (suborder).-
Passeriformes Hay 1930 (Jan.), Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. No. 390, vol. 2, p. 353
(suborder).
Hirundines Wagler 1830, Natiirliches System der Amphibien mit vorangehender Classification
der Saugethiere und V6gel, pp. 82,86 (ordo; type Hirundo Linnaeus).
Corvi Wagler 1830, op. cit., pp. 82, 113 (ordo; type Corvus Linnaeus).-Corviformes Sharpe
1891, Review of Recent Attempts to Classify Birds, p. 89 (subsection) [between section
and family].
Certhiomorphae Sundevall 1872, Methodi Naturalis Avium Disponendarum Tentamen, pt. 1,
p. 46 (cohors; type Certhia Linnaeus).
Cinnyrimorphae Sundevall 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 48 (cohors; type Cinnyris Cuvier).
Sylviiformes Sundevall 1874, OEfversigt Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akad. F6rhandl., no. 2, p. 28 (pha-
lanx [between cohors and ordo]; type Sylvia Latham).
Laniiformes Sundervall 1874, CEfversigt Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akad. Forhandl., no. 2, p. 30 (pha-
lanx; type Lanius Linnaeus).
Fringilliformes Sharpe 1885 (after March 9), Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 10, pp. ix, 1 (section;
type Fringilla Linnaeus).
Eurylaemi Seebohm 1890, Classification of Birds, pp. vii, xi, 4 (suborder; type Eurylaemus
Agassiz 1846, an emendation of Eurylaimus Horsfield 1821).-Eurylaemi Sharpe 1891,
Review of Recent Attempts to Classify Birds, p. 84 (order).-Eurylaimi Wetmore 1930
(Jan. 8), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 76, art. 24, p. 6 (suborder).
Menurae Sharpe 1891, Review of Recent Attempts to Classify Birds, p. 84 (order; type Menura
Davies).-Menurae Wetmore and W. deW. Miller 1926 (July 3), Auk, vol. 43, no. 3,
p. 345 (suborder.-Menuriformes Mathews 1927, Systema Avium Australasianarum, p. 000
(order).
Tyranni Wetmore and W. deW. Miller 1926 (July 3), Auk, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 345 (suborder;
type Tyrannus Lac6pbde).-Tyranniformes Feduccia 1975 (May 30), Univ. Kansas Mus.
Nat. Hist., Misc. Publ. no. 63, p. 30 (order).
Furnarii Ames 1971 (March), Bull. Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist., no. 37, p. 153 (suborder; type Fur-
narius Vieillot).


Suborder EURYLAIMI (Seebohm)
Eurylaemi Seebohm 1890.-Eurylaimi Wetmore, 1930.
Tyranni Wetmore and W. deW. Miller 1926.-Tyrannifonnes Feduccia, 1975.
Furnarii Ames 1971.

Family EURYLAIMIDAE (Swainson)
Eurylaiminae Swainson 1837, Natural History and Classification of Birds, vol. 2, p. 80 (sub-
family; type Eurylaimus Horsefield).-Eurylaimidae Selys-Longchamps 1842, fide Newton


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


(family).-Eurylaeminae Cabanis 1847, Archiv f. Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 23, vol. 1,
pt. 2, p. 343 (subfamilia).-Eurylaimidae Bonaparte 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium,
vol. 1, p. 168 (familia).-Eurylaemnidae Sclater 1888 (June 28), Cat. Birds Brit. Mus.,
vol. 14, pp. xix, 454 (family).
Calyptomeninae Bonaparte 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, vol. 1, p. 169 (subfamilia;
type Calyptonmena Raffles).

Eurylaimidae gen. et sp. indet.

Eurylaimidae gen. indet., sp. indet. Ballmann "1966" (Jan. 25, 1967), V6gel aus der altburdi-
galen Spaltenfilllung von Wintershof (West) bei Eichstqtt in Bayern, pp. 39, 89.-
Eurylaimidae gen. et sp. indet. Ballman 1969 (1 Sept.), Zittelliana, vol. 1, p. 49, pl. 2,
fig. 6-7 proximall end of ulna, distal end of humerus and tarsometatarsus, Bayer. Staats-
sammlung fOr Palaontologie und historische Geologie, Muinchen).

MIDDLE MIOCENE (early Burdigalian). BAVARIA: Wintershof (West).

Family PHILEPITTIDAE (Sharpe)

Philepittinae Sharpe 1870, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 397 (subfamily; type Philepitta Geof-
froy).-Philepittidae Forbes 1880, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 387 (family).
Paictinae Sundevall 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 63 familiar ; type Paictes Sundevall, 1872, a junior
synonym of Philepitta Geoffroy 1839).
Neodrepaninae Sharpe 1909, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, vol. 5, pp. xiii, 34 (subfamily; type Neo-
drepanis Sharpe).

No fossil record.

Family PITTIDAE Bonaparte

Brachyuridae Blyth 1849, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiatic Soc., p. 155 (family type Brachyurus Thun-
berg 1821, a junior synonym of Pitta Vieillot, 1816).
Pittidae Bonaparte 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 253 (family; type Pitta Vieillot).
Eucichlinae Sundevall 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 5 familiar ; type Eucichla Reichenbach 1850,
a junior synonym of Pitta Vieillot, 1816).

No fossil record.

Family FURNARIIDAE (Gray)

Anabatinae Swainson 1837, Natural History and Classification of Birds, vol. 2, pp. 131, 315 (sub-
family; type Anabates Temminck 1820, a junior synonym of Synallaxis Vieillot, 1818).
-Anabatidae Johannes Miuller 1846 (read 1845), Abhandl. Kgl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Phys.
KI., p. 383 familiar) .
Uppucerthidae D'Orbigny [1838], fide Gray (type Uppucerthia Lafresnaye and D'Orbigny, 1838,
a junior synonym of Upucerthia I. Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire 1832).
Furnarinae G. R. Gray 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 16 (subfamily; type
Furnarius Vieillot).-Furnariinae Cabanis 1847, Archiv fOr Naturgeschichte (Berlin), pt. 1,
p. 339 (subfamilia).-Furnariidae Sundevall 1872, Methodi naturalis Avium disponde-
narum Tentamen, p. 55 (familia).-Furnariidae Stejneger 1885, Standard Natural History,
vol. 4, p. 479 (family).-Furnariides Wetmore 1930 (Jan. 8), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol.
76, art. 24, p. 6 (superfamily).-Furnarioidea Wetmore 1934 (Apr. 23), Smithsonian Misc.
Coll., vol. 89, no. 13, p. 10 (superfamily).
Dendrocolaptinae G. R. Gray 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 17 (subfamily; type








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Dendrocolaptes Herman).-Dendrocolaptidae Selys-Longchamps 1842, fide Gray (family).
-Dendrocolaptinae Sundevall 1872, Tentamen, p. 56 (familia).-Dendrocolapteae Ridgway
1911 (nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 226.
Synallaxinae G. R. Gray 1846 (Feb.), Genera of Birds, vol. 1, p. 135 (subfamily; type Synallaxis
Vieillot).-Synallaxinae Sundevall 1872 Tentamen, p. 55 (subfamilia).-Synallaxeae Ridg-
way 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 160.
Sclerurinae Sclater 1862, Cat. Coll. Am. Birds, p. 145 (subfamily; type Sclerurus Swainson).
Philydorinae Sclater 1890 (after March 7), Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 15, pp. xii, 3, 74 (sub-
family; type Philydor Spix).
Margarornithes Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 159 (group;
type Margarornis Reichenbach).
Pseudocolapteae Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 162 (group;
type Pseudocolaptes Reichenbach).
Automoleae Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 50, pt. 5, p. 162 (group; type
Automolus Reichenbach).
Xiphocolapteae Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 226 (group;
type Xiphocolaptes Lesson).
Glyphorphynchinae Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 227 (sub-
family; type Glyphorynchus Wied).-Glyphorhyncheae Ridgway 1911, loc. cit.
Drymornithes Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 227 (group; type
Drymornis Eyton).
Sittasomae Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 227 (group; type
Sittasomus Swainson).
Dendrocinclae Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 227 (group; type
Dendrocincla Gray).


Neospecies of Furnariidae from the Pleistocene and "Holocene

Subfamily DENDROCOLAPTINAE
1. Xiphocolaptes albicollis (Vieillot). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania (0. Winge 1887, E Museo
Lundii, vol. 1, pp. 8, 9, 15, 48).
2. Lepidocolaptes angustirostris (Vieillot). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania and *Lapa da Es-
crivania (as Picolaptes bivittatus 0. Winge 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol. 1, pt. 2, pp. 8,48).
Winge also mentions "Species multae, indeterminate, etiam affines Furnario etc." See Lund
(1841, Oversigt over det kongelige Danske videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger, pp. 16-18).
Giebel (1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1, pt. 2, pp. 13, 17, 39) and Lambrecht (1933, Handbuch
der Palaeornithologie, p. 779) refer to these indeterminate fossils under the names Dendrocalaptes
[sic], Opetiorhynchus (a synonym of Furnarius), and Anabates (a synonym of Synallaxis).


Family THAMNOPHILIDAE (Vigors)
Thamnophilina Vigors 1825, fide Gray (type Thamnophilus Vieillot).-Thamnophilinae Swainson
1832 (Feb.), Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 105 (subfamily).- Tamnophilinae [sic]
Bonaparte 1850 (Feb.), Conspectus Generum Avium, vol. 1, sig. 25, p. 197 (subfamilia).-
Thamnophilinae Sundevall 1872, Tentamen, p. 63 (familia).-Thamnophileae Ridgway
1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 50, pt. 5, p. 10.
Myiotheridae Boie 1826, Isis, p. 973 (type Myiothera Illiger 1811, a junior synonym of Formi-
carius Boddaert 1783).-Myotherinae [sic] Swainson 1837, Nat. Hist. and Classif. Birds, vol.
2, pp. 18, 24 (subfamily).-Myiotherinae Bonaparte 1850 (Feb.), Conspectus Generum
Avium, vol. 1, sig. 26, p. 197 (subfamilia).
Formicarinae G. R. Gray 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 25 (subfamily; type
Formicarus Boddaert).-Formicariidae Sclater 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 69
(family).-Formicariinae G. R. Gray, 1869 (after May 10), Hand-list of Genera and
Subgenera of Birds, pt. 1, pp. xvi, 297 (subfamily).-Formicaroideae Stejneger 1885,
Standard Nat. Hist., vol. 4, pp. 460, 476 (superfamily).-Formicaroidei Cope 1889 (Oct.),


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Amer. Naturalist, vol. 23, p. 873 (superfamily).-Formicarieae Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29),
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 15 (group).-Formicaroidae Hay 1930, Carnegie
Inst. Washington, Publ. 390, vol. 2, p. 354 (superfamily).
Eriodoridae Cabanis 1847, Archiv. fUr Naturgeschicte (Berlin), Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 209
familiar ; type Eriodora Gloger 1826, a junior synonym of Formicarius Swainson 1824).-
Eriodorinae Cabanis 1847, op. cit. (subfamily).
Formicivorinae Sclater 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 238 (subfamily; type Formicivora
Swainson).-Formicivorae Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5,
p. 12 (group).
Hypocnemidinae Cabanis 1847, Archiv Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 212 (subfamilia;
type Hypocnemis Cabanis).-Hypocnemididae Cabanis 1859 (1 July), Museum Heineanum,
pt. 2, sig. 1, p. 3 familiar) .
Myrmornithinae Sundevall 1872, Methodi Naturalis Avium Dispondenarum Tentamen, p. 64
familiar : type Myrmornis Hermann).
Hypsibaemoninae Sundevall 1872, op. cit., p. 64 familiar : Hypsibaenwn Cabanis 1847, a junior
synonym of Grallaria Vieillot 1816).
Conopophaginae Sclater and Salvin 1873, Nomenclator Avium Neotropicalium, p. 41 (sub-
familia; type Conopophaga Vieillot).-Conopophagidae Garrod 1877, Proc. Zool. Soc.
London, p. 452.
Grallariinae Sclater 1890 (after March 7), Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 15, pp. xvi, 177, 306
(subfamily; type Grallaria Vieillot).-Grallariae Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat.
Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 17.
Pithyeae Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 16 (type Pithys Vieil-
lot).
Rhopoterpeae Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 17 (type Rhopo-
terpe Cabanis 1847, a junior synonym of Formicivorus Temminck 1807).
Pittasomae [sic] Ridgway 1911 (Nov. 29), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 5, p. 17 (type Pit-
tasoma Cassin).

Neospecies of Thamnophilidae from the Pleistocene

1. Chamaeza brevicauda (Vieillot). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania (0. Winge 1887, E Museo
Lundii, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 8, 13, 47).

Family SCYTALOPODIDAE (J. Miller)

Rhinomydaeae d'Orbigny 1838, Voyage dans l'Amerique M6ridionale, vol. 4, pt. 3, p. 192 (type
Rhinomya Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire 1832, preoccupied by Rhinomya Robineau-Desvoidy
1830).
Scytalopidae Johannes Muller 1846, Abhandl. K. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 383 familiar ; type
Scytalopus Gould).-Scytalopodidae Huxley 1867, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 471.-
Scytalopodinae Sundevall 1872 (Aug. 1), Methodi naturalis avium disponendarum Ten-
tamen, pt. 1, p. 65.
Pteroptochidae Cabanis and Heine 1859 (4 Aug.), Museum Ornithologicum Heineanum, pt. 2,
p. 20 familiar ; type Pteroptochus Kittlitz).-Pteroptochinae Cabanis and Heine 1859,
op. cit., p. 20 (subfamilia).
Rhinocryptidae Wetmore 1930 (Jan. 8), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 76, art. 24, p. 6 (family;
type Rhinocrypta Gray 1841, new name for Rhinomya Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire 1832).


No fossil record.

Family TYRANNIDAE (Vigors)

Tyrannina Vigors 1825, fide Gray (type Tyrannus Lac6pode).-Tyranninae Swainson 1832, Fauna
Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 107 (subfamily).- Tyrannidae MOller 1846, Abhandl. K. Akad.








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Wiss. Berlin, p. 000.-Tyranninae Sundevall 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 57 (familia).-
Tyrannoideae Stejneger 1885, Standard Nat. Hist., vol. 4, pp. 460, 463 (super-family).-
Tyrannoidea Wetmore 1934, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 89, no. 13, p. 10.
Fluvicolinae Swainson 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 5, 21, 89 (subfamily; type
Fluvicola Swainson).
Taeniopterinae Gray 1841, List Genera Birds, ed. 2, p. 40 (subfamily; type Taenioptera Bona-
parte 1830, a junior synonym of Xolmis Boie 1826).
Alectrurinae G. R. Gray 1847 (Sept.), Genera of Birds, vol. 1, p. 241 (subfamily; type Alect-
rurus Veiellot).
Colopteridae Cabanis 1847, Archiv fir Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 23, Bd. 1, no. 1, p. 232 familiar ;
type Colopterus Cabanis, preoccupied by Colopterus Erichson 1842).
Platyrhynchinae Cabanis 1847, Archiv f. Naturg., Jahrg. 23, Bd. 1, pt. 1, p. 251 (subfamilia;
type Platyrinchus Desmaret).-Platyrinchinae Hellmayr 1927, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., zool.
ser., vol. 13, pt. 5, pp. 5, 261.
Elaininae Cabanis and Heine 1859 (Sept.), Museum Heineanum, pt. 2, p. 55 (subfamilia; type
Elaenia Sundevall).-Elaineinae Sclater 1888, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 14, pp. viii, 3,
109.-Elaeniinae Hellmayr 1927, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. ser., vol. 13, pt. 4, pp. vi,
400.
Conopophaginae Sclater and Salvin 1873, Nomenclature Avium Neotropicalium, p. 41 (sub-
family; type Conopophaga Vieillot).-Conopophagidae Garrod, 1877, Proc. Zool. Soc.
London, p. 452.
Euscarthminae Ridgway, 1906 (Jan. 29), Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 19, p. 11 (sub-
family; type Euscarthmus Wied).
Serpophaginae Ridgway, 1906 (Jan. 29), Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 19, p. 11 (subfamily;
type Serpophaga Gould).
Pitanginae Ridgway, 1906 (Jan. 29), Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 19, p. 12 (subfamily;
type Pitangus Swainson).
Myiarchinae Hellmayr, 1926, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., zool. ser., vol. 13, pt. 5, pp. 158 (subfamily;
type Myiarchus Cabanis).


Neospecies of Tyrannidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Sayornis phoebe (Latham). ILLINOIS: *Meyer Cave? (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleological
Soc. Bull;. vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian
Misc. Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 12).
2. Sayornis says (Bonaparte). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria? (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 172, pl. 13, fig. e). NEW MEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard
and A. H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, p. 16).
3. Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus). FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol.
31, p. 136).
4. Tyrannus dominicensis (Gmelin). BAHAMAS: *cave 10 mi. S. of March Harbor on Abaco
Island (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 238). DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC: Cerro San Francisco (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28,
no. 3, p. 279). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral and Cueva Clara (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 324).
5. Tyrannus vociferans Swainson. CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea? (A. H. Miller, 1929,
Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, p. 6, pl. 1, fig. b).
6. Tyrannus caudifasciatus (d'Orbigny). BAHAMAS: *cave 10 mi. S. of Marsh Harbor on
Abaco Island (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 238). HAITI: St.
Michel de l'Atalye (Wetmore, 1922, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 74, no. 4, p. 4). DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC: *Cerro San Francisco (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28,
no. 3, p. 279). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral and Cueva Clara (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 324).
7. Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus). ILLINOIS: *Meyer Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleolog.
Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130).
8. Myiarchus stolidus (Gosse). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 325).


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


9. Contopus virens (Linnaeus). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian
Misc. Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 12).
10. Contopus caribaeus (D'Orbigny). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cueva San Francisco?
(Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 279).
11. Contopus latirostris (Verreaux). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull.
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, no. 325).
12. Empidonax sp. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ.
Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 172, pl. 14, fig. j). ILLINOIS: *Meyer Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat.
Speleolog. Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130).

Family OXYRUNCIDAE Ridgway
Oxyrhynchidae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 299 (subfamily; type Ox-
yrhynchus Swainson, 1821, a junior synonym of Oxyruncus Temminck, 1820).-Sundevall,
1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 57 familiar) .
Oxyruncidae Ridgway, 1906 (Jan. 29), Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 19, p. 8 (family; type Oxy-
runcus Temminck).


No fossil record.

Family PHYTOTOMIDAE (Swainson)
Phytotominae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, p. 296 (subfamily; type Phyto-
toma Molina).-Phytotomidae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 86
familiar) .

No fossil record.

Family QUERULIDAE (Swainson)
Ampelidae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 232 (family; type Ampelis
Linnaeus, 1766, a junior synonym of Cotinga Brisson, 1760).-Ampelinae G. R. Gray, 1840
(before April), List of Genera of Birds, p. 34 (subfamily).
Coracinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 500 (subfamily; type Coracina
Vieillot, 1816, a senior synonym of Pyroderus G. R. Gray, 1840).-Coracininae Cabanis,
1847, Arch. fair Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 342.
Querulinae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 91, 255 (type Querula Vieillot).
-Quaerulinae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 179.
Tityranae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before April), List of Genera of Birds, p. 31 (subfamily; type Tityra
Vieillot).-Tityrinae Gray, 1841, List Genera Birds, ed. 2, p. 41.-Tityrinae Sundevall,
1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 62 (familia).-Tityrae Ridgway, 1907, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
no. 50, pt. 4, p. 777.
Pyroderinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before April), List of Genera of Birds, p. 38 (subfamily; type
Pyroderus G. R. Gray).-Pyroderae Ridgway, 1907, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 4,
p. 777.
Gymnoderinae G. R. Gray, 1847 (March), Genera of Birds, vol. 2, p. 317 (subfamily; type Gym-
noderus Geoffroy).-Gymnoderae Ridgway, 1907, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 4,
p. 778.
Psarinae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv fair Naturgeschicte, Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 236 (subfamily;
type Psaris Curvier, 1817, a junior synonym of Tityra Vieillot, 1816).
Cotingidae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 170 familiar ; type Cotinga
Brisson).
Heliocherinae Bonaparte, 1853 (seance du 31 Oct.), C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, no. 18, p.
645 (subfamilia; type Heliochera Filippi).
Attilinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 194 (subfamily; type Attila Lesson).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Rupicolinae Sclater, 1962, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 253 (subfamily; type Rupicola Brisson).-
Rupicola Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 61 (familia).-Rupicolidae Ridgway, 1906
(Jan. 29), Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 19, p. 9.
Ampelioninae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 62 familiar ; type Ampelio Cabanis).
Procniatinae Ridgway, 1907, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 4, p. 778 (subfamily; type Procnias
Illiger).
Ptilochlorinae Sclater, 1888, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 14, pp. xvi, 282, 316 (subfamily; type
Ptilochloris Swainson, 1837, a junior synonym of Laniisoma Swainson, 1832).

No fossil record.

Family PIPRIDAE Vigors
Pipridae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. 14, p. 435 (family; type Pipra Linnaeus).-
Piprinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (after Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 33 (subfamily).-Piprinae
Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 60 familiar) .

No fossil record.


Suborder PASSEREs Linnaeus
Passeres Linnaeus 1766.
Hirundines Wagler 1830.
Corvi Wagler 1830.
Certhiomorphae Sundevall 1872.
Cinnyriomorphae Sundevall 1872.
Sylviiformes Sundevall 1874.
Laniiformes Sundevall 1874.
Menurae Sharpe 1891.

Family ALAUDIDAE (Vigors)
Alaudina Vigors, 1825, Zoological Journal, vol. 1, p. 445 (stirps; type Alauda Linnaeus).-
Alaudidae Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken, col. 974 (family).-Alaudinae Bonaparte, 1831,
Saggio di una Distribuzione Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati, p. 51 (subfamilia).
Alaudinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 53 familiar) .
Calandritinae Cabanis, 1851 (May), Museum Heineanum, pt. 1, sig. 16, p. 121 (subfamilia;
type Calandritis Cabanis, 1851, a junior synonym of Calandrella Kaup, 1829).

Genus Melanocorypha Boie
Melanocorypha Boie, 1828, Isis von Oken, vol. 21, col. 322 (type Alauda yeltoniensis Forster,
designated by Gray, 1840, Recent).

1. Melanocorypha gracilis Tchernov
Melanocorypha gracilis Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleistocene Deposits of 'Ubeidiya,
p. 14, pl. 2, figs. 1-18 (syntypes from Ubeidiya, 40 prox. ends of coracoids, 5 prox. and
9 dist. ends of humeri, 10 prox. and 15 dist. ends of ulnae, 33 prox. and 7 dist. ends of
carpometacarpi, 15 frags. of premaxillae, Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem).

MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE ('Ubeidiya Formation). ISRAEL: 'Ubeidiya, on SW
bank of Sea of Galilee.


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Genus Alauda Linnaeus
Alauda Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 165 (type Alauda arvensis Linnaeus,
Recent).


2. Alauda jordanica Tchernov
Alauda jordanica Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleistocene Deposits of 'Ubeidiya, p. 19,
pl. 3, figs. 1-8 (syntypes from Ubeidiya, 6 prox. and 2 dist. ends of carpometacarpi, 7 prox.
and 8 dist. ends of ulnae, and 1 frag. mandible, Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem).
MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE ('Ubeidiya Formation). ISRAEL: 'Ubeidiya, on
SW bank of Sea of Galilee.


Neospecies of Alaudidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Melanocorypha calandra (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Mas Rambault, L'Escale, Orgnac-l'Aven,
and Combe Grenal (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975 Docum. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 186).
POLAND: Raj cave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 93, 200, fig. 60).
UKRAINE: Syuren, Novgorod-Seversk, and *Okunevki (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob-
stanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 31, 40, 59). RUSSIA: Don River between Nizhne-Chirsk
and Novocherkasska? (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit., p. 54). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa cave (Tcher-
nov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 104); Kebara cave on Mt. Carmel
(Melanocorypha major Tchernov, Nov. 1962, op. cit., p. 111, pl. [4], fig. 27; pl. [6], fig. 8-9;
holotype left humerus, Dept. Zool., Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem); 'Ubeidiya (Tchernov, 1968, Pre-
lim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 18, pl. 2, fig. 18; M. major synonymized).
2. Melanocorypha bimaculata (M6nktrihs), AZERBAIJAN: Binagady? (Serebrovsky, 1941,
Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 33, no. 7-8, p. 473).
3. Melanocorypha yeltoniensis (Forster). UKRAINE: Tankov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya
Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 80).
4. Melanocorypha sibirica (Gmelin). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect.
Soviet. Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 102, 112).
5. Calandrella cinerea (Gmelin). FRANCE: Grotte de l'Escale and Abimes de la Fage
(Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Docum. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 186, pl. 16, fig. 9); Pech
de l'Az6? (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 492). UKRAINE: Novgorod-Seversk and
*Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 41, 58).
See also Calandrella cf. cinerea from Pliocene of Tarkhankut, Crimea (Voinstvenski, 1967, op.
cit., p. 22).
6. Calandrella rufescens (Vieillot). AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Serebrovsky, 1941, Doklady
Akad. Nauk U. R. S. S., vol. 33, p. 473).
7. Galerida cristata (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Montmorency? (Paris, 1912, Rev. Franq. Orn.,
vol. 4, p. 284); Abimes de la Fage (Chauvir6, 1965, C. R. Soc. Geol. France, no. 1, p. 8); Combe-
Grenal (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quatemaires, M6m. no. 1, p. 359; Rond-du-Barry and
*Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 38); L'Escale, Orgnac-
1-Aven, Le Lazaret, Abri Suard, Font6chevade, Salpetre de Pompignan, La Crouzade, La
Balauzihre, Villereversure?, Campalou?, Baume de Gigny, and La Crouzade (Mourer-Chauvire,
1975, Docum. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 186); Grotte Tournal and Neuville-sur-Ain
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, pp. 392,447). SWITZERLAND: Felsen bei Birseck? and
Ermitage? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 789). GERMANY: Mauer an der Elsenz?
and Thiede (Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit., p. 789). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke (Lambrecht, 1912,
Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: BalcArka (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog,
vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb. kgl. ungar. Reich-
sanstalt, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 151); Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb, kgl. ungar. geol.
Reichsanst., vol. 23, pp. 481, 508). POLAND: Mamutowa cave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late
Quaternary Poland, pp. 98, 200). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet.
Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 4, pp. 103, 112); Novgorod Seversk (Zubareva, 1950, Trudi








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Inst. Zool. Akad. Nauk Ukrain. SSR, vol. 4, pp. 80, 92, pl. 3, fig. 14); Tankov. *Alimovsk, and
*Okunevk (Vointsvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 30, 58,
59). AZERBAIJAN: Klit (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 241).
ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa cave and Kebara cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel,
vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 100, 104, 106); Hayonim cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour.
Zool., vol. 15, p. 132). CHINA: Cou-Kou-Tien? (Howard, 1939, Fortschritte Palaont., vol. 2,
p. 314).
9. Lullula arborea (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Abimes de la Fage (Chauvir6, 1965, C.R. Soc.
Geol. France, no. 1, p. 8); *Grotte de l'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires,
M6m. no. 1, p. 291); Les Romains at Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973,
Quaternar, p. 153); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p.
38); L'Escale, Lunel-Viel, Orgnac-l'Aven, Le Lazaret, Cap de la Biehle, Aldene, Font6chevade,
La Balauzibre, Cottier, Combe Grenal, Grotte Simard, and Baume de Gigny (Mourer-Chauvir6,
1975, Docum. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 187). SARDINIA: Monte San Giovanni
(Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 472, pl. 37, fig. 9). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 789). POLAND: Mamutowa cave and Raj cave (Boch-
efiski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 99, 200). UKRAINE: Adzhi-Koba and Syuren
(Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fanny Proshlogo, pt. 3, pp. 28, 31).
10. Alauda arvensis Linnaeus. IRELAND: Castlepook Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,
vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). ENGLAND: Kirkdale Cave? (Lydekker, 1891, Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 3, p. 384);
Ightham fissure (E. T. Newton, 1894, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, Vol. 50, p. 191, pl. 10,
figs. 10-12); Clevedon Cave, Langworth Bassett Cave, Chudleigh Cave, and *Barton Mere
(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). SPAIN: Caverna de Santimamine (Villata,
1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 97). FRANCE: Montmorency (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France,
vol. 2, p. 598); Grotte de Moustier and Quercy (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 789);
Grotte de Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. prehist. Monaco, no. 11, pp.
64, 66, 72, 76, 78); Combe Grenal (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, p.
359); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 38); Les Valerots?,
L'Escale, Abimes de la Fage, Orgnac-l'Aven, Fontechevade, Eden Roc?, La Baulauziere,
Soulabe, Combe Grenal, Pech de l'Az6, La Quina, and Le Placard (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975,
Docum. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 187); Grotte de Balazuc? (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976,
op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 435). CORSICA: Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,
pt. 2, p. 231). SARDINIA: bone breccia (Milne-Edwards, 1971, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 597);
Monte San Giovanni? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 789). ITALY: Buco della Volpe
above Rovenna (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 197); Grotte du Prince
at Grimaldi? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, op. cit., p. 187). GERMANY: Westeregeln bei Mag-
deburg?, Audmerberg bei Goslar?, and Kleine Scheuer im Lonetal (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 789). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Holubice, Mikulov, Balcarova skila, Certova dira, and
Strinski skila (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Omitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 5). AUSTRIA: Schuster-
lucke? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 789); Hundsheim? (JAnossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr.
Akad. Wiss., math.-naturw. KI., Abt. 1, Bd. 182, Heft 6-8, p. 212). HUNGARY: PAlffy cave
(Lambrecht, 1913, vol. 20, p. 426). RUMANIA: Piuspokfilrd6 [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlang-
kutatAs, vol. 5, p. 30). POLAND: Mamutowa cave and Raj cave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late
Quaternary Poland, pp. 101, 200). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Tray. Sect. Soviet.
Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. i, pp. 103, 112); Novgorod-Seversk (Zubareva, 1950, Trudi Inst.
Zool. Akad. Ukrain. RSR, vol. 4, pp. 50, 92, pl. 3, figs. 3-8); grotto Chokurcha, Tardenuaz,
Desny River below Chernigov, Kiev, *Alimovsk, *Okunevk, and *Rayki (Voinstvenski, 1967,
Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fanny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 25, 30, 35, 40, 49, 51, 58, 59, 65). RUSSIA:
Don River between Nizhne-Chirskaya and Novocherkassk (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit., p. 54).
ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3,
pp. 100, 104). CHINA: Chou-Kou-Tien? (Howard, 1939, Fortschritte Paldont., vol. 2, p. 314.
11. Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave? (Bell, 1915, Zoologist,
ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). BELGIUM: Grotte Marie-Jeanne (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut,
vol. 63, p. 10). FRANCE: Mas Rambault and l'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson (Mourer-Chauvire,
1975, Docum. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 187). CORSICA: Grotta de Funtanedu?
(E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 231). SWITZERLAND: Schweizers-
bild bei Schaffhausen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 789). CZECHOSLOVAKIA:


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


BalcArka kSkutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22). POLAND: Mamutowa
cave and Raj cave, (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 95, 200, text-fig. 63,
pl. 6, fig. 3). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Asso. Internat. Etude Quat.,
pt. 1, pp. 102, 112); Adzhi-Koba, Novgorod-Seversk, and Tankov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirod-
naya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 28, 30, 40). AZERBAIJAN: Klit (Burchak-
Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds Caves USSR, p. 241). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (L.
Miller, 1912, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol. 7, no. 5, p. 78); McKittrick (A. H. Miller,
1937, Condor, vol. 39, p. 250). NEW MEXICO: Conkling Cavern and Shelter Cave (Howard and
A. H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 70, no. 2, p. 183). SOUTH DAKOTA: *Hosterman, *Spiry-Eklo,
and *Sully (Parmalee, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 22-77, p. 197).

Family HIRUNDINIDAE Vigors

Hirundinidae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 428 (family; type Hirundo
Linnaeus).-Hirundininae Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List Genera Birds, p. 8 (subfamily).-
Hirundininae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 52 familiar) .
Psalidoprocninae Sharpe, 1870, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 288 (subfamily; type Psalidoprocne
Cabanis).
Pseudochelidonidae Shelley, 1896, Birds of Africa, vol. 1, p. 104 (family; type Pseudochelidon
Hartlaub).-Pseudochelidoninae Bannerman, 1939, Birds Tropical W. Africa, vol. 5, p. 299
(subfamily).

Genus Hirundo Linnaeus

Hirundo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 191 (type Hirundo rustica Linnaeus,
Recent, designated by Gray, 1840).



1. Hirundo aprica Feduccia

Hirundo aprica Feduccia, 1967 (Oct. 9), Condor, vol. 69, no. 5, p. 526, fig. 1 (type from Fox
Canyon, right humerus, Univ. Mich. Mus. Paleo. no. 28104).
UPPER PLIOCENE (Rexroad Formation). KANSAS: Meade County: Fox
Canyon.

Genus Tachycineta Cabanis

Tachycineta Cabanis, 1851, Museum Heineanum, pt. 1, p. 48 (type by original designation
Hirundo thalassina Swainson, Recent).


2. Tachycineta speleodytes Brodkorb

Tachycineta speleodytes Brodkorb, 1957 (Feb. 26), Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no. 1, p. 131 pl. 20,
fig. 1-9 (type from Dixie Lime Products mine, left humerus, Brodkorb coll. no. 1270
with associated left ulna, no. 1271, and left radius, no. 1272; referred rostrum, coracoids,
carpometacarpi, femur, tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi).
UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Reddick beds). FLORIDA: Marion County: Dixie
Lime Products Company mine, 1 mi SE Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957).
UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Arredondo clay). FLORIDA: Alachua County: Arre-
dondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283); Haile
(Ligon, 1966), Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 149).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Neospecies of Hirundinidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Progne subis (Linnaeus). IDAHO: Jaguar Cave (L. Miller, 1965, Tebiwa, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 19).
FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no. 1, p. 136).
2. Progne chalybea (Gmelin). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania and Lapa da Lagoa Sumidouro
(0. Winge, 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 48).
3. Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot). YUCATAN: Actun Has?, *Actun Coyok?, and *Actun
Spukil? (H. I. Fisher, 1953 Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33, p. 83).
4. Riparia riparia (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Grotte du Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull.
Mus. anthrop. pr6hist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 64-78); Grotte de l'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972,
Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, p. 276). SARDINIA: (Lambrecht, 1918, Aquila, vol. 24, p. 207).
UKRAINE: *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3,
p. 58).
5. Ptyonoprogne rupestris (Scopoli). FRANCE: Grotte de Lourdes (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois.
Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 594); Grotte du Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Antrhop.
pr6hist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 61, 66, 78); Grotte de l'Hortus, Combe Grenal, and Grotte de
l'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, pp. 276, 289, 359); Rond-
du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 38); L'Escale, Abimes de la
Fage, Orgnac-l'Aven, Cap de la Biehle, Fontechevade, and Pi6 Lombard (Mourer-Chauvire,
1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 188); Bruniquel (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976,
op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 426). ITALY: Grotte Menton, Equi shelter and cave, and Grotta dei Colombi?
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 776). HUNGARY: Subalyuk cave? (Jinossy, 1962, Aquila,
vol. 67-68, p. 181).
6. Hirundo rustica Linnaeus. IRELAND: Kesh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no.
893, p. 403). ENGLAND: Ightham fissure (E. T. Newton, 1899, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London,
vol. 55, no. 219, p. 420); Langwith Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,
p. 403): Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 775). FRANCE: Quercy and
Bruniquel? (Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit., pp. 775, 776); Balme-les-Grottes (Chauvir6, 1963, C. R.
Sommaire Soc. Geol. France, fasc. 2, p. 53); Grotte du Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull.
Mus. Antrhop. pr6hist. Monaco. pp. 61, 72); Abimes de la Fage (Chauvir6, 1965, C. R. Soc.
Geol. France, no. 1, p. 8); Morin (Chauvire, 1965, Congrhs Soc. Savantes, p. 255); Grottes
inf6rieures d'Aurensan (Bouchud, 1972, Bull. Asso. Fran9 Etude Quat., vol. 1, pp. 53,56); Soulab6,
La Colombihre at Neuville-sur-Ain, Le Blot, Cottier, Combe Grenal, and *Arago (Mourer-
Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 189). BELGIUM: Grotte Marie-
Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63, p. 9). GIBRALTAR: Devil's Tower (Bate, 1928,
Jour. Roy. Anthrop. Inst., vol. 58, p. 104); Forbes quarry (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 775). SARDINIA: Monte Giovanni? (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 473, pl.
37, fig. 10). MALTA: Ghar-Dalam? (Fischer and Stephan, 1974, Z. geol. Wiss. Berlin, vol. 4,
p. 518). ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi? (RegAlia, 1893, Arch. Antrop. Etnol., vol. 23, p. 262);
Grotta Romanelli? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 775); Grotte du Prince? (Mourer-
Chauvire, 1976, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 2, p. 363). SWITZERLAND:
Ettingen? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 776). GERMANY: Seveckenberg bei Quedling-
burg (Hirundo fossilis Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 18; types clavicle,
carpometacarpus, 2 dist. frag. radii, prox. frag. tarsometatarsus; this sp.?); Hermannshole bei
Riubeland (Blasius, 1901, Jour. f. Orn., vol. 49, pp. 58-60); Westeregeln bei Magdeburg, Thiede
bei Westerregeln, Roter Berg bei Saalfeld, Fuchsloch bei Bleitsen, Possneck, and St. Wolf-
gang? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 776). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Certova dira (Capek,
1910, Ber. Internat. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 941); Strinska skAla and Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 776); BalcArka, Holst n, and Kulna (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog,
vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 775);
Hundsheim? (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-naturw. Kl., pt. 1, vol. 182, no.
6-8, p. 212). HUNGARY: Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); PilisszAnto (Lam-
brecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 480, fig. 18); IstAllo6sk6 (Janossy,
1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 216); Czarnota? (Kretzoi, 1956, Geologica Hungarica, ser. pal.,
fasc. 27, p. 128). RUMANIA: Piispokffirdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, BarlangkutatAs, vol. 5, p. 29).
POLAND: Raj cave and Niedostepna rock-shelter (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quarternary
Poland, pp. 102, 200). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso. Internat.


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 103, 112); Novgorod Seversk (Zubareva, 1950, Trudi Inst. Zool. Akad.
Nauk Ukrain. RSR, vol. 4, pp. 80, 94, pl. 3, figs. 17-21); Tankov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro-
dnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 30); Murzan-Koba cave (Burchak-Abramovich,
Fossil Birds in Caves USSR, p. 237). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research
Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 106, 113, 126, 131, pl. 1, figs. 4-5; pl. 6, fig. 13); Hayonim Cave
(Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 132). CHINA: Chou-Kou-Tien
(Howard, 1932, Fortschritte Palaont., vol. 2, p. 314). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania? (Winge, 1883,
E. Museo Lundii, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 80, 88); Lagoa do Sumidouro (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 775 [error?]).
7. Hirundo daurica Linnaeus. FRANCE: Grotte de l'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes
Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, p. 276); Pierre-ChAtel Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvir6, 1973, Quar-
tir, vol. 23-24, p. 153); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p.
38); Abimes de la Fage, Le Lazaret, Abri Suard, Pompignan, Remoulins, La Baulauzibre,
Les Romains, Grotte Jean Pierre no. 1, Jaurens, Le Blot, Pech de l'Az6, Grotte Simard, Baum
de Gigny, and *Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no.
64, p. 189). ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi, (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 776); Grotte
du Prince (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 2, p. 363).
ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3,
p. 100).
8. Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Vieillot). CALIFORNIA: McKittrick (L. Miller, 1925, Univ.
Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 15, p. 325). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore,
1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 12).
9. Petrochelidonfulva (Vieillot). TEXAS: Klein Cave (Feduccia, 1972, Southwestern Natural-
ist, vol. 17, no. 3, p. 296). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro San Francisco (Bernstein, 1965,
Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 279); PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wet-
more, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 325). YUCATAN: *Actun Lara?, *Actun
Coyok?, *Actun Spukil?, and *Actun Oxkintok (H. I. Fisher, 1953, Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull.,
vol. 33, p. 83).
10. Delichon urbica (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Newhall Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol.
19, no. 893, p. 403). ENGLAND: Carnfort Cave (Bell, 1915, op. cit., p. 403). FRANCE: *Grotte
de l'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, p. 291); Les Romains at
Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvird, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 153); Rond-du-Barry
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 38); Soulab6, Combe Grenal, and
Petit Puymoyen (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 189).
ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 766). CZECHOSLOVAKIA:
StrAnskA skala and BalcArka (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). RU-
MANIA: Piispokf-irdo [= Betfia] (Capek, 1917, BarlangkutatAs, vol. 5, p. 70). UKRAINE:
Kara-Koba, Novgorod-Seversk, Nizhnee Krivche, and "Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya
Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 36, 41, 42, 58). RUSSIA: Don River between Nizhnee-
Chirskaya and Novocherasski (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit., p. 54).


Family DICRURIDAE (Vigors)

Dicrurina Vigors, 1825, fide Gray (type Dicrurns Vieillot).-Dicrurinae Swainson, 1837, Nat.
Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 4, 221 (subfamily).-Dicrourinae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv. f.
Naturgesch., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 323 (subfamilia).-Dicrourinae Sundevall, 1872,
Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 22 (familia).-Dicruridae Blyth, 1849, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiatic Soc.,
p. 200 (family).
Edolianae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 105 (subfamily; type Edolius
Cuvier, 1817, a junior synonym of Dicrurus Vieillot, 1816).-Edoliinae Bonaparte, 1850,
Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 349.

Neospecies of Dicruridae from the Pleistocene

1. Dicrurus macrocercus Vieillot. CHINA: Chou-Kou-Tien? (Howard, 1939, Fortschritte
Palaont., vol. 2, p. 314).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Family ORIOLIDAE (Vigors)
Oriolina Vigors, 1825, fide Gray (type Oriolus Linnaeus).-Oriolidae Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken,
col. (family).-Oriolinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 152 (sub-
family).-Oriolinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 21 familiar) .
Ireninae Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt. 1, pp. xvi, 288 (subfamily; type lrena Hors-
field).-Irenidae Oberholser, 1917, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 7, p. 537.


Neospecies of Oriolidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Oriolous oriolus (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Font6chevade at Montbron (Mourer-Chauvir6,
1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 214). ITALY: *Grotta dei Colombi (Lambrecht,
1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarka (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939,
Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). HUNGARY: Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21,
p. 90); Pilisszanto (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst. vol. 23, p. 408). ISRAEL:
Kebara Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 106, 110,
128, pl. 3, fig. 20).


Family CORVIDAE Vigors
Coraces Illiger, 1811, Proromus systematis mammalium et avium, pp. 196, 225 familiar ; type by
autonomy Coracia Brisson, 1760 [nee Coracias Linnaeus, 1776], a junior synonym of
Corvus Linnaeus, 1758).-Coraces Vieillot, 1816, Analyse d'un nouvelle ornithologie
l66mentaire, p. 35 (famille).
Corvidae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 445 (family; type Corvus Lin-
naeus).-Corvina Vigors, 1825, fide Gray.-Corvinae Bonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una
Distribuzione Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati, p. 42 (subfamilia).-Corvinae Sunde-
vall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 43 familiar) .
Garrulidae Boie, 1825, Isis von Oken, col. 000 (family; type Garrulus Brisson).--Garrulinae
Swainson, 1832, fide Gray (subfamily).-Garrulinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p.
42 familiar) .
Crypsirinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 288 (subfamily).-Crypserinae
Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, p. 96 (subfamily).
Frigilinae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 96, 268 (subfamily; type "Frigilus",
i.e. Fregilus Cuvier, 1817, a junior synonym of Pyrrhocorax Vieillot, 1816). Fregilinae
Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 39 (subfamily).-Fregilinae Sunde-
vall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 42 familiar) .
Gymnorhininae Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 37 (subfamily; type Gym-
norhina Gray).-Gymnorhininae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 44 familiar) .
Pyrrhocoracinae Gray, 1846 (Apr.), Genera of Birds, vol. 2, p. 319 (subfamily; type Pyrrhocorax
Vieillot).
Streperinae Blyth, 1849, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiatic Soc., p. 105 (subfamily; type Strepera Lesson).-
Streperidae Ridgway, 1909 (March), in Knowlton, Birds of World, p. 726 footnote (family).
-Streperidae Sharpe, 1909 (preface dated Aug. 24), Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, vol. 5,
p. 629).
Baritinae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 367 (subfamily; type Barita
Cuvier, 1817, a junior synomy of Cracticus Vieillot, 1816).
Nucifraginae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 42 familiar ; type Nucifraga Vieillot).
Zavattariornithidae Lowe, 1949, Ibis, vol. 91, p. 102 (family; type Zavattariornis Moltoni).
Cracticidae Amadon, 1943, Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1247, p. 13 (family; type Cracticus
Vieillot).
Grallinidae Mayr and Amadon, 1941 (Apr. 2), Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1496, p. 31 (family;
type Grallina Vieillot).
Corcoracinae Mayr and Amadon, 1951 (Apr. 2), Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1496, p. 38 (sub-
family; type Corcorax Lesson).
Aphelocomini Hardy, 1961 (Dec. 29), Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., vol. 42, no. 2, p. 137 (tribe; type
Aphelocoma Cabanis).


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Cyanocorini Hardy, 1961 (Dec. 29), Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., vol. 42, no. 2, p. 137 (tribe; type
Cyanocorax Boie).-Cyanocoracini Hardy, 1964 (Apr. 30), Occ. Papers C. C. Adams
Center for Ecological Studies, no. 11, p. 1 ("justified emendation").

Subfamily GARRULINAE (Boie)
Garrulidae Boie, 1825.-Garrulinae Swainson, 1832.
Crypsirininae Swainson, 1831.
Alphelocomini Hardy, 1961.
Cyanocorini Hardy, 1961.

Genus fMiocitta Brodkorb
Miocitta Brodkorb, 1972 (18 Sept.), Condor, vol. 74, no. 3, p. 347 (type by original designation
Miocitta galbreathi Brodkorb).

1. Miocitta galbreathi Brodkorb
Miocitta galbreathi Brodkorb, 1972 (18 Sept.), Condor, vol. 74, no. 3, p. 347, fig. 1 holotypee
from near Peetz, distal portion of right humerus, Southern Illinois Univ. no. P 198).
UPPER MIOCENE (Kennesaw local fauna, lower part of Pawnee Creek
Formation). COLORADO: Logan County: about 20 mi WSW Peetz, in SE 1/4,
section 26, Township 11 N, Range 55 W.

Genus fProtocitta Brodkorb
Protocitta Brodkorb, 1957 (Feb. 26), Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no. 1, p. 132 (type by original desig-
nation Protocitta dixi Brodkorb).

2. Protocitta ajax Brodkorb
Protocitta ajax Brodkorb, 1972 (18 Sept.), Condor, vol. 74, no. 3, p. 349, fig. 2 holotypee from
Palo Duro Falls, Univ. Calif. Mus. Paleo. no. 43386, left tarsometatarsus; see also Pica
pica A. H. Miller and Bowman, 1956, Condor, vol. 58, no. 2, p. 164, fig. 2).
UPPER PLIOCENE (Blancan age). TEXAS: Randall County: Palo Duro
Falls, locality V-5318, 9 mi E, 3 1/2 mi N Canyon).
UPPER PLIOCENE (Rexroad Formation, Blancan age). KANSAS: Meade
County: Rexroad Ranch (Brodkorb, 1972, p. 349).

3. Protocitta dixi Brodkorb
Protocitta dixi Brodkorb, 1957 (Feb. 26), Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no. 1, p. 132, pl. 20, figs. 14-18
(type from Dixie Lime mine, left humerus, Brodkorb coll. no. PB 428; referred coracoid,
ulna, carpometacarpus, tarsometatarsus).-Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv. Geol. Bull.,
no. 44, p. 193, fig. (deser-scapula, femur, tibiotarsus).
LOWER UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Reddick beds). FLORIDA: Marion County:
Dixie Lime Products Company mine, 1 mi SE Reddick.
LOWER UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Arredondo clay). FLORIDA: Alachua
County: Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 149).
UPPER PLEISTOCENE (cave deposit). TEXAS: Llano County: Miller's
Cave (Weigel, 1967, Texas Jour. Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, p. 108).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Genus f'Henocitta Holman
Henocitta Holman, 1959 (Sept. 3), Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 5, no. 1, p. 5 (type by original
designation Henocitta brodkorbi Holman).

4. Henocitta brodkorbi Holman
Henocitta brodkorbi Holman, 1959 (Sept. 3), Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 5, no. 1, p. 6, pl. 1,
figs. 1-2 (type from Connell and Schultz mine, distal half of left humerus, Brodkorb coll.
no. PB 2323).
LOWER UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Arredondo clay). FLORIDA: Levy County:
Connell and Schultz Limerock Company quarry, SE edge Williston.

Subfamily CORVINAE (Vigors)
Coraces Illiger, 1811.
Corvidae Vigors, 1825.-Corvinae Bonaparte, 1831.
Frigilinae Swainson, 1837.
Pyrrhocoracinae Gray, 1846.
Zavattariornithidae Lowe, 1949.

Genus Corvus Linnaeus
Corvus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 105 (type by autonomy Corvus corax
Linnaeus, Recent).
Miocorax Lambrecht, 1933, Handbuch der Palaeornithologie, p. 636 (type by monotypy Corvus
larteti Milne-Edwards; preoccupied by Miocorax Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit., p. 291).
Miocorvus Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit., p. 1024 (new name for Miocorax Lambrecht, p. 636).
Palaeocorax Forbes, 1892 (Dec. 31), Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 1, p. xxi (type by monotypy
Corvus moriorum Forbes).


5. Corvus larteti Milne-Edwards
Corvus larteti Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, sig. 48, p. 381. pl. 151-152 (type
from Sansan, tarsometatarsus, tibiotarsus, ends of femur, coracoid, scapula, ulna, carpo-
metacarpus, phalanges, quadrate).
UPPER MIOCENE (Tortonian). FRANCE: Dept. Gers: Sansan.

6. Corvus pliocaenus (Portis)
Numenius sp. (Pliocaenus) Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 194 (11 Tasso,
distal portion ulna; nomen nudum).-Portis, 1889, Mem. Ist. Studi Superiori Firenze, p.
195, pl. 38, figs. 26a-b (type from 11 Tasso, distal part of right ulna, Cabinetto di Geologia,
Istituto di Studi Superiori, Firenze).-Corvus pliocaenus Regalia, 1902, Palaeontographia
Italica, vol. 8, p. 220, pl. 27, fig. 1 (type restudied).
Corvus praecorax Dep6ret, 1890 stancee 21 March), C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 114, no. 12, p.
691 (Rousillon [basin], brief descr. tarsometatarsus, tibiotarsus, carpometacarpus, coll.
Dr. A. Donnezan).-Dep&ret, 1892 stancee 25 Apr.), C. R. Soc. g6ologique France, ser. 3,
vol. 20, no. 7, p. lxv (Perpignan; no descr.).-Dep6ret, 1897, M6m. Soc. geol. France,
Pal. M6m. no. 3, p. 135, pl. 13, figs. 12-19 (descr. humerus, ulna, carpometacarpus,
tibiotarsus).-Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 248
(types restudied, now in Dept. Sciences de la Terre, Lyon).'

'The single available measurement of the type of N. pliocaenus, the oblique width of the ulna, is 10.7 mm, only 0.2 mm.
less than the corresponding measurement of C praecorax. Mourer-Chauvir6 nevertheless considered them as representing
different species of separate lineages.


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Corvus betfianus Kretzoi, 1962 (Feb.), Aquila, vol. 67-68, p. 172 holotypee from Betfia 5, distal
part of left carpometacarpus, Museum Regional, Oradea, no. 1899a/4). Position tentative.

UPPER PLIOCENE (Perpignan clay, Astian). FRANCE: Pyr6nees Orientales:
Fort de Serrat-d'en-Vacquer, near Perpignan, in Rousillon basin (Dep6ret,
1890).
UPPER PLIOCENE (Astian) or LOWEST PLEISTOCENE (Villafranchian).
ITALY: Valdarno: 11 Tasso, near Terranova (Portis, 1889).
UPPER LOWER PLEISTOCENE (Biharian terrarosa). RUMANIA: Betfia, no.
5, 9 km SE Nagyvarad (Kretzoi, 1962; tentatively referred, see Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1975, p. 237, fig. 30).


6a. Corvus pliocaenus janossyi Mourer-Chauvir6
Corvus pliocaenus janossyi Mourer-Chauvirb, 1975 (27 June), Doc. Lab. GCol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,
no. 64, fasc. 1, pp. 1, 230, pl. 18; pl. 19, figs. 1-2 holotypee from Grotte de l'Escale,
left humerus, Univ. Lyon, no. CD 66-D-11290, referred radii, ulnae, carpometacarpi,
coracoids, scapulae, femora, tibiotarsi, and tasometatarsi; Lunel-Viel, coracoid; Abimes de
la Fage, coracoid, deistal half of ulna).-Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist.
Nat. Lyon, fasc. 13, p. 99, pl. 99, fig. 12 (La Fage, ulna).
LOWER MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE: (Mindel): FRANCE: Bouches-du-Rh6ne:
Grotte de 1'Escale at Saint-Est6ve-Janson.
MIDDLE MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE (Mindel-Riss). FRANCE: H6rault: Lunel-
Viel.
UPPER MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE (Riss). FRANCE: Corr6ze: Abimes de la Fage
at Noailles.


7. Corvus hungaricus Lambrecht
Corvus hungaricus Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, pp. 173, 175, figs. 2-3 holotypee from
Nagyharsany Mountain, left tarsometatarsus and referred distal end of right humerus,
Mus. Kgl. Ungarisch. Geol. Anstalt, Budapest).
LOWER LOWER PLEISTOCENE (Villafranchian). FRANCE: Haute Loire:
Seneze (Stehlin, 1923, Eclogae geol. Helv., vol. 18, p. 280). Saint-Vallier
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 1,
pp. 247-248, 253, pl. 22, fig. 14).
UPPER LOWER PLEISTOCENE (Biharian terrarosa). HUNGRY: Komitat
Baranya: Nagyharsany Mountain (Lambrecht, 1916).


8. Corvus wetmorei Brodkorb
Corvus wetmorei Brodkorb, 1959 (June 3), Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 11, p. 363, pl. 3,
figs. 1-9 holotypee from Banana Hole, distal portion of left humerus, Florida State Mus.
no. UF 3210; referred ulna, carpometacarpus, femora, dist. tibiotarsus, prox. tarsometa-
tarsus, ungues).
UPPER PLEISTOCENE (cave deposit). BAHAMAS: New Providence Island:
Banana Hole (Brodkorb, 1959). Great Exuma Island (Wetmore, 1937, Bull.


1978








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 80, no. 12, p. 440)? Crooked Island: Gordon Hills Cave
(Wetmore, 1938, Auk, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 52)?

9. Corvus pumilis Wetmore
Corvus pumilis Wetmore, 1920 (Dec. 30), Prox. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 33, p. 81 holotypee
from Cueva San Miguel, right ulna, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. no. 4925).-Wetmore, 1922,
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 327, fig. 23).-Wetmore, 1937, Jour. Agr. Univ.
Puerto Rico, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 14, pl. 1, figs. 10-14 (tibiotarsus).
QUATERNARY (cave deposit). PUERTO Rico: Cueva San Miguel near
Morovis (Wetmore, 1920).
RECENT (pre-Columbian midden). VIRGIN ISLANDS: St. Croix (Wetmore,
1937).

10. Corvus moriorum Forbes
Corvus moriorum Forbes, 1892, Nature, vol. 46, p. 252 (Chatham Islands).-Palaeocorax moriorum
Forbes, 1892 (Dec. 31), Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 1, no. 4, p. xxi,-Forbes, 1893 (April),
Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 5, no. 18, p. 254.-Dawson, 1958, Ibis, vol. 100, p. 235 (note on apparent
types).-Scarlett, 1972, Bull. Canterbury Mus., no. 4, p. 19 (Chatham Islands; means.
humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus).
QUATERNARY. CHATHAM ISLANDS.

10a. Corvus moriorum antipodum (Forbes)
Palaeocorax antipodum Forbes, 1893 (Oct.), Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 5, no. 20, p. 544 (type from North
Island).-Palaeocorax moriorum Scarlett, 1972, Bull. Canterbury Mus., no. 4, p. 19, fig.
25, 58-59, 87-88, 140-141, 239-241 (New Zealand, meas.; fig. sternum, coracoid, scapula,
humerus, radius, ulna, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, femur).
QUATERNARY. NEW ZEALAND: North Island (Forbes, 1893). SOUTH
ISLAND: Wairau Bar, Lake Grassmere, Pyramid Valley, Banks Peninsula,
and Ngapara (Oliver, 1955), N. Z. Birds, ed. 2, p. 606, fig.); Tai Rua (Trotter,
1965, Notornis, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 178).

Neospecies of Corvidae from the Pleistocene and Holocene
Subfamily GARRULINAE (Boie)
1. Cymnorhinus cyanocephalus Wied. UTAH: *Sand Dune Cave (Hargrave, 1970, Tech.
Ser. Mus. N. Arizona, no. 9, pp. 40, 45). ARIZONA: *Winona Village (Hargrave, 1939, Condor,
vol. 41, no. 5, p. 209). NEW MEXICO: Conkling Cavern and Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H.
Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16).
2. Aphelocoma coerulescens (Bosc). FLORIDA: Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida
State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283); Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull.,
no. 44, p. 193); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 149).
3. Aphelocoma californica (Vigors). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (A. H. Miller, 1929,
Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 19, no. 6, pl. 1, fig. b); Carpinteria (A. H. Miller,
1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 173, pl. 12, figs. a, d); McKittrick (A. H.
Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39, no. 6, p. 250). UTAH: *Sand Dune Cave (Hargrave, 1970, Tech.
Ser. Mus. N. Arizona, no. 9, pp. 38, 45). NEW MEXICO: *Cochiti Dam? (Harris, 1968, Mus.
New Mexico Research Records, no. 6, p. 222).
4. Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus). WISCONSIN: *Raddatz rock shelter (Parmalee, 1959,
Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 85). PENNSYLVANIA: *Sheep Rock shelter (Guilday


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


and Parmalee, 1965, Pennsylvania Archaeologist, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 39). VIRGINIA: Natural
Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 13). FLORIDA: Reddick
(Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no. 1, p. 136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida
State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283); *Vero Beach (Weigel, 1963, Florida Geol. Surv. Spec. Publ.,
no. 10, p. 30).
5. Cyanocitta stelleri (Gmelin). OREGON: (Lambrecht, 1921, Fossilium Catalogus, p. 90).
CALIFORNIA: Samwel Cave and Hawver Cave (L. Miller, 1911, Univ. California Publ., Bull.
Dept. Geol., vol. 6, no. 16, p. 339); Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol.
Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 173, pl. 12, fig. b, c); Rancho La Brea (Wetmore, 1940, Smithsonian
Misc. Coll., vol. 99, no. 4, p. 71). ARIZONA: "Kiet Siel Pueble (Hargrave, 1939, Condor, vol.
41, no. 5, p. 209).
6. Cissilopha yucatanica (Dubois). YUCATAN: *Actun Chacaljas (H. I. Fisher, Cranbrook
Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33, p. 83); *Actun Spukil? (as Cyanocorax cyanomelas, Fisher, 1935, op. cit.,
pp. 83, 85).
7. Xanthoura yncas (Boddaert). YUCATAN: *Actun Spukil (H. I. Fisher, 1953, Cranbrook
Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33, p. 83).
8. Cyanocorax cristatella (Temminck). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania (0. Winge, 1887, E
Museo Lundii, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 48).
9. Perisoreus canadensis (Linnaeus). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smith-
sonian Misc. Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 12).
10. Garrulus glandarius (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Kesh Cave, Edenvale Cave, and Newhall
Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave and
*Hornsea (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, 1922, nos. 787-788, p. 251). SPAIN: Caverna de Santimamifie
(Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 99). FRANCE: Combe-Grenal (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972,
Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no. 1, p. 359); Grotte des Espelungues (Bouchud, 1972, Bull. Asso.
Franc. Etude Quatern, vol. 1, pp. 55-56); Les Romains at Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse and Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 154); Rond-du-Barry and 'Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-
Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson, Lunel-
Viel, Abimes de la Fage, Orgnac-l'Aven, Le Lazaret, Aldene at Cesseras, Salpetre de Pompig-
nan, Grotte Tournal at Bize, La Crouzade at Gruissan, Rond-du-Barry, Vergissond, Flavigny-
sur-Ozerain, Baum de Gigny, *Flavigny-sur-Ozerain, *Baum de Gonvillars, and *Arago actuel at
Tautavel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 214, pl. 17, fig.
17); Grotte de la Baulaziere at Vers (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 399). BELGIUM:
Trou de Chaleux, du Sureau, du Frontal (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 783). LUXEM-
BURG: Oet-ange (Ferrant and Friant, 1940, Faune Pl6istocene d'Oetrange, p. 201, pl. 15).
CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Prox. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 231).
ITALY: Grotte de Menton Buca dell Tasso, and *Buca Tana di Maggiano (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 783); Grottes du Grimaldi, Gr. du Prince, and Gr. du Cavillon (Mourer-
Chauvire, 1976, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 2, pp. 365, 368). SWITZERLAND:
Ettingen and *Ettingen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 783). GERMANY: Viogtstedt?
(Jinossy, 1965, Pal. Abhandl., Abt. A, vol. 2, nos. 2-3 p. 355). DENMARK: Maglemose (0.
Winge, Vidensk. Meddel. naturh. Foren., vol. 6, p. 103). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarova
skAla, Sipka, and Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber. V. internal. ornith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 938);
Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p, 783); StrinskA skAla, Holubic, Holstyn skAla,
Kulna, Zazdena, and Verunciva (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22).
AUSTRIA: Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 783). HUNGARY: Remetehegy
(Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); Pilisszdnt6 and *Pilisszanto (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt.
Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 480); Kalten-Szamos-Tal (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol.
22, p. 194); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatis, vol. 4, no. 3-4, p. 206); Hidegszamos,
Siebenbiirgen, *Devencze, and *Legenybarlang bei Pilisszentl6lek (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 783). POLAND: Koziara Cave, *Niedastepna rock-shelter, and Zamkowa Dolna
Cave (Bochefiski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 108, 200). RUMANIA: Puispokffirdo
(Capek, 1917, BarlangkutatAs, vol. 5, pp. 29, 70). MOLDAVIA: Starye Druitory (Voinstvenski,
1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, p. 46). UKRAINE: Chokurcha, Belbek,
Syuren II, Murzak-Koba, Shan-Koba, Nizhne Krivche, Rasponintsy, Desny River below Cherni-
gov, middle Dnepr near Kiev, and Zaporozhya (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit., pp. 26, 37,38, 42, 44,
48, 53), RUSSIA: Don River between Nizhne-Chirsk and Novocherkassk (Voinstvenski, 1967,


1978







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


op. cit., p. 54); *Zhiguley Cave on Volga River (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in
Caves of USSR, p. 242). GEORGIAN SSR: *Darkweti (Bendukidze, 1973, Tezisi Dokladov k
IV Vsesouznomu Soveshchanizu po Izuchenui Chetvertichnogo Perioda, p. 88). ISRAEL: Kebara
Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Res. Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 106).


Subfamily CORVINAE (Vigors)
11. Pica pica (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Castlepook Cave, Edenvale Cave, and Newhall Cave
(Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). FRANCE: Caverne de Brengues (Giebel,
1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 17); Lacombe-Thayac (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois.
Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 594); Grotte du Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop.
pr6hist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 62-78); Grottes inf6rieures et sup6rieures d'Aurensan (Bouchud,
1972, Bull. Asso. France. Etude Quatern., vol. 1, pp. 52, 54), Les Romains at Pierre-Chitel
(Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvir6, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 154); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-
Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); Abtmes de la Fage, Orgnac-l'Aven, Cap
de la Biehle, Font6chevade, Salp6tre de Pompignan, La Baulazi6re, La Salp6triere at Remoulins,
Soulab6, Esp6lugues at Lourdes, La Colombi6re at Neuville-sur-Ain, Campalou, Combe Grenal,
Petit Puymoyen, Baum de Gigny, Baum de Gonvillars, *Baum de Gonvillars, and 'Arago actuel
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 219); La Caune de l'Arago
at Tautavel, Grotte des Hoteaux at Rossillon, La Columbibre at Neuville sur Ain, and Pech de
l'Az6 (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, pp. 324, 441, 447, 493). PORTUGAL: Grotte
de Furninha? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). MALLORCA: Son Bauzi Cave (Ball-
mann and Adrover, 1970, Acta Geol6gica Hispanica, vol. 5, p. 62). MONACO: Grotte de 1'
Observatoire (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). CORSICA: Grotta di Brietta (E. T.
Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 231). SARDINIA: bone breccia (Milne-
Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 595). ITALY: Cavernes de Verrezzi (Milne-Edwards,
1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 595); Buco della Volpe above Rovenna (Portis, 1888, Mem.
Accad. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 197); Grotte de Menton,Grotte du Prince, Grotte du Cavillon
at Grimaldi, Grotta d'Equi, Buca dell Tasso, Grotta dei Colombi?, caveme delle Arena candida,
and Finalmarino (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782); Grotte de Gerbai (Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1976 (Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 2, p. 359). SWITZERLAND:
Hohle am Schlossfelsen von Birseck bei Basel, Ermitage, Kaltbrunnental-Hohle (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). BELGIUM: Trou de Nutons, du Sureau, du Frontal (Lambrecht,
1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 782). *DENMARK: (L4ppenthin, 1967, Danske Ynglefugle i fortid
og nutid, pp. 52, 54, 503, 558). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Sipka and Ludmirau Certova dira (Capek,
1910, Ber. V. internal. ornith. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 939,940). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke (Lambrecht,
1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 303); Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). HUNGARY:
Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911, Mitt, Jahrb. Kgl. Ungar. Geol. Reichsanstalt, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 150);
Balla and Pesko (Lambrecht, Aquila, vol. 19, pp. 276, 282, 283); Baj6t cave (Lambrecht, 1913,
Aquila, vol. 20, p. 425); Oregk6 cave (Kormos and Lambrecht, 1914, BarlangkutatAs, vol. 2, no.
2, p. 105); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); Pilisszint6 and recent (Lam-
brecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 480, 502); InstAllosko (JAnossy, 1954,
Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 208); Subalyuk-Hohle (JAnossy, 1962, Aquila, vol. 67-68, p. 182). UKRAINE:
Shaitan-koba, Syuren I, Syuren II, *Shan-koba, and "Kiik-koba (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect.
Soviet. Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 101, 111); Tankov, Azil, Tardenuaz, Zmeinogo,
Nizhnee Krivche, Perevoloka, Desny River below Chernigov, Dnepr River near Kiev, Zaporo-
zhya, *Mikkaylovka, *Voin, *Lyubimovka (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny
Proshlogo, pt. 3, pp. 30, 37, 38, 42, 45, 58, 51, 52, 62, 63, 67, 69); *Podolia (Burchak-Abramovich,
1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 240). RUSSIA: *Balta (Burchak-Abramovich and Zalkin,
1972, Bull. Moscow Obshch. Ispit. Prirodi, vol. 77, no. 2, p. 53). Don River between Nizhne-
Chirsk and Novocherkassk and *Bershevo (Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit., pp. 54, 67). GEORGIAN
SSR: *Barkweti (Bendukidze, 1973, Tezisi Dokladov k IV Vsesouznomu Soveshchanizu po
Izucheniu Chetvertichnogo Perioda, p. 88); Krivchanska Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil
Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 239). AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Serebrovsky, 1948, Trudy Estest.-
Istor. Muz. Akad. Nauk Azerbaijan SSR, pts. 1-2, pp. 56, 58, figs. 60-61). Achshtyrska Cave,
Caves near River Yurezan, and *Zhiguley Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in
Caves of USSR, pp. 235, 242). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchemov, 1962, Bull. Research Council


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 106, 126, 130, pl. 5, fig. 5; pl. 1, figs, 1-2). IRAN: Belt Cave (Wetmore,
1951, in Coon, Univ. Penn. Mus. Monograph, p. 90). CHINA: Chou Kou Tien (Shaw, 1935, Bull.
Geol. Soc. China, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 80). ALASKA: *Kodiak Island (Friedmann, 1935, Jour.
Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 25, no. 1, p. 51). OREGON: Five Mile Rapids (L. Miller, 1957, Con-
dor, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 59). NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave (Howard, 1952, Bull. S. California
Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pt. 2, p. 54). IDAHO: *Weiss rock shelter and *Birch Creek Valley (L.
Miller, 1963, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., vol. 62, pt. 4, pp. 181, 184). ARIZONA: *Indian
site 35 mi. N. of Flagstaff (A. H. Miller, 1932, Condor, vol. 34, p. 138). NEW MEXICO: Shelter
Cave (Howard and A. H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16). NORTH DAKOTA: 'Huff
Focus site (L. Miller, 1960, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., vol. 60, pt. 3, p. 126). SOUTH DAKOTA:
"Hosterman, *Black Partizan, Spiry-Eklo, Sully, and *Medicine Crow (Parmalee, 1977, Plains
Anthropologist, vol. 22-77, p. 197). NEBRASKA: Midway Canyon (Tate and Martin, 1968,
Condor, vol. 70, no. 2, p. 183). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc.
Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 13).
lla. Pica pica major Janossy. (Pica pica major (Jinossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20 (n.s. 12), p.
59 (types from Stranska skila, 3 humeri, femur, 2 tibiotarsi, 3 tarsometatarsi, Moravsk6 Mus.,
Brno). MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE (end of Mindel glacial; Mindel-Riss interglacial). FRANCE:
Grotte de l'Escale at Saint-Est6ve-Janson, ulna, femur, tibiotarsus; Grottes du Mas des Caves at
Lunel-Viel, coracoid, humerus, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab.
Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 1, p. 215, pl. 17, figs. 19-20; 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, pp. 275,
285). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. (sterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat. KI., pt. 1, vol.
182, no. 6-8, p. 212, coracoid, humerus, ulna, tibiotarsus). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Strinska skala
(JAnossy, 1972).
12. Pica nuttallii Audubon. CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (A. H. Miller, 1929, Univ.
Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 19, p. 6); McKittrick (A. H. Miller, 1937, Condor, vol.
39, no. 6, p. 250); Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no.
7, p. 174, pl. 12, fig. h).
13. Nucifraga caryocatactes (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Lacombe and Massat (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 783); Abimes de la Fage (Chauvir6, 1965, C. R. Soc. Geol. France, no. 1,
p. 8); Grotte de l'-Hortus (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, p. 277, fig.
4); L'Escale at Saint-Est6ve-Janson, Combe Grenal, and Baume de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvir6,
1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 219); Grotte de Soulab6 (Mourer-Chauvir6,
1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 412). SPAIN: Caverna de Santimamifie (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol.
15, p. 99). ITALY: Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 783).
SWITZERLAND: Ermitage, Birseck, and Thierstein (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p.
783). CHECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarova skAla (Capek, 1910, Ber. V. Internat. Ornith. Kongr.
Berlin, p. 938); Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber. V. Internat. Ornith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 940);
Kulna and Pod (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). AUSTRIA: Schuster-
lucke (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 306); Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 783). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb. Kgl. Ungar. Geol. Reichsanstalt,
vol. 19, no. 3, p. 150; Baj6t, PAlffy, and PilisszAnt6 (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila, vol. 20, p. 425);
Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, pp. 90, 91, 93); Oregk6 cave near Baj6t (Kormos
and Lambrecht, 1914, Barlangkutatis, vol. 2, no. 12, p. 105); Galg6c (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila,
vol. 19, pp. 276, 278, 280, 282, 283, 303, pl. 4, figs. 1-12). GEORGIAN SSR: Krivchanska Cave
(Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 239).
14. Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Howard, 1962, Los
Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 58, p. 23). NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave (Howard, 1952, Bull.
S. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pt. 2, p. 54). IDAHO: Jaquar Cave (L. Miller, 1965, Tebiwa, vol. 9,
no. 1, p. 19). ARIZONA: *Wupatki Pueblo (Hargrave, 1939, Condor, vol. 41, no. 5, p. 209).
15. Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Linnaeus).' FRANCE: Grotte de Massat (Pyrrhocorax primi-
genius Milne-Edwards, 1875, Mat6rieaux pour l'Histoire primitive et naturelle de l'Homme, vol.
11, no. 2, pt. 6, p. 487, brief descr. shank.-Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax primigenius Mourer-Chauvir6,
1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 1, p. 219, syntypes designated, 2 tarsometa-
tarsi, Inst. Pal., Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, Wisrmian glaciation); Grotte de Brengues and Grotte de

Contrary to the usual rule of larger size, late Pleistocene fossils tend to be slightly smaller than their Recent descendants,
but the means are too close to allow subspecific recognition.








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Lacombe (Paris, 1912, Rev. Fran. Orn., vol. 4, no. 37, p. 284); Perigord, Eyzies, I'Eglise, Bruni-
quel, Lherm, Gourdan, Aure, Lourdes, and Quercy (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 784);
Abfmes de La Fage (Chauvir6, C.R. Soc. Geol. France, no. 1, p. 8); Grotte du Lazaret (Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1964 (Bull. Mus. Anthrop. pr6hist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 61-78, pl. 1, fig. 5; pl. 2, fig. 1);
Grotte de 1'Hortus at Valflaunes and Combe Grenal at Domme (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes
Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, pp. 278, 292, 359); Pierre Chatel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvir6,
1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 155); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Antrhopologie,
vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); Orgnac-l'Aven, L'Arago at Tautavel, Aldene at Cesseras, Salp6tre de
Pompignan, Grotte Tournal at Bize, La Crouzade at Gruissan, La Baulazibre at Vers, Soulab6
at Montseron, Balazuc, Grand-Baille at Leymiat, Le Blot at Cerzat, Laugerie Haut Est at Les
Eyzies, Baum de Gigny, Pi6 Lombard at Tourrettes-sur-Loup, and *Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-
de-Couz (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 219); Grotte de
Cottier at Retournac and Peche de l'Az6 (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, pp. 472, 492).
MONACO: Grotte de l'Observatoire (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,
no. 64, fasc. 1, p. 219). LUXEMBURG: Oetrange (Ferrant and Friant, 1940, Faune Pleistoc6ne
d'Outrange, p. 201, pl. 15). PORTUGAL: Grotte de Furninha, Fontainhas?, and Grotte de
Hornos? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). SPAIN: Cueva del Toll, Cueva de las
Tuxuneras, Reclau Viver, Caverna de Santimanifie, Caverna de Lumentxa, Cueva de la Ermitia,
Gruta de Hornos?, and Isla Meda Grande? (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 99). GIBRALTAR:
Forbes quarry? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). ITALY: Cavernes de Verezzi
(Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 595); Grotta del Colombi (Regalia, 1893,
Arch. Antrop. Etnol., vol. 23, p. 262); Grotta di Parignana, Grotta d'Equi, Buca del Bersagliere,
Caverna Pollera, and Caverna delle Arene candida (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784);
Grotte du Prince and Grotte de Cavillon (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci.
Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 1, p. 219). SWITZERLAND: *Grotte de Cotencher (Dubois and Stehlin,
1932, M6m. Soc. Pal. Suisse, vol. 52, pp. 29, 168); Wildkirchli, Kaltbrunnental, Ettingen, Basel-
land, and Thierstein (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). GERMANY: Langenaubach
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke, Tischoferhohle bei Kuf-
stein, and Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). UKRAINE: Kiik-koba, Syuren I,
and *Syuren II (Tugarinov, 1937, Tray. Sect. Soviet. Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 101,
112); Adzhi-Koba, Tankov, Kosh-Koba, Kara-Koba, Murzak-Koba (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya
Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 37). GEORGIAN SSR: Cana
Cave and Gvardzhilas-Klde Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, pp.
234, 238); AZERBAIJAN: Klit (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p.
241). IRAN: *Zagros Mountains (JAnossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat. KI., pt. 1,
vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 243).
16. Pyrrhocorax graculus (Linnaeus).' (Pyrrhocorax graculus vetus Kretzoi, 1962, Feb., Aquila,
vol. 67-68, p. 173; tentatively named, syntypes damaged left metacarpus and two distal ends of
right tibiotarsi, Mus. Regional, Oradea, nos. 297/2,297/3, and 1964/5, from Middle Pleistocene,
Betfia, Rumania).
ENGLAND: Kirkdale Cave (Lydekker, 1891, Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 3, no. 11, p. 385); Chudleigh
Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). WALES: Paviland Cave (Bell,
1922, Naturalist, nos. 787-788, p. 251). FRANCE: Grotte de Bruniquel (Lydekker, 1891, Cat.
Fossil Birds Brit. Mus., p. 4); Gourdan (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784); Grotte
de Nichet at Fromelennes (Bastin, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Ardennes, vol. 28, no. 30, p. 48); Balme-
les-Grottes (Chauvir6, 1963, C. R. Sommaire Soc. G6ol. France, 1963, fasc. 2, p. 52); Grotte du
Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. pr6hist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 61-78, pl. 1,
fig. 5; pl. 2, fig. 1); Abfmes de la Fage (Chauvir6, 1965, C. R.,Soc. G6ol. France, no. 1, p. 8);
Grotte de l'Hortus and Combe-Grenal (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1,
pp. 278, 360);, Grotte inf6rieur d'Aurensan and Grotte des Esp6longes (Bouchud), 1972, Bull.
Asso. Fran9. Etude Quartern., vol. 1, pp. 53-56); Les Romains at Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse and
Mourer-Chauvir6, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 154); Rond-du-Barry at Sinzelles (Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); Le Lazaret at Nice, Aldene at Cesseras,
Grotte des les Gras at Escragnolles, Eden Roc at Vaison-la-Romaine, Grotte Tournal at Bize,

Variation in P. graculus is similar to that in P. pyrrhocorax, as Pleistocene fossils tend to be small and show great overlap
with Recent birds, unworthy of subspecific recognition.


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


La Crouzade at Gruissan, Grotte de la Carriere at Gerde, Grotte de Malamaud and Grotte de
Soulabe and Grottes de las Bufios at Montseron, Espelugues at Lourdes, Les Trois Freres at
Montesquieu-Avantes, Les Balmes at Villereversure, Grotte de Balazuc, Grotte de Ebbou and
Le Columbiere and Deux Avens at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Grotte des Hoteaux at Rossillon, Saint-
Romans, La Colombiere at Neuville-sur-Ain, Grand-Baille at Laymiat, Abri Gay at Saint-Nazaire-
en-Royans, Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Grotte des F6es at ChAtelperron, Grotte de
Jaurens at Nespouls, Grotte de Cottier at Retournac, Pech de l'Az6 at Carsac, Laugerie Haute
Est aux Eyzies, Vergisson, Grand Caveau at Flavigny-sur-Ozerain, Baume de Gigny, Cimay at
Evenos, L'Escale at Saint-Est6ve-Janson, Orgnac-l'Aven, L'Arago at Tautavel, Le Lazaret at Nice,
Abri Suard at La Chaise, Grotte d'Aldene at Cesseras, and Pie Lombard at Tourrettes-sur-Loup
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, pp. 222, 228, pl. 17, fig. 21);
Grotte du Salpktre at Pompignan, Grotte de la Salp6triere at Remoulins, Grotte de Tart6 at
Cassagne, and Abri de Campalou (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, pp. 386, 402, 424,
461). MONACO: Grotte de l'Observatoire (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 784). SPAIN:
Meda Grande?, Caverna de Santimamifie, and Cueva de Berraberia (Villalta, 1964, Speleon,
vol. 15, p. 99). GIBRALTAR: Devil's Tower (Bate, 1928, Jour. Roy. Antrhop. Inst., vol. 58, p.
104, fig. 24). MALLORCA (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). CORSICA: Toga, Grotta
di Funtanedu?, and Margine Cave (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230).
ITALY: Cavernes de Verrezzi (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 595); Grotte dei
Colombi (RegAlia, 1893, Arch. Antrop. Etnol., vol. 23, p. 262); Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi
and La Tana del Pastore near Toirano (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). SWITZER-
LAND: Grotte de Cotencher (Dubois and Stehlin, 1932, Mem. Soc. Pal. Suisse, vol. 52, p. 169,
pl. 7, fig. 22). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber. V. internal. orn. Kongr.
Berlin, p. 940); Kulna (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22); Stranska skila
(JAnossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20 (n.s. 12), p. 59). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim (Jinossy, 1974, Sitzb.
Osterr. Akad. Wiss. math.-nat. KI., pt. 1, vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212). HUNGARY: Balla-Hohle and
Hohle Pesko (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, pp. 276, 281-283, pl. 4, figs. 13-22); Baj6t,
PAlffy-H6hle, and Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila, vol. 20, p. 425); Remetehegy (Lambrecht,
1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); *Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb. Kgl. Ungar. Geol.
Reichsanstalt, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 339, 403); Kiskevely-H6hle and Kalten-Szamos-Tal (Lambrecht,
1916, Aquila, vol. 22, pp. 191, 193, fig. 6); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4,
p. 206); Istall6sk6 and H6hle Pince (Jdnossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 208, figs. 17B-C);
Subalyuk-Hohle and Szelim-Hohle (Janossy, 1962, Aquila, vols. 67-68, p. 182, fig. 32A); Tarko-
Felsniche (JAnossy, 1962, Ann. Mus. Hungar., vol. 54, p. 157); Curata Cave (JAnossy, 1965,
Vertebrata Hungarica, vol. 7, p. 112). RUMANIA: Piispokfilrd6 [Betfial (Capek, 1918, Barlang-
kutatas, vol. 5, pp. 29, 70). UKRAINE: Kiik-Koba and Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect.
Soviet. Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 107, 112); Tankov. Azil, Kara-Koba, and Fatma-
Koba (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 24, 27, 36, 38).
ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 106,
107, 126, 131, pl. 1, fig. 3; pl. 6, fig. 14).
17. Corvus monedula Linnaeus. IRELAND: Edenvale Cave, Newhall Cave, Kesh Cave (Bell,
1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). ENGLAND: Langwith Bassett Cave and Chud-
leigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). and Merlin's Cave (Lam-
brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). FRANCE: Moustier Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 782); Balme-les-grottes (Chauvir6, 1963, C. R. Sommaire Soc. Geol. France, 1963,
fasc. 2, p. 52); Grotte du Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. pr6hist.
Monaco, no. 11, pp. 61-78, pl. 1, figs 1, 4); Grotte de l'Hortus and *Grotte de l'Hortus at Val-
flaunes (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, p. 277); Lunel-Viel, Abfmes de
la Fage at Noailles, Orgnac-l'Aven, Aldene at Casseras, Grotte Tournal at Bize, Soulab6 and
Las Bufios at Montseron, La Colombiere at Neuville-sur-Ain, Jeam Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-
Couz, Les F6es at Chatel Perron?, Pair-non-Pair at Marcamps, Petit Putmoyen, Baumne de Gigny,
and Baume de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 228,
pl. 17, fig. 18). BELGIUM: Grotte Marie-Jeanne (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63, p. 11).
PORTUGAL: Gruta das Fontainhas and Gruta de Furninha? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 782). SPAIN: Gruta de Hornos (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). CORSICA:
Grotta de Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pt. 2, p. 231). ITALY:
Grotta dei Colombi (RegAlia, 1893, Arch. Anthrop. Etnol., vol. 23, p. 262); Grotta di Parignana,








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Grotta d'Equi, Grotta Romanelli, and Buca del Bersagliere? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 782). GERMANY: Zwergloch bei Pottenstein and Elisabeth-Hohle im Ailsbachtal? (Lambrecht,
1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 302); Hohle Fels in Achtal bei Ulm, Hohle Fels bei Schelkingen,
Felsnische bei St. Wolfgang, Felsnische im Velburger Schlossberg (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeom. p. 782). SWITZERLAND: Magdalenian? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 782).
DENMARK: *Vordingborg and Taarnmark (0. Winge, 1903, Vidensk. Meddel. naturh. Foren.,
vol. 6, p. 103). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarova skala, Certova di'ra, and Spika (Capek, 1910,
Ber. V. intemat. ornith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 938-940); Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.
p. 782); Strinski Skala, Holstyn; Michalova, Kulna, and Pod (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog,
vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). AUSTRIA: Schreiberwandhohle, Eichmaierhohle?, Schusterlucke?, and
Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 782). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911,
Mitt. Jahrb. Kgl. Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 19, no. 3, p. 149); Hohle Pesko (Lambrecht,
1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 280); Pilffy-Hohle, and PilisszAnt6 (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila, vol. 20,
p. 428); *Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb. Kgl. Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 22, no.
6, p. 403); Istill6sk6, (JAnossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 208); *Tic (B6oknyi and JAnossy, 1966,
Vertebrata Hungarica, vol. 7, p. 92). RUMANIA: Curatl Cave (JAnossy, 1965, Vertebrata
Hungarica, vol. 7, p. 113). POLAND: Manutowa Cave (Bochenski, Birds Late Quarternary
Poland, pp. 106, 200). MOLDAVIA: Star, Druitor, and Trinka (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya
Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 46, 47). UKRAINE: Syuren I, *Syuren II, and Shaitan-
koba (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 101, 111);
Kizil Koba?, Tankov, Azil, Tardenuaz, Syuren II shelter, Murzak-Koba, Fatma-Koba, Nizhnee
Krivche Kremensta, Rasponintsy, Rukomysh, Perevoloka, *Aimovsk, "Olvii, *Voin, and *Raykii
(Voinstvenski, 1967, op. cit., pp. 23, 30, 34, 37, 38, 42, 43, 45, 57, 61, 63, 65); *Podolia (Burchak-
Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 240). RUSSIA: Don River between Nizhne-
Chirsk and Novocherkassk, and *Fort Sarkel (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny
Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 54); *Zhiguley Cave on River Volga (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil
Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 242). SIBERIA: *Gusinyi Log Cave on River Yenesei near Krasno-
yarsk (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 241). ISRAEL: Oumm
Qatafa Cave and Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3,
pp. 100, 106); 'Ubeidiya (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleistocene Deposits 'Ubeidiya,
p. 24). CHINA: Chou-Kou-Tien (Shaw, 1935, Bull. Geol. Soc. China, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 80).
18. Corvus frugilegus Linnaeus. IRELAND: Castelpook Cave, Kesh Cave, Edenvale Cave,
Newhall Cave, and Bantick Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). ENG-
LAND: Langwith Bassett (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). FRANCE:
Mentone (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781); La Balauzibre at Vers and Grotte
Simard at Puymoyen (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Docum Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p.
229). CORSICA: *Gradicchia Cave (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 231).
ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi (RegAlia, 1893, Arch. Antrop., Etnol., vol. 23, p. 262); Grotte du
Cavillon at Grotta Romanelli, and Grotta d'Equi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 781).
BELGIUM: Trou des Nutons (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781). "DENMARK:
(Lippenthin, 1967, Danske ynglefugle i fortid og nutid, pp. 60, 501, 558). HUNGARY: Pilis-
szAnt6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 480, 500, 508); *Baj6t
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781); *Tac and *Visegrid (Boh6nyi and JAnossy, 1966,
Vertebrata Hungarica, vol. 7, p. 92). GREECE: Nesakia on Isle of Cerigo (E. T. Newton, 1921,
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 232). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect.
Soviet. Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 101, 111); Tankov, Krements, Rasponints, Dnepr
River near Kiev, Zaporozhya, *Mikhaylovk, and *Fort Sarkel (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya
Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, pp. 30, 43, 44, 51, 52, 66). RUSSIA: Don River between
Nizhne-Chirsk and Novocherkassk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Prosh-
logo, vol. 3, p. 54); AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Burchak-Abramovich, "1963" (1962), Ornithologiya,
vol. 4, p. 463). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel,
vol. 11, no. 3, p. 100). IRAN: Belt Cave (Wetmore, 1951, in Coon, Univ. Penn. Mus. Monograph,
p. 90).
19. Corvus ossifragus Wilson. ILLINOIS: *Modoc Rock shelter and *Snyders site (Parmalee,
1967, Wilson Bull., vol. 79, no. 2, p. 161); FLORIDA: Seminole Field (Wetmore, 1931, Smith-
sonian Misc. Coll., vol. 85, no. 2, p. 40); Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no. 1,
p. 136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283); Rock Spring


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


(Woolfenden, 1959, Wilson Bull., vol. 71, no. 2, p. 185); *Bluffton (Neill, Gut, and Brodkorb,
1956, Amer. Antiquity, vol. 21, no. 4, p. 388); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol.
10, no. 4, p. 149); Nichol's Hammock in Dade County (Hirschfeld, 1969, Quart. Jour. Florida
Acad. Sci., vol. 31, no. 3, p. 181); *Goodman site (Wing, 1963, Contrib. Florida State Mus.,
no. 10, p. 56); Inglis (Univ. Florida).
20. Corvus leucognaphalus Daudin. PUERTO RICO: "Barrio Canas (Wetmore, 1938,
Auk, vol. 55, p. 55). ST. CROIX: *Concordia (Wetmore, 1937, Jour. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, vol.
21, no. 1, p. 14).
21. Corvus caurinus Baird. ALASKA: "Kodiak Island (Friedmann, 1934, Jour. Washington
Acad. Sci., vol. 24, no. 5, p. 236). WASHINGTON: "Puget Sound midden (L. Miller, 1960,
Wilson Bull., vol. 72, no. 4, p. 397). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (A. H. Miller, 1929,
Univ. California Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, p. 8); Carpinteria (Wetmore, 1931,
in A. 0. U., Check-list N. Amer. Birds, ed. 4, p. 467; see also A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 175, pl. 12, fig. 1).
22. Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm. OREGON: *Five Mile Rapids (L. Miller, 1957, Condor
vol. 59, p. 62). CALIFORNIA: Potter Creek Cave (L. Miller, 1911, Univ. California Publ.
Bull., Dept. Geol., vol. 6, no. 16, p. 399); Rancho La Brea (L. Miller, 1912, Univ. California
Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol 7, no. 5, p. 71); "Rancho La Brea (A. H. Miller, 1937, Condor,
vol. 39, no. 6, p. 252); Carpinteria (Wetmore, 1940, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 99, no. 4,
p. 72, but entirely absent according to A. H. Miller, 1937); Vallecito Creek? (Howard, 1963,
Contrib. in Sci., no. 73, p. 26); *Buena Vista Lake (DeMay, 1942, Condor, vol. 44, no. 5, p.
228). NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave Howard, 1952, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pt. 2,
p. 54). IDAHO: *Birch Creek Valley and "Weiss rock shelter (L. Miller, 1963, Bull. S. California
Acad. Sci., vol. 62, pt. 4, pp. 181, 184). UTAH: *Sand Dune Cave (Hargrave, 1971, Tech. Ser.
Mus. N. Arizona, no. 9, pp. 40, 45). ARIZONA: *Walnut Canyon Pueblo (Hargrave, 1939,
Condor, vol. 41, no. 4, p. 209). NEW MEXICO: *Cochiti Dam (Harris, 1968, Mus. New Mexico
Research Records, no. 6, pp. 206, 223). NORTH DAKOTA: *Thomas Riggs site and "Huff
Focus site (L. Miller, 1961, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., vol. 60, pt. 3, p. 126). SOUTH DAKOTA:
*Chouteau site (L. Miller, 1961, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., vol. 60, pt. 3, 126); "Hosterman,
*Crow Creek, *Cattle Oiler, *Sullv School, *Sully, and *Black Partizan (Parmalee, 1977, Plains
Anthropologist, vol. 22-77, p. 197). TEXAS: Moore pit near Dallas (Slaughter et al., 1962, Bur.
Econ. Geol. Univ. Texas, Rept. Invest., no. 48, p. 39); Ingleside pit (Feduccia, 1973, Condor,
vol. 75, no. 2, p. 243). ARKANSAS: *Zebree site? (Guilday and Parmalee, 1971, Amer. Mid-
land Nat., vol. 86, no. 1, p. 228). IOWA: *Mill Creek (Hamon, 1961, Plains Anthropologist,
vol. 6, p. 211). WISCONSIN: *Raddatz rock shelter (Parmalee, 1959, Wisconsin Archeologist,
vol. 40, p. 85). ILLINOIS: *Plum Island (Baker, 1941, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., vol. 32, p. 68);
*Cahokia (Parmalee, 1957, Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. vol. 50, p. 239); *Apple Creek (Par-
malee, Paloumpis, and Wilson, 1972, Illinois State Mus. Rept. Invest., no. 23, pp. 31, 33). OHIO:
"Kettle Hill Cave and *Canter Caves (Goslin, 1955, Ohio Jour. Science, vol. 55, no. 6, p. 359).
PENNSYLVANIA: "Varner site near Waynesburg (Guilday, 1961, Pennsylvania Archaeologist,
vol. 31, no. 3-4, p. 122); *Sheep rock shelter (Guilday and Parmalee, 1965, Pennsylvania Archae-
ologist, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 39); *Fort Ligonier (Guilday, 1970, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 42, p. 181).
NEW YORK: *Cole quarry (Moore, 1973, Bull. N.Y. Arch. Asso., no. 58, p. 33). WEST VIR-
GINIA: *Buffalo village (Guilday, 1971, West Virginia Geol. Econ. Surv., Rept. Archeol. Invest.,
no. 4, p. 8). FLORIDA: Seminole Field (Wetmore, 1931, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 85, no. 2,
p. 40); Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Pal., vol. 31, no. 1, p. 136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959,
Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283); Williston (Holman, 1959, Bull. Florida State
Mus., vol. 5, no. 1, p. 5); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 149).
23. Corvus corone Linnaeus. Corvus cornix fossilis Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1,
pt. 2, pp. 17, 39 (based on Rudolph Wagner, 1832, Abh. K. bayer, Akad. Wiss., pt. 1, p. 779, pl. 2,
fig. 53, Pleistocene bone breccia, Sardinia, femur).
ENGLAND: Palling (Lydekker, 1891, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 3); Hastings and *Glaston-
bury (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). FRANCE: Mentone (Lydekker, 1891,
Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 3); Lourdes, Aure, and Lacombe-Thayac (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 781); Balme-les-Grottes (Chauvir6, 1963, C. R. Sommaire Soc. Geol. France,
fasc. 2, p. 53); Grotte de l'Hortus and *Grotte de l'Hortus at Valflaunts (Mourer-Chauvir&,
1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, pp. 277, 289); Grottes inf6rieres d'Aurensan and Grotte


1978








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


des Espelonges (Bouchud, 1972, Bull. Asso. Frang. Etude Quatern., vol. 1, pp. 53-56; Les Romains
at Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 154); *Rond-du-
Barry (Mourer-Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); Lunel-Viel, Orgnac-l'Aven,
Le Lazaret at Nice, Font6chevade at Montbron, Grand-Baille at Leymiat, Grand Caveau at
Flavigny-sur-Ozerain, Pie Lombard at Tourrettes-sur-Loup, "Grand Caveau at Flavigny-sur-
Ozerain, and Baum-de Gigny (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,
p. 229, pl. 19, fig. 18). MONACO: Grotte de l'Observatoire (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 781). PORTUGAL: Gruta de Furninha (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 781). SPAIN:
Caverna de Santimaminie (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 98). SARDINIA: bone breccia
(Wagner, 1832, Abh. k. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., p. 779, pl. 2, fig. 53); Pietro Tampoia Cave on
Tavolara (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 471, pl. 37, fig. 5). MALTA? (Lambrecht,
Palaeom., p. 781). ITALY: Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi, Grotta dei Colombi?, Grotta d'Equi,
Grotta di Cucigliana, Grotta all Onda, and Grotta Romanelli (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palae-
orn., p. 781). SWITZERLAND: Kesslerloch, Thayingen, Schweizersbild, and "Szontagsee (Lam-
brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781). GERMANY: Fuchsl6cher am Roten Berge bei Saalfeld?
and Fuchsloch bei Gleitsen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 781); Voigtstedt (Janossy,
1965, pal. Abhandl., Abt. A, vol. 2, p. 354); Stellmoor (l4ppenthin, 1967, Danske ynglefugle i
fortid og nutid, p. 500). BELGIUM: Trou de la Naulette (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 781). DENMARK: Koling, Mejlgaard, Havno, Ertebllle, Havelse, S4lager, Aalborg, *Borreb-
jerg, *Vordinborg, and *Taarnmark (Winge, 1903, Vidensk. Meddel. naturh. Foren., vol. 6,
p. 104). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Sipka and Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber. V. Internat. ornith.
Kongr. Berlin, p. 939, 940); Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 781);StrAnska skdla
and Pod (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). HUNGARY: Remetehegy
(Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); *Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb. Kgl.
Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 22, no. 6, p. 398, pl. 15, figs. 14-16); Istallosk6 (JAnossy, 1954,
Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 208). POLAND: Rock-shelter above Niedostepna Cave (Bochenski, 1974,
Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 105, 200). WHITE RUSSIA: *Novorudok (Burchak-Abramo-
vich and Zalkin, 1972, Bull. Moscow Obshch. Ispit. Prirodi, vol. 77, no. 2, p. 53). UKRAINE:
Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 101, 111);
* Savatinovka (Bibikova, 1963, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 1, p. 137); Tankov,
Kara-Koba, Muzak-Koba, Rasponints, Dnepr River near Kiev, Zaporozhya, 'Alimovsk, *Chayka,
"Chersones, *Olvii, *Mikhaylovka, *Fort Sarkel, and *Petukhovka (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro-
dnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 30, 36, 37, 43, 44, 51, 52, 57, 59, 62, 66, 69);
*Pololia and *Tash-Air Cave near Bakchisaray (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves
of USSR, pp. 240, 243). RUSSIA: Don River between Nizhne-Chirsk and Novocherkassk, and
"Borshavo (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 54, 67);
Yurezan River caves and *Zhiguley Cave on Volga River (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil
Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 242); *Moscow (Burchak-Abramovich and Zalkin, 1969, Bull. Moscow
Obshch. Ispit. Prirodi, vol. 74, no. 6, p. 51); *Tanais (Burchak-Abramovich and Zalkin, 1971,
Bull. Moscow Obshch. Ispit. Prirodi, vol. 76, no. 5, p. 55). GEORGIAN SSR: *Darkweti and
*Kvemo-Kartli (Bendukidze, 1973, Tezisi Dokl. IV Vsesouzhomu Sov. Izuchen. Chetvert. Perioda,
p. 88). AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Serebrovsky, 1948, Trudy Estest.-Istor. Mus. Akad. Nauk
Azerbaijan SSR, pts. 1-2, pp. 55, fig.). SIBERIA: "Gusinyi Log Cave of Yenesei River near
Krasnoyarsk (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 241). ISRAEL:
Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 100, 106).
JAPAN: *Iki Island off Kiushiu (Kuroda, 1959, Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan, vol. 21, no. 7, pp.
67, 73, pl. 1, fig. F).
24. Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler. CHINA: Chou Kou Tien? (Shaw, 1935, Bull. Geol. Soc.
China, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 80).
25. Corvus cryptoleucus Couch. CALIFORNIA: McKittrick (A. H. Miller, 1937, Condor,
vol. 39, no. 6, p. 251); Rancho La Brea (Howard, 1939, Fortschritte der Palaont., vol. 2, p. 316).
26. Corvus ruficollis Lesson. AZERBAIJAN: Bingady? (Serebrovsky, 1941, Doklady Akad.
Nauk U. R. S. S., vol. 33, p. 473X Serebrovsky, 1948, Trudy Estest.-Istor. Muz. Akad. Nauk
Azerbaijan SSR, pts. 1-2, 56, 58, figs. 58-59).
27. Corvus corax Linnaeus. Corvus fossilis Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1, pt. 2,
pp. 16, 39 (Pleistocene, Seveckenberg bei Quedlinburg, Germany; syntypes complete tibio-
tarsus, distal half of left tibiotarsus, and upper part of tarsometatarsus, perhaps from the same


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


individual). Corvus crassipennis Giebel, 1847, op. cit., pp. 17, 39 (Seveckenberg, type distal
part of ulna).
IRELAND: Shandon Cave near Dungarvan (Lydekker, 1891, Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 3, p. 384); Eden-
vale Cave, Newhall Cave, and Bantick Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404).
SCOTLAND: Linlithgow Cave (Lydekker, 1891, Ibis, ser. 6, vol. 3, p. 384). ENGLAND: Kirkdale
Cave (Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 39); Clevedon Cave, Langwith Bassett
Cave, 'Caervent, "Cranbourn Chase, *Woodcuts, and 'Lewes (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol.
19, no. 893, p. 404); Wall and *Pevensey (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, nos. 787-788, p. 251); *Col-
chester (Bate, 1934, Ibis, p. 391). SPAIN: Rodauviver and Caverna de Santimamifne (Villalta,
1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 98). MALLORCA (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 780).
FRANCE: Abri Suard at La Chaise, Salp6tre de Pompignan, Grotte Tournal at Bize, La Crouzade
at Gruissans, La Carriere at Gerde, Soulab6 and Soulabe at Montseron, Espelugues at Lourdes,
Abri Lafaye at Bruniquel, Villereversure, Balazuc, Saint Romans, La Colombibre at Neuville-
sur-Ain, Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel, Les F6es at Chitelperron, Rond du Barry at Sinzelles,
Combe Grenal at Domme, Pech de l'Az6 at Carzac, Laugerie Haute Est aux Eyzies, Pair-non-
Pair at Marcamps, Le Placard at Vilhonneur, Grand Caveau at Flavigny-sur-Ozerain, Baume
de Gigny at Gigny-sur-Suran, *Grand Caveau at Flavigny-sur-Ozerain, and *Baume de Gonvillars
(Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 251). BELGIUM: Trou de
Chaleux (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781); Grotte Marie-Jeanne near Hastiere-
Lavaux (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63, p. 11). MONACO: Grotte de l'Observatoire and
Menton (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781). BALEARIC ISLANDS: Majorca (Lamb-
recht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781). SARDINIA (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781).
MALTA (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781). ITALY: Grotta die Colombi (Regilia,
1893, Arch. Antrop. Etnol., vol. 23, pp. 262, 340); Grotta d'Equi, Caverna Pollera, and Grotta
Romanelli? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781); Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi and
Verezzi (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, pp. 251, 252, fig. 28).
SWITZERLAND: Schaffhausen (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, pp. 302, 305); Grotte de
Cotencher (Dubois and Stehlin, M6m. Soc. Pal. Suisse, vol. 52, p. 167); Schweizerbild, Kesser-
loch cave, Thayingen, Kaltbrunnental, Thierstein, and *Ettingen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 781). GERMANY: Seveckenberg bei Quedlingburg and Lahntal (Giebel, 1847,
Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1, pt. 2, pp. 16, 17). "DENMARK (L6ppenthin, 1967, Danske ynglefugle
i fortid og nutid, pp. 46, 48, 496, 557). NORWAY: Vardo (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom.,
p. 781). FINLAND: *Ladoga Lake (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 781). CZECHO-
SLOVAKIA: Predmost, Balcarova skila, Sipka, and Certova di'ra (Capek, 1910, Ber. V. internal.
orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 938, 939, 940): Zuslavitz (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, pp. 302, 305);
Theide, Kulna, Volyn, and Kostelik (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 780); StrAnski
skila, Holstjn skAla, and Pekirana (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22).
AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, pp. 302, 305). HUNGARY: Balla
Cave (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, pp. 277, 282, 283, pl. 4, figs. 31-32); PAlffy Cave and
PillisszAnto (Lambrecht, 1913, vol. 20, p. 428); Oregk& Cave near Baj6t (Kormos and Lambrecht,
1914, Barlangkutatis, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 105); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90);
*Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb. Kgl. Ungar. Reichsanst., vol. 22, no. 6, p. 403, pl.
14, figs. 1-16); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4, nos. 3-4, p. 206); Tarko
(Jinossy, 1962, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungar., pt. Min. Pal., vol. 54, p. 157); *CsAkvar
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 780). POLAND: *Raj Cave and *Za Murem Cave
(Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 105, 200). UKRAINE: Nizhnee Krivche,
Krementsa, *Olvii, *Voin, and *Bernova Luke (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i
Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 42, 43, 61, 63, 67); *Podolia Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil
Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 240). RUSSIA: "Kubenino II and *Beloozero (Burchak-Abramovich and
Zalkin, 1972, Bull. Moscov. Obshch. Ispit. Prirodi, vol. 77, no. 2, p. 53). ABKHAZIA: Kholodnogo
Grotto (Burchak-Abramovich and Bendukidze, 1971, Fragmenta Balcanica, vol. 8, no. 12, p. 109).
AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Serebrovsky, 1941, C. R. Akad. Sci. URSS, vol. 33, no. 7-8, p. 473;
Serebrovsky, 1948, Trudy Estest.-Istor. Mus. Akad. Nauk Azerbaijan SSR, pts. 1-2, pp. 54, 58,
figs. 56-57). SIBERIA: *Gusinyi Log Cave on Yenesei River near Krasnoyarsk (Burchak-Abramo-
vich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 241). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962,
Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 106). ALASKA: *Kodiak Island (Friedmann,
1934, Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 24, no. 5, p. 236); *Dutch Harbor, "Little Kiska, *Atka








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Island, and *Attu Island (Friedmann, 1937, op. cit., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 436-438); "Cape Prince
of Wales (Friedmann, 1941, op. cit., vol. 31, no. 9, p. 409); *Kangiguksuk (Hall, 1969, Condor,
vol. 71, no. 1, p. 76). OREGON: "Five Mile Rapids (L. Miller, 1957, Condor, vol. 59, no. 1,
p. 59). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (L. Miller, 1909, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol.
Sci., vol. 5, no. 21, p. 306); Hawver Cave (L. Miller, 1911, op. cit., vol. 6, no. 16, p. 398); Mc-
Kittrick (L. Miller, 1925, Univ. California Publ., Geol. Sci., vol. 15, no. 9, p. 325); Carpinteria
(L. Miller, 1927, Science, n. s., vol. 66, p. 156); Playa del Rey [Del Rey Hills] (Howard, 1936,
Condor, vol. 38, no. 5, p. 212); *Buena Vista Lake (DeMay, 1942, Condor, vol. 44, no. 5, p. 228).
NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave (Howard, 1952, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pt. 2, p. 54).
IDAHO: *Weiss rock shelter (L. Miller, 1963, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., vol. 62, pt. 4, p. 181);
Jaguar Cave (L. Miller, 1965, Tebiwa, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 19). UTAH: *Sand Dune Cave (Hargrave,
1970, Tech. Ser. Mus. N. Arizona, no. 9, pp. 38, 54). ARIZONA: *Betatakin Pueblo, *Kiet
Siel Pueblo, "Awatobi Pueblo, *Walnut Canyon Pueblo, *Winona Village, 'Citadel Pueblo,
*Nalakihu Pueblo, and *Wupatki Pueblo (Hargrave, 1939, Condor, vol. 41, no. 5, p. 209). NEW
MEXICO: Conkling Cave and Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35,
no. 1, p. 16); Howells Ridge Cave (Howard, 1962, Condor, vol. 64, no. 3, p. 242); "Cochiti Dam
(Harris, 1968, Mus. New Mexico Research Records, no. 6, pp. 206, 223); Dark Canyon Cave
(Howard, 1971, Condor, vol. 73, no. 2, p. 238); Dry Cave entrance fissure and Bison Sink (Magish
and Harris, 1977, Condor, vol. 78, no. 3, p. 401). NORTH DAKOTA: *Thomas Riggs site and
*Huff Focus site (L. Miller, 1961, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 60, pt. 3, p. 126). SOUTH
DAKOTA: *Chouteau site (L. Miller, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 60, pt. 3, p. 126); 'Crow
Creek, *Cattle Oiler, *Sully School, *Sully, "Hosterman, "Black Partizan, *Spiry-Eklo, *Anton
Rygh, *Medicine Crow, and "Mobridge (Parmalee, 1977, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 22, pp. 197,
217). IOWA: *Mill Creek (Hamon, 1961, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 6, p. 211); *Bear Creek
(Parmalee, 1967, Wilson Bull., vol. 79, no. 2, p. 157). ILLINOIS: *Plum Island (Baker, 1941,
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n.s., vol. 32, p. 68); *Cahokia (Parmalee, 1957, Trans. Illinois State
Acad. Sci., vol. 50, p. 239); *Fisher site (Parmalee, 1958, Auk, vol. 75, no. 2, p. 175); *Crawford
farm and *Emmons site (Parmalee, 1967, Wilson Bull., vol. 79, no. 2, p. 157). OHIO: *Feurt
Village (Wetmore, 1943,Wilson Bull., vol. 55, no. 1, p. 55); "Canter Caves (Goslin, 1955, Ohio
Jour. Sci., vol. 55, no. 6, p. 361). WEST VIRGINIA: *Buffalo Village (Guilday, 1971, West
Virginia Geol. Econ. Surv., Rept. Archeol. Invest., no. 4, p. 8). GEORGIA: *Etowah (Parmalee,
1960, Florida Anthropologist, vol 13, nos. 2-3, p. 49). NUEVO LEON: San Josecito cavern (L.
Miller, 1943, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., vol. 47, no. 5, p. 165).




27a. Corvus corax antecorax Mourer-Chauvir6

[?] Corvus annectens Shufeldt, 1892, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 9, p. 419, pl. 15,
figs. 14-16 (type from Pleistocene, Fossil Lake, Oregon, right tarsometatarsus, Cope col-
lection, now in Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York).
[?] Corvus shufeldti Sharpe, 1909, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, vol. 5, p. 599 (new name for Corvus
annectens Shufeldt, 1892, preoccupied by Corvus annectens Briiggeman, 1877).-Howard,
1946, Carnegie Instn. Washington, Publ. 551, p. 189 (referred to C. corax).-Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 250 (proportions differ from
those of line of C. corax).-Magish and Harris, 1977, Condor, vol. 78, no. 3, p. 403 (holo-
type falls within size range of C. corax sinuatus, C. cryptoleucus, and C. neomexicanus).
Corvus antecorax Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975 (27 June), Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,
fasc. 1, pp. 239, 253, pl. 19, figs. 3-17; pl. 20 holotypee from Abimes de la Fage near
Noailles, Dept. Corrbze, France, complete left humerus, Mus. Lyon, no. 41,707; nearly
30,000 topotypes including all parts of the skeleton).
Corvus neomexicanus Magish and Harris, 1977 (11 Jan.), Condor, vol. 78, no. 3, p. 402, figs.
3-4, meas. graphs only holotypee from Dry Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico, complete
left femur, hab. Environmental Biol., Univ. Texas at El Paso, no. MALB 27-27; 87
paratypes include mandible, coracoid, humerus, prox. end of ulna, radius, carpal,
carpometacarpus, dist. end tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, scapula).


Vol. 23, No. 3







BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE (Mindel-Riss interglacial). FRANCE: Mas du Cave
at Lunel-Viel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, Doc. Lab. Gaol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no.
64, fasc. 2, p. 285).
UPPER MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE (Riss glacial). FRANCE: Abfmes de la Fage
at Noailles, Orgnac-l'Aven, Caune de l'Arago at Tautavel?, Le Lazaret at
Nice, and Grotte du Cap de la Biehle at Nestier? (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976,
op. cit., pp. 294, 312, 323, 332, 336, 338, 340).
LOWER UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Fossil Lake Formation). OREGON: Lake
County: Fossil Lake? (Shufeldt, 1892, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol.
9, p. 419, pl. 15, figs. 14-16).
UPPER PLEISTOCENE (interstadial, 25,160-33,590 B.P.). NEW MEXICO:
Eddy County: Dry Cave? (Magish and Harris, 1977, Condor, vol. 78, p. 402).

Family PARADISAEIDAE (Vieillot)
Paradisei Vieillot (before Apr. 14), Analyse nouv. Orn. 616m., p. 35 (famille; type Paradisea
Linnaeus).-Paradiseana Vigors, 1825, fide Gray.-Paradiseidae Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken,
fide Gray.-Paradiseinae Gray, 1840 (before Apr.) List Genera Birds, p. 39 (subfamily).-
Paradiseinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 45 (familia).-Paradisaeidae Stejneger,
1885, Standard Nat. Hist., vol. 4, p. 516 (family; type Paradisaea Linnaeus, 1758).-
Paradisaeinae Stejneger, 1885, op. cit., p. 516 (subfamily).
Ptilonorhynchinae Gray, 1846 (Apr.), Genera Birds, vol. 2, p. 323 (subfamily; type Ptilonorhynchus
Kuhl).-Ptilonorhynchinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 19 (familia).-Ptilonor-
hynchidae Sharpe, 1891, Review Recent Attempts to Classify Birds, p. 85 (family).-
Ptilonorhynchidae Stone, 1891, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 459.
Phonygaminae Gray, 1847 (June), List Genera Birds, ed. 2, p. 50 (subfamily; type Phonygama
Lesson).
Manucodiinae Cabanis, 1847, fide Gray (type Manucodia Boddaert).
Epimachinae Gray, 1848 (Feb.), Genera Birds, vol. 1, p. 93 (subfamily; type Epimachus Cuvier).-
Epimachidae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 411 (familia).-
Epimachinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 45 familiar) .
Turnagridae Buller, 1888, Hist. Birds New Zealand, ed. 2, vol. 1, p. 30 (family; type Turnagra
Lesson).
Cnemophilinae Mayr, 1962, in Peters, Check-list Birds World, vol. 15, pp. ix, 181 (subfamily;
type Cnemophilus DeVis).

Neospecies of Paradisaeidae from the Pleistocene
Subfamily Ptilonorhynchinae
1. Turnagra capensis (Sparrman).' NEW ZEALAND: North Island: Awakino-Mohoenui area
(Medway, 1971, Notornis, vol. 18, p. 218). South Island: Pyramid Valley Swamp? (Scarlett, 1955,
Records Canterbury Mus., vol. 6, no. 4, p. 263).

Family MENURIDAE (G. R. Gray)
Menurinae G. R. Gray, 1847 (March), Genera of Birds, vol. 1, p. 153 (subfamily: type Menura
Davies).-Menurinae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv f. Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 2, p.
337 (subfamilia).-Menuridae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 215
(family).-Menuroideae Stejneger, 1885 Standard Nat. Hist., vol. 4, p. 460 (super-family).
No fossil record.


' Systematic position fide Storrs Olson (personal communication).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Family ATRICHORNITHIDAE Stejneger
Atrichornithidae Stejneger, 1885, Standard Natural History, vol. 4, p. 46 (family; type Atrichornis
Stejneger, 1885, new name for Atrichia Gould, preoccupied).
Atrichiinae Fuirbringer, 1888, Untersuch. Morph. Syst. V6gel, vol. 2, p. 1538 (subfamily; type
Atrichia Gould, 1844, preoccupied by Atrichia Schrank, 1803, and Atrichia Desv., 1830).
No fossil record.

Family ACANTHISITTIDAE (Sundevall)
Acanthisittinae Sundevall, 1872, Methodi Naturalis Avium Disponendarum Tentamen, pt. 1, p.
47 familiar ; type Acanthisitta Lafresnaye).-Acanthidosittidae Newton, 1896, Dictionary
of Birds, pt. 4, pt. 1055.-Acanthisittidae Wetmore, 1940, Smithsonian Misc. Coll.,
vol. 99, no. 7, p. 10.
Xenicidae Sclater, 1888, Cat. Birds Brit. Musm., vol. 14, pp. xix, 450 (family; type Xenicus
Gray).-Xeniscidae [sic] Sharpe, 1891, Review of Recent Attempts to Classify Birds, pp.
28, 88.
Xenicornithidae Mathews, 1930, Systema Avium Australasianarum, vol. 2, p. 435 (family; type
Xenicornis Iredale and Mathews).
Traversiidae Mathews, 1930, Systema Avium Australasianarum, vol. 2, p. 435 (family; type
Traversia Rothschild).
No fossil record.


Family PARIDAE Boie
Paridae Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken, col. 000 (family; type Parus Linnaeus).-Paridae Brehm,
1831, Handbuch Naturg. aller V6gel Deutchlands, p. 459 ("Ordnung").-Pariidae Bona-
parte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzione metodica degli Animali Vertebrati, p. 51.-
Parinae Bonaparte, 1838, Geog. and Comp. List of Birds Europe and North America,
p. 19 (subfamilia).-Parianae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali Americana, pt. 2, p. 200
(subfamily).-Parinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 17 familiar) .
Aegithalinae Reichenbach, 1850, Avium Systema Naturale, p. 000 (subfamily; type Aegithalos
Hermann).-Aegithalidae Delacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31), Los Angeles Co. Mus.
Contr. Sci., no. 16, p. 5 (family).
Remizinae Wetmore and W. D. Miller, 1926, Auk, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 345 (subfamily; type Remiz
Jarocki).-Remizidae Delacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31), Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr.
Sci., no. 16, p. 5 (family).
Psaltriparinae Wetmore and W. D. Miller, 1926, Auk, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 345 (subfamily; type
Psaltriparus Bonaparte).

Neospecies of Paridae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Parus cristatus Linnaeus. FRANCE: Orgnac (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Docum. Lab. Geol.,
Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64 p. 206). UKRAINE: Novgorod-Seversk? (Zubareva, 1950, Trudi Inst.
Zool. Akad. Nauk Ukrainoskoi RSR, vol. 4, pp. 80,94, pl. 3, fig. 13).
2. Parus major Linnaeus. ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, nos. 787-788,
p. 251); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 768). FRANCE: Combe-Grenal
(Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, p. 360); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-
Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 38); Campalou and *Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol., Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 206). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn
(Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit., p. 788); Veruncius (Skutil and Stehhlk, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4,
p. 22); Stranski skila? (JAnossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20 (n.s. 12), p. 60). HUNGARY: Puska-
poros (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4, p. 206); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt.
Jahrb. Kgl. Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 22, p. 403); Hundsheim? (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr.
Akad. Wiss., math.-naturw., pt. 1, vol. 182, no. .6-8, p. 212). RUMANIA: Piisp6kffird6 [Betfia]


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


(Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatis, vol. 5, p. 30). UKRAINE: Novgorod-Seversk (Zubareva, 1950,
Trudi Inst. Zool Akud. Nauk Ukrainskoi RSR, vol. 4, pp. 80, 94, pl. 3, fig. 16); Syuren I, *Azil,
*Tardenuaz, Murzak-Koba, and Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny
Proshlogo, pt. 3, pp. 31, 34, 35, 37, 58). ISRAEL: Abu-Usba Cave? (Bar-Yosef and Tchemov,
1966, Israel Jour. Zool. vol. 15, p. 134).
3. Parus caeruleus Linnaeus. ENGLAND: Carnforth Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol.
19, no. 893, p. 403). AUSTRIA: Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit., p. 788). CZECHOSLOVAKIA:
StranskA akila (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). UKRAINE: Tar-
denuaz and *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya; Obstanova i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, pp.
35,58).
4. Parus ater Linnaeus. ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,
no. 893, p. 403). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, op. cit., p. 788). UKRAINE:
'Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, p. 58).
5. Parus lugubris (Temminck). RUMANIA: Piuspokfaird6 [Betfia] (Parus lugubris fossilis
Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatis, vol. 5, pp. 31, 72, type rostrum from Gunz-Mindel state, ten-
tatively named).
6. Parus montanus Conrad. FRANCE: Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz (Mourer-
Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol., Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 206).
7. Parus palustris Linnaeus. HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas,
vol. 4, p. 206). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim? (JAnossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-naturw.,
pt. 1, vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212). RUMANIA: Piuspokfilrd6 [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatis,
vol. 4, p. 72).
8. Parus gambeli Ridgway. CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea? (A. H. Miller, 1929, Univ.
Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, p. 10, pl. 1, fig. d).
9. Parus rufescens Townsend. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria? (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 176, pl. 14, fig. d).
10. Aegithalos caudatus (Linnaeus). FRANCE: L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson? and Le
Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 205).
ITALY: Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol., Fac. Sci.
Lyon, no. 64, p. 205). RUMANIA: Pisp6kfiirdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5,
p. 72). POLAND: Nietoperzowa Cave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland,
pp. 117, 200). UKRAINE: *Azil (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo,
vol. 3, p. 34).
11. Remiz pendulinus (Linnaeus). FRANCE: L'Escale at Saint-Est6ve-Janson (Mourer-
Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 206).



Family SITTIDAE (Bonaparte)

Sittinae Bonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzion Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati, p. 49
(subfamilia;type Sitta Linnaeus).- Sittinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, p. 47 (familia).-
Sittidae Seebohm, 1890, Birds Japanese Empire, p. 92 (family).
Climacterinae Cabanis, 1850, Mus. Heineanum, pt. 1, p. 94 (subfamilia; type Climacteris
Temminck).-Climacteridae Mayr, 1963, Emus, vol. 63, no. 1, p. 1 (family). Position
tentative.
Tichodromeae Bonaparte, 1853 (seance du 31 Oct.), C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, no. 18, p.
644 (series; type Tichodroma Illiger).-Tichodrominae Gray, 1869 (after May 10), Hand-
List Gen. Sp. Birds, pt. 1, pp. xii, 184 (subfamily).- Tichodromainae Delacour and Vaurie,
1957 (Oct. 31), Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 16, p. 5 (subfamily).-Tichodroma-
dinae Vaurie, 1959, Birds Palearctic Fauna, Passeriformes, p. 534 (subfamily).
Salporninae [sic] Mayr and Amadon, 1951 (Apr. 2), Amer. Mus. Novit., no. 1496, pp. 23, 37
(subfamily; type Salpornis Gray).-Salpornitinae [sic] Delacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct.
31), Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 16, p. 5 (subfamily).-Salpornithinae Greenway,
1967, in Peters, Check-list Birds World, vol. 12, p. 159 (subfamily). Position tentative.
Neosittinae Delacour and Vatrie, 1957 (Oct. 31), Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 16, p. 5
(subfamily; type Neositta Hellmayr). Position tentative.


1978








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Daphoenosittinae Delacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31, Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no.
16, p. 5 (subfamily; type Daphoenositta DeVis). Position tentative.
Rhabdornithidae Greenway, 1967, in Peters, Check-list Birds World, vol. 12, p. 161 (family; type
Rhabdornis Reichenbach). Position tentative.


Neospecies of Sittidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Sitta europaea Linnaeus. ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol.
19, no. 893, p. 403); Langwith Bassett and Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 788). FRANCE: Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 38);
Combe Grenal (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol., Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 207, pl. 17,
fig. 11); Couze station in Lalinde commune (Mourer-Chauvird, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 505).
DENMARK: Haag (0. Winge, 1903, Vidensk. Meddel. naturh. Foren., vol. 6, p. 104). SWITZER-
LAND: Grotte de Cotencher (Dubois and Stehlin, 1932, M6m. Soc. Pal. Suisse, vol. 52, p. 29);
Ettingen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 788). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: StrAnska skila
and BalcArka (Skutil and Stehhlk, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). UKRAINE: Tar-
denuaz? and Krementsa (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pp. 35,
43); *Pololia (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 240).
2. Sitta canadensis Linnaeus. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 176, pl. 14, fig. e). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore,
1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 13).
3. Sitta cf. carolinensis Latham. POLAND: Rock-shelter above Niedostepna Cave (Bochefiski,
1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 109, 200, fig. 70-71).
4. Sitta pygmaea Vigors. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ.
Geol. Sci., vol. 21, p. 177, pl. 14, fig. a).
5. Sitta pusilla Latham. FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull.,
no. 44, p. 193).
6. Tichodroma muraria (Linnaeus). ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 788). POLAND: Mamutowa Cave? and Rock-shelter in Puchacza cave (Bocheniski,
1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 115, 200, fig. 72).

Family CERTHIIDAE (Vigors)
Certhiadae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 452 (family; type Certhia Linnaeus).
-Certhinae Bonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzione Metodica degli Animali Verte-
brati, p. 49).-Certhidae Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp. List Birds Eur. N. Amer.,
p. 10.-Certhianae C. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List Genera Birds, p. 18 (subfamily).-
Certhiidae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 224.

Neospecies of Certhiidae from the Pleistocene
1. Certhia familiaris Linnaeus. ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,
vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). RUMANIA: Pflspokfiirdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatis, vol.
5, p. 71). UKRAINE: Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol.
3, p. 58).

Family CAMPEPHAGIDAE (Vigors)
Campephagina Vigors, 1825, fide Gray (subfamily; type Campephaga Vieillot).-Campephaginae
G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 34 (subfamily).-Campo-
phaginae Sundeoall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 21 (familia).-Campophagidae Sharpe,
1879, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 4, p. 6 (family).-Campephagidae Newton, 1896, Dic-
tionary of Birds, p. 70 (family).
Ceblepyrinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 108 (subfamily; type Ceble-
pyris Cuvier, 1817, a junior synonym of Campephaga Vieillot, 1810).
Pericrocotinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 26 familiar ; type Pericrocotus Boie).
No fossil record.


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BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Family PYCNONOTIDAE (Gray)

Brachypodinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 152 (subfamily; type Brachy-
pus Swainson, 1824, preoccupied by Brachypus Meyer, 1815).-Brachypodidae Cabanis,
1851 (Jan.), Mus. Heineanum, pt. 1, p. 107 familiar) .
Pycnonotinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 28 (subfamily; type
Pycnonotus Kuhl).-Pycnonotidae Blyth, 1849, Cat. Birds Mus-Asiatic Soc., p. 206 (family).
-Pycnonotinae Sundevall, 1872. Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 20 familiar) .
Phyllornithinae Cabanis, 1847, Arch. fOr Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 326 (subfamilia;
type Phyllornis Temminck, 1829, a junior synonym of Chloropsis Jardine and Selby, 1826).
Philornithidae Wallace, 1874, Ibis, p. 406 (family).
Ixodinae Blyth, 1849, fide Gray (subfamily; type Ixos Temminck).
Aegithininae Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt. 1, pp. xvii, 314 (subfamily; type Aegithina
Vieillot).-Aeginthininae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 8 familiar) .
Spizixidae Oberholser, 1919 (Jan. 4), Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 9, no. 1, p. 15 (family;
type Spizixos Blyth).
Chloropseidae Wetmore, 1960 (23 June), Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 139, no. 11, pp. 19, 31
(family; type Chloropsis Jardine and Selby).


Neospecies of Pycnonotidae from the Pleistocene

1. Pycnonotus barbatus (Desfontaine). ISRAEL: Mugharet-el-Zuttiyeh? (Bate, 1927, in
Turville-Petre, Researches in Prehistoric Galilee 1922-1926, p. 28); Oumm Qatafa Cave, Kebara,
El-Zuttiyeh Cave, and Abu-Usba Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 1,
no. 3, pp. 104, 106, 113).

Family CINCLIDAE (Cabanis)

Cinclinae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv. fair Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 205 (subfamilia; type
Cinclus Borkhausen).'-Cinclidae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1,
p. 251 (familia).-Cinclinae Sundevall, 1872, Methodi naturalis avium disponendarum
Tentame, pt. 1, p. 5 familiar) .
Hydrobatidae Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt. 1, pp. xv, 266 (family; type Hydrobata
Vieillot, 1816, a junior synonym of Cinclus Borkhausen, 1797).-Hydrobatinae Gray, 1869,
Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt. 1, pp. xv, 266 (subfamily).


Neospecies of Cinclidae from the Pleistocene and "Holocene
1. Cinclus cinclus (Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,
vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). JERSEY: St. Brelade's Cave (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, no. 787-788, p. 251).
FRANCE: Abimes de la Fage at Noailles (Chauvir6, 1965, C. R. Soc. Geol. France, no. 1, p. 8);
Rond-du-Barry at Sinzelles (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 38); La
Carribre at Gerd, Soulab6 at Montseron, Le Colombier at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc?, La Colombibre
at Neuville-sur-Ain, Campalou at Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans, Le Blot at Cerzat, Pech de l'Az6
at Cerzac, Baum de Gigny at Gigny-sur-Suran, and Le Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvir6,
1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 195, pl. 16, figs. 14-15). CORSICA: Grotta
de Funtanedu? (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). SWITZERLAND:
Pfahlbauten von Robenhauser (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 599). AUS-
TRIA: Guenushohle and Schusterlucke (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 780). CZECHO-
SLOVAKIA: BalcArka and Katerinska (Skutil and Stehhlk, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22).
HUNGARY: PilisszAnt6 Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 480, 505);
Otto Herman Hohle (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 190).

G. R. Gray (1841, List Gen. Birds, ed. 2, p. 85) proposed the subfamily name Cinclinae for Cinclus Moehring, 1752, a
senior synonym of Arenaria Brisson, 1760. As Moehring was a prebinomial author, his genera have no nomenclatorial validity.
Therefore Grav's improper use of Cinclinae for the turnmstones (Arenaria) does not preclude the later use of Cinclinae for the
dippers.








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Family TROGLODYTIDAE (Swainson)
Troglodytaenae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 316 (subfamily; type Troglo-
dytes Vieillot).-Troglodytinae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 131,
319.-Troglodytidae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 16-Troglodytinae Sunde-
vall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 13 familiar) .
Campylorhynchinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix, 343, 354 (sub-
family; type Campylorhynchus Spix).

Genus Cistothorus Cabanis
Cistothorus Cabanis, 1850, Museum Heineanum, vol. 1, p. 77 (type Troglodytes stellaris Naumann,
Recent).

1. Cistothorus brevis Brodkorb
Cistothorus brevis Brodkorb, 1957 (Feb. 26), Jour. Paleontology, vol. 31, no. 1, p. 133, pl. 20,
figs. 10-13 (type from Reddick, right humerus, Brodkorb no. 788; referred coracoids,
ulnas, tibiotarsi).-Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull., no. 44, p. 194 (femur).
MIDDLE UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Reddick beds). FLORIDA: Marion County:
Dixie Lime Products Company mine, 1 mi SE Reddick.

Neospecies of Troglodytidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Troglodytes troglodytes (Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell 1915, Zoologist, ser.
4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). FRANCE: Orgnac-l'Aven, Le Lazaret, and Deux Avens at Vallon-
Pont-d'Arc (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 196, pl. 17, fig. 1).
UKRAINE: *Tardenuaz and *Krementsa (Voinstvenski, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Prosh-
logo, pt. 3, p. 35); *Podolia (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 240).
2. Troglodytes aedon Vieillot. ILLINOIS: "Meyer Cave? (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speological
Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130). FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Palaeontology,
vol. 31, no. 1, p. 136, Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull. no. 44, p. 144); Haile (Ligon,
1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 50).
3. Salpinctes obsoletus (Say). IDAHO: Jaguar Cave (L. Miller, 1965, Tebiwa, vol. 8, no. 1,
p. 19). NEW MEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no.
1, p. 16).
4. Salpinctes mexicanus (Swainson). NEW MEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H. Miller,
1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16).
5. Campylorhynchus Brunneicapillus (Lafresnaye). CALIFORNIA: McKittrick? (A. H.
Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39, p. 250).
6. Cistothorus platensis (Latham). FLORIDA: Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus.,
vol. 10, no. 4, p. 150).


Family MUSCICAPIDAE Vigors
Muscicapidae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 435 (type Musicapa Brisson).-
Musicapinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 200 (subfamily).-Mus-
cicapinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 25 familiar) .
Merulidae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 435 (type Merula "Ray" = Leach,
after Aug. 30, 1816, a junior synonym of Turdus Linnaeus, 1758, and preoccupied by
Merula Koch, before July, 1816).-Merulina Vigors, Zool. Jour., vol. 2, p. 396.
Cossyphina Vigors, 1825, Zool. Jour., vol. 2, p. 396 (type Cossypha Vigors).
Saxicolina Vigors, 1825, Zool. Jour., vol. 2, p. 396 (type Saxicola Bechstein).-Saxicolinae Swain-
son, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 200.-Saxicolidae Baird, 1864 (June), Review
of American Birds, sig. 1, pp. 61, 453 (family).-Saxicolinae Sundevall, 1872, Methodi
Naturalis Aviumn Disponendarum Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 4 familiar) .


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Turdinae Bonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzione Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati, p.
31 (subfamily; type Turdus Linnaeus).- Turdidae Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp. List
Birds Eur. and N. Amer., p. 11.-Turdinae Sundevall, 1872, Methodi Naturalis Avium
Disponendarum Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 4 familiar) .
Pachycephalinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 492 (subfamily; type Pachy-
cephala Vigors).-Pachycephalinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 16 familiar) .
Leiotrichanae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 400 (subfamily; type Leiothrix
Swainson).-Leiotrichanae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 71, 249.-
Liotrichidae Cabanis, 1847, Arch. f. Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 323 (familia).-
Liotrichinae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 332.
Crateropodinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 156 (subfamily; type Crater-
opus Swainson, 1831, a junior synonym of Turdoides Cretzschmar, 1826).-Crateropodinae
Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 9 familiar) .
Orthonycinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 19 (subfamily; type
Orthonyx Temminck).-Orthonychinae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt.
1, p. 216 (subfamilia).
Trimalinae G. R. Gray, 1841, List of Genera of Birds, ed. 2, p. 36 (subfamily; type Timalia
Horsfield).-Timaliinae Bonaparte, 1840, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 216.-
Timaliidae Wallace, 1874, Ibis, p. 406.-Timaliini Delacour, 1946, Oiseaux, vol. 16, p. 7
(tribe).
Erythacinae G. R. Gray, 1846 (May), Genera of Birds, vol. 1, p. 177 (subfamily; type Erithacus
Linnaeus).
Luscinidae G. R. Gray, 1848 (Aug.), Genera of Birds, vol. 1, p. 161 (family; type Luscinia Lin-
naeus).-Luscininae G. R. Gray, 1848 (Aug.), Genera of Birds, vol. 1, p. 171 (subfamily).-
Lusciniinae Sundevall, 1872, Methodi Naturalis Avium Disponendarum Tentamen, pt. 1,
p. 3 familiar) .
Eupetinae Bonaparte, 1850 (March), Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, sig. 32, p. 251 (sub-
family; type Eupetes Temminck).-Eupetidae G. R. Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds,
pt. 1, pp. xv, 267 (family).-Eupetinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 12 (subfamilia).
Napodinae Cabanis, 1850, Museum Heineanum, pt. 1, sig. 10, p. 76 (subfamily; type Napodes
Cabanis, 1850, a junior synonym of Timalia Horsfield, 1820.
Myiagrinae Cabanis, 1850, Museum Heineanum, pt. 1, sig. 7, p. 56 (subfamily; type Myiagra
Vigors and Horsfield).-Myiagrinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 24 familiar) .
Garrulacinae Bonaparte, 1853 (seance du 31 Oct.), C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 27, no. 18, p. 644
(subfamilia; type Garrulax Lesson).
Miminae Bonaparte, 1853, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, p. 644 (subfamily; type Mimus Boie).-
Miminae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 14 (familia).-Mimidae Sharpe, 1891, Review
of Recent Attempts to Classify Birds, p. 87 (family).
Paradoxornithinae G. R. Gray, 1855, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 82 (subfamily;
type Paradoxornis Gould).-Paradoxornithidae Wetmore, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 89,
no. 13, pp. 2, 10 (family).
Ptilogonidinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix, 316, 318 (subfamily;
type Ptilogonys Swainson).-Ptilogonydinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 47.-
Ptilogonatidae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 21 (family).-Ptilo-
gonatidae Ridgway, 1904, op. cit., pt. 3, pp. viii, 113.-Ptilogonatinae Arvey, 1948,
Wilson Bull., vol. 61, no. 3, p. 198.
Chamaeanae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix, 343, 370 (subfamily;
type Chamaea Gambel).-Chamaeadae Baird, 1864 (July), Review Amer. Birds, p. 75
(family).-Chamaeidae Coues, 1878, Birds Colorado Valley, pp. xi, 108.-Chamaeinae
Ridgway, 1887, Man. N. Amer. Birds, p. 588.-Chamaeini Delacour, 1946, Oiseaux,
vol. 16, p. 7 (tribe).
Myiadestinae Baird, 1866 (May), Review of American Birds, sig. 26, pp. 408, 417, 462 (sub-
family; type Myiadestes Swainson).
Henicurinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 5 familiar ; type Henicurus Cabanis, i.e.
Enicurus Temminck).
Myiophoninae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 5 familiar) ; type Myiophoneus Temminck).
Copsychinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 8 familiar ; type Copsychus Wagler).


1978







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Brachypteryinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 10 familiar ; type Brachypteryx Horsfield).
Toxostominae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 13 familiar ; type Toxostoma Wagler).
Ficedulinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 23 familiar ; type Ficedula Brisson).
Platystirinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 23 familiar ; type Platystira Jardine and Selby).
Muscipetinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 25 familiar ; type Muscipeta Cuvier).
Rhipidurinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 25 familiar ; type Rhipidura Vigors, and
Horsfield).-Rhididuridae Oliver, 1955, New Zealand Birds, ed. 2, pp. 9, 491 (family).-
Rhipidurinae Delacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31), Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci.,
no. 16, p. 5 (subfamily).
Timeliidae Sharpe, 1874, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 4, p. 7 (type Timelia Sundevall, 1872, a
junior synonym of Timalia Horsfield, 1821).
Falcunulidae Sundevall, 1874, OEfversigt Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akad. Forhandl., no. 3, p. 30
familiar ; type Falunculus Vieillot).
Picathartinae Lowe, 1938, Ibis, ser. 14, vol. 2, p. 267 (subfamily; type Picathartes Lesson).-
Picathartidae Bannerman, 1951, Birds Tropical West Africa, vol. 8, p. 465 (family).-
Picathartini Mayr and Amadon, 1951 (April 2), Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1496, pp. 18,
36 (tribe).
Pelleornini [sic] Delacour, 1946, Oiseaux, vol. 16, p. 14 (tribe; type Pellorneum Swainson).-
Pellorneini Delacour, op. cit., p. 22.
Ponmatorhinini Delacour, 1946, Oiseaux, vol. 16, p. 15 (tribe; type Pomatorhinus Horsfield).
Turdoidini Delacour, 1946, Oiseaux, col. 16, p. 19 (tribe; type Turdoides Cretzschmar).-
Turdoididae Williams, 1963, Field Guide Birds E. and Central Africa, p. 187 (family).
Cinclosomatini Mayr and Amadon, 1951 (April 2), Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1496, pp. 18, 36
(tribe; type Cinclosonma Vigors and Horsfield).
Zeledoniidae Ridgway, 1907, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 4, pp. viii, 885 (family; type
Zeledonia Ridgway).
Palaeoscininidae Howard, 1957 (June 28), Los Angeles County Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 9, p. 15
(family; type Palaeoscinis Howard).
Monarchinae Delacour and Vaurie, 1957 (Oct. 31), Los Angeles County Mus. Contr. Sci., no.
16, p. 5 (subfamily; type Monarcha Vigors and Horsfield).
Panurinae Deignan, 1964, Check-list Birds of World, vol. 10, pp. ix, 430 (subfamily; type
Panurus Koch).




Subfamily MYADESTINAE Baird
Myadestinae Baird, 1866.
Palaeoscinidae Howard, 1957.


Genus Palaeoscinis Howard
Palaeoscinis Howard, 1957 (June 28), Los Angeles County Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 9, p. 6 (type by
original designation Palaeoscinis turdirostris Howard).


1. Palaeoscinis turdirostris Howard
Palaeoscinis turdirostris Howard, 1957 (June 28), Los Angeles County Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 9,
p. 6, figs. 1-2 (type from Tepusquet Creek, skeleton impression, Los Angeles Mus. no.
2604).
MIDDLE MIOCENE (Mohnian stage, Monterey formation). CALIFORNIA:
Santa Barbara County: San Rafael Mountains: west side Tepusquet Creek, NE
1/4 of NW 1/4, section 15 Township 10 North, Range 31 West.


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Neospecies of Muscicapidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
Subfamily Miminae

1. Toxostoma rnfum (Linnaeus). PENNSYLVANIA: New Paris (Guilday, Martin, and
McCrady, 1964, Bull. Nat. Speleol. Soc., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 134, 143). VIRGINIA: Natural
Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 13). FLORIDA: Reddick
(Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull., no. 44, p. 194); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida
State Mus., vol. 10, p. 150).
2. Toxostoma ocellatum (Sclater). MEXICO: Valley of Tequixquiac? (Storer, 1954, Wilson
Bull., vol. 66, no. 2, p. 144).
3. Toxostoma redicivum (Gambel). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (A. H. Miller, 1929, Univ.
Calif. Publ., Bull Dept. Geol., vol. 19, p. 11; 1937, Condor, vol. 39, no. 1, p. 250).
4. Toxostoma bendirei (Coues). CALIFORNIA: McKittrick (A. H. Miller, 1937, Condor, vol.
39, no. 1, p. 250).
5. Toxostoma dorsale (Henry). NEW MEXICO: Shelter Cave? (Howard and A. H. Miller,
1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16).
6. Oreoscoptes nontanus (Townsend). CALIFORNIA: McKettrick and Rancho La Brea (A. H.
Miller, 1937, Condor, vol. 39, p. 250). NEW MEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H.
Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16).
7. Mimuns polyglottos (Linnaeus). FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv.,
Geol. Bull. no. 44, p. 194); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, p. 150). DOMINI-
CAN REPUBLIC: *Cerro de San Francisco (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol.
28, no. 3, p. 279). BAHAMAS: *Abaco Island (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci.,
vol. 33, no. 3, p. 238). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral and Cueva Clara (Wetmore, 1922,
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 325).
8. Mimus gundlachii Cabanis. BAHAMAS: 'Gordon Hills Cave, Crooked Island, (Wetmore,
1938, Auk, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 52); Banana Hole, New Providence (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida
State Mus., vol. 4, no. 11 p. 365).
9. Mimus saturninus (Lichtenstein). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania and Lapa da Lagoa do
Sumidouro (0. Winge, 1887, E Museo Lundii, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 49).
10. Margarops fuscatus (Vieillot). BAHAMAS: Great Exuma Island (Wetmore, 1937, Bull.
Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 80, no. 12, p. 441). PUERTO RICO: *Cueva Catedral and *Cueva Clara
(Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 325).
11. Dumetella carolinensis (Linnaeus). WISCONSIN: "Raddatz rock shelter? (Parmalee,
1959, Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 85).
Subfamily Turdinae
12. Erithacus rubecula (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Kesh Cave, Newhall Cave, and Edenvale
Cave (Lambrecht, 1933. Handb. Palaeom., p. 779). ENGLAND: Clevedon Cave, Chudleigh
Cave, L6ngcliffe Cave, Langwith Bassett Cave, and Merlin's Cave? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 779). FRANCE: Font6chavade? (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac.
Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 199). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool.
Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). ITALY: Buca Tana di Maggiano (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Pal-
aeorn., p. 779). DENMARK: Oexnebjerg (0. Winge, 1903, Vidensk, Meddel. naturh. Foren.,
vol. 6, p. 105). HUNGARY: Lambrecht Cave (JAnossy, 1963, Acta Zoologica, vol. 9, p. 295).
UKRAINE: Syuren I, Azil, *Tardenuaz, *Chernigov, and *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro-
dnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 31, 34, 35, 49, 58). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa
Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 100).
13. Erithacus luscinia (Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Langwith Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist,
ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, nos. 787-788, p. 251).
FRANCE: Abimes de la Fage and *Arago actuel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol.
Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 199). ITALY: Buco della Volpe sopra Rovenna (Portis, 1888, Mem.
Accad. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 197); Grotta d'Equi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 779). SWITZERLAND: "Grotte de Cotencher (Dubois and Stehlin, 1932, M6m. Soc. Pal.
Suisse, vol. 52, p. 29). GERMANY: Westeregeln bei Magdeburg (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 779). UKRAINE: *Krementsa and *Rasponintsy (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya
Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 43, 44).







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


14. Erithacus megarhynchos Brehm. UKRAINE: *Azil, *Tardenuaz, and *Perevoloka (Voin-
stvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 34, 35, 45). ISRAEL:
Hayonim Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 132).
15. Erithacus suecicus (Linnaeus). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 779); StranskA skila (Skutil and Stehhlk, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22).
POLAND: Rebielice? (Jinossy, 1974, Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, vol. 19, no. 21, p. 558).
UKRAINE: caves (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Cave of USSR, p. 237). ISRAEL:
Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 106); Abu-Usba
Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 134).
16. Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Kesh Cave, Newhall Cave, and Eden-
vale Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). ENGLAND: Clevedon Cave,
Chudleigh Cave, Longcliffe Cave, and Langwith Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol.
19, no. 893, p. 403). FRANCE: Grotte de Lherm (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779);
Lunel-Viel, Font6chevade?, Abri Lafaye at Bruniguel, Le Blot at Cerzat, and *Rond-du-Barry
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 199). CORSICA: Grotta di
Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). DENMARK: Soe-
lager (0. Winge, 1903, Vidensk. Meddel. nature. Foren., vol. 6, p. 104). AUSTRIA: Hund-
sheim? (Jinossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-natw., pt. 1, vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212).
CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779). UKRAINE: *Azil
(Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 34). ISRAEL: Kebara
Cave (Tchemov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 106).
17. Phoenicurus ochruros Gmelin. POLAND: Zytnia Skala? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late
Quaternary Poland, pp. 117, 200). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research
Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 106); Abu-Usba Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel
Jour. Sci., vol. 15, p. 134).
18. Sialia sialis (Linnaeus). ILLINOIS: *Meyer Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleological Soc.
Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130). FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol.
Bull., no. 44, p. 195).
19. Sialia mexicana Swainson. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 179, pl. 13, fig. i; pl. 14, fig. i); Rancho La Brea? (A. H. Miller,
1929, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 19, p. 11).
20. Cercomela melanura (Temminck). ISRAEL: 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest.
Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 24).
21. Saxicola rubetra (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Kesh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,
no. 893, p. 403). ENGLAND: Carnforth Cave and Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser.
4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Merlin's Cave? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779). FRANCE:
Abimes de la Fage at Noailles, Orgnac I'Aven, Le Lazaret at Nice, Salp&tre de Pompignan,
Rond-du-Barry, Baume de Gigny at Gigny-sur-Suran?, and *Arago actuel at Tautavel (Mourer-
Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 197). CORSICA: Grotta di Fun-
tanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). CZECHOSLOVAKIA:
Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779). RUMANIA: Piisp6kfitrdo [Betfia) (Capek,
1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 30). UKRAINE: Syuren I, 'Alimovsk, and *Okunevki (Voin-
stvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 2, pp. 31, 58, 59).
22. Saxicola torquata (Linnaeus). GERMANY: Voigtstedt (Jinossy, 1965, Pal. Abhandl.,
part A, vol. 2, p. '355). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom.,
p. 779). RUMANIA: Piusp6kfiird6 [Betfia] (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779). ISRAEL:
Hayonin Cave? (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Sci., vol. 15, p. 132).
23. Oenanthe isabellina (Temminck). BELGIUM: Grotte Marie-Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973,
Gerfaut, vol. 63, p. 11).
24. Oenanthe leucura (Gmelin). FRANCE: *Arago actuel at Tautavel (Mourer-Chauvire,
1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 198).
25. Oenanthe oenanthe (Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Ightham Cave (E. T. Newton, 1894, Quart.
Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 50, p. 191, pl. 10, figs. 13-14); Clevedon Cave and Langwith
Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Chudleigh Cave and *Glaston-
bury (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, nos. 787-788, p. 251); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 779). FRANCE: Teyjat (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779); La Balau-
zibre at Vers, Aurensan?, La Colombibre at Neuville-sur-Ain, Campalou at Saint-Nazaire-en-


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Royans, Le Blot at Cerzat, Grotte de Cottier at Retournac, Rond du Barry, Grotte Simard at
Puymoyen, and Baum de Gigny at Gigny-sur-Suran (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol.
Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 198). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu and Grotta di Brietta (E. T.
Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). GERMANY: Kleine Scheuer im Lonetal
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim? (Jinossy, 1974, Sitzb.
Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-natw., pt. 1, vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212). CZECHOSLOVAKIA:
Malenice (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779); StrdnskA skila (JAnossy, 1972, Anthropos,
vol. 20 (n.s. 12), p. 60). POLAND: Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 779). UKRAINE:
Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso. Internal. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 103, 112);
Kiik-Koba, Adzhi-Koba, Tankov, *Azil, *Novgorod-Seversk, *Chernigov, *Kiev, and *Alimovsk
(Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 25, 28, 30, 34, 40,
49, 51, 53, 58). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11,
no. 3, p. 106); Abu-Usba Cave on Mt. Carmel (Bar-Yosef and Tchemov, 1966, Israel Jour.
Zool., vol. 15, p. 134).
26. Monticola saxatilis (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Grottes inf6rieure et sup6rieure d'Aurensan
(Bouchud, 1972, Bull. Asso. Franc. Etude Quatern., vol. 1, pp. 52, 54, 56); Abimes de la Fage
at Noailles (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 198, pl. 17,
fig. 2). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, BarlangkutatAs, vol. 4, p. 206).
27. Monticola solitarius (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Fort du Serrat-d'en-Vacquer near Perpignan?
(Paris, 1912, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., vol. 4, p. 285); Rousillon (Lambrecht, 1918, Aquila, vol. 24,
p. 216); Grotte du Lazaret at Nice and Combe Grenal at Domme (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975,
Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 198).
28. Zoothera dauma (Latham). MONACO: L'Observatoire (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc.
Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 202). ITALY: Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi (Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 202). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu?
(E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230).
29. Catharus minimus (Lafresnaye). FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv.,
Geol. Bull., no. 44, p. 195).
30. Catharus ustalatus (Nuttall). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria? (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ.
Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 178). UTAH: *Loper ruin (Hargrave, 1960, Univ. Utah
Anthr. Papers, no. 44, p. 239).
31. Catharus guttatus (Pallas). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria? (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 178).
32. Turdus torquatus Linnaeus. SPAIN: Caverna de Santimamife (Villalta, 1964, Speleon,
vol. 15, p. 98). FRANCE: Grotte du Lazaret at Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire,
1973, Quartar, p. 153); Abri Suard at La Chaise, La Balauziere at Vers, Grotte Jean Pierre at
Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, and Baumne de Gigny at Gigny-sur-Suran (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc.
Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 200); Grotte de Cottier at Retournac (Mourer-Chauvir6,
1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 472). MONACO: L'Observatoire (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab.
G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 200). SWITZERLAND: Schlossfelsen von Virseck near Basel,
Kaltbrunnental, Thierstein, and Ermitage (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 788). GER-
MANY: Raumgrotte (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). HUNGARY: Lambrecht Cave?
(Janossy, 1963, Acta Zoologica Cracov., vol. 9, p. 308). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Certova dira
(Capek, 1910, Ber. V. internal. ornith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 940). POLAND: *Rock-shelter above
Niedostepna Cave and *Mamutowa Cave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp.
120, 122, 200, fig. 76).
33. Turdus merula Linnaeus. IRELAND: Doneraile Cave, Edenvale Cave, Newhall Cave,
and Kesh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). ENGLAND: Ightham
fissure (E. T. Newton, 1899, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 55, no. 219, p. 420); Clevedon
Cave, Chudleigh Cave, and Langwith Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,
p. 403); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). GIBRALTAR: Devil's
Tower (Bate, 1928, Jour. Roy. Anthr. Inst., vol. 58, p. 104). SPAIN: Caverna de Santimamifie,
Cueva de la Campana, and Avenc del Geant (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 98). FRANCE:
Balme-les-grottes (Chauvir6, 1963, C. R. Sommaire Soc. G6ol. France, fasc. 2, p. 53); Grotte du
Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. Pr6hist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 62,
64, 76, 78); Abimes de la Fage (Chauvir6, 1965, C. R. Soc. G6ol. France, no. 1, p. 8); Les Romains
at Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvir6, 1973, vol. 23-24, pp. 153, 155); Rond du Barry








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


and *Rond du Barry at Sinzelles (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 38);
Mas Rambault at Frontignan [?, see p. 266], L'Escale at Saint-Estbve-Janson, Lunel Viel, Ognac-
l'Aven, Abri Suard at La Chaise, Font6chevade at Montbron, Aldbne at Cesseras?, Eden Roc at
Vaison-la-Romaine, Salp6tre de Pompignan, Grotte Tournal at Bize, La Crouzade at Gruissan,
La Balauziere at Vers, La Carriere at Gerde, Soulab6 at Montseron, Les Trois Freres at Monte-
squieu-Avantes, Balazuc, Deux Avens at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, La Colombibre at Neuville-sur-Ain,
Campalou at Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans, Jean Pierre and "Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz,
Jaurens at Nespouls, Combe Grenal at Domme, Pech de l'Az6 at Carsac, Gare de Couze at
Lalinde, Grotte Simard at Puymoyen, Grand Caveau and *Grand Caveau at Flavigny-sur-
Ozerain, Baume de Gonvillars and *Baume de Gonvillars, La Roche plate at Saint-Mihiel?, and
*Arago actuel (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 200).
MONACO: Grotte de l'Observatoire (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). CORSICA:
Toga? (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 472, fig. 2); Grotta di Funtanedu, Grotta
di Brietta, and Gradicchia Cave (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230).
SARDINIA: Grotta del Capo (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230).
ITALY: Oliveto? (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 198); Grotte de
Grimaldi, Grotte du Prince, Grotta dei Colombi, Buca del Bersagliere, Grotte d'Equi, and Buca
Tana di Maggiano (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 778). SWITZERLAND: Ermitage
and Felsen bei Birseck near Basel (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). LUXEMBURG:
Oetrange (Ferrant and Friant, 1940, Faune pl6ist. d'Oetrange, p. 200, pl. 15). GERMANY: St.
Wolfgang Cave and Kastelhang Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). CZECHO-
SLOVAKIA: Balcarova cave and Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber. V. internal. ornith. Kongr.
Berlin., p. 938); StrAnska cave, Sipka, Kulna, Veruncina, and KaterinskA (Skutil and Stehlik,
1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). AUSTRIA: Gudenus cave and Schusterlucke? (Lam-
brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). HUNGARY: Somly6hegy and *Somly6hegy (Lambrecht,
1912, Aquila, vol. 19, pp. 286, 303, 306); *Leg6ny cave near Pilisszentlel6k (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). POLAND: *Rai Cave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Pleistocene
Poland, pp. 124, 200). RUMANIA: Pispokfiirdo and *Piuspokfilrdo [Betfia] (Lambrecht, 1912,
Aquila, vol. 19, p. 286). GREECE: Nesakia on Cerigo Isle (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc.
London, pt. 2, p. 230). UKRAINE: Kiik-Koba, Syuren I, *Azil, *Tardenuaz, *Syuren II, "Murzak
Koba, *Shan-Koba, *Nizhnee Krivche, *Krementsa, *Rasponinta, *Chernigov, *Kiev, and
'Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 25, 31,
34, 35, 37, 38, 42, 43, 49, 51). MOLDAVIA: *Trinka (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob-
stanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 47). RUSSIA: *Zhiguley Cave on River Volga (Burchak-
Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds Caves USSR, p. 242). AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Burchak-
Abramovich, 1963, Ornitologiya, vol. 4, p. 463). GEORGIAN USSR: Gvardzilas-Klde (Burchak-
Abramovich, 1966, Peshchery Gruzii Speleolog. Sbornik, vol. 4, p. 96); *Darkweti (Bendukidze,
Tezisi Dokl. IV Vsesouz. Sov. Izuchan. Chetvert. Perioda, p. 88). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa
Cave and Kebara Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, pp.
100, 104, 106); 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya,
p. 24).
34. Turdus pilaris Linnaeus. IRELAND: Kesh Cave and Edenvale Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoolo-
gist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, nos. 787-788, p. 251).
PORTUGAL: Gruta de Furninha (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 97). BELGIUM: Trou de
Sureau (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304); Trou de la Naulette, Trou de Chaleux, Trou
des Nutons, and Trou du Frontal (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). FRANCE:
Grotte du Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. prehist. Monaco, no.
11, pp. 62, 78); Abimes de la Fage (Chauvir6, 1965, C. R. Soc. Geol. France, no. 1, p. 8); Combe-
Grenal (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, p. 360): Lunel-Viel, Arago
and *Arago actuel, Cap de la Biehle, La Balauzibre, Soulab6, Jean Pierre and *Jean Pierre at
Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Les F6es at ChAtelperron, Laugerie Haute Est at Les Eyzies, La Roche
Plate?, Baum de Gigny, Baum de Gonvillars, and *Baum de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975,
Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 199). MONACO: Grotte de l'Observatoire? (Lam-
brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921,
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). ITALY: Buco della Volpe above Rovenna? (Portis, 1888,
mem. Accad. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 197); Grotta d'Equi, and *Buca Tana di Maggiano
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 777). SWITZERLAND: Schweizerbild bei Schaffhausen,


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Schlossfelsen von Birseck, and Kesslerloch (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777).
GERMANY: Breitenberg Cave (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,
p. 199). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarova skala, Sipka, and Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber. V.
internal. ornith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 938); Holubic and Zuzlawitz? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 777); Strdnska skila, Kulna, Veruncina, Katerinska, and Predmost (Skutil and
Stehli'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke (Lambrecht, 1912,
Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304); Hundsheim? (Janossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat., pt.
1, vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol.
Anst., vol. 19, p. 151); Pilisszint6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23,
p. 480); Kies-Grube? (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 195); Balla Cave and Pesk6 Cave
(Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 276); Baj6t and Pa.lffy Cave (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila,
vol. 20, p. 425); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); Kalten-Szamos Valley
(Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 194); *Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb. Kgl.
Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 22, no. 6, p. 403); O-Ruzsin, Sittb, Hidegszamos in Siebenbiigen,
and *Leg6ny Cave near Pilisszantlel6k (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777); *VisegrAd
(Bokonyi and Janossy, 1966, Vertebrata Hungarica, vol. 7, p. 92); Breitenberg cave (Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 199). RUMANIA: Curata cave
(JAnossy, 1965, Vertebrata Hungarica, vol. 7, p. 113). POLAND: *Manutowa cave? (Bochenski,
1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 122, 200). UKRAINE: Syuren I and *Syuren II (Tugari-
nov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 103, 112): Tankov, *Tar-
denuaz, and *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3,
pp. 30, 35, 58).
35. Turdus iliacus Linnaeus. [T. musicus Linnaeus suppressed by International Commission].
IRELAND: Kesh Cave, Edenvale Cave, Bantick Cave, and Newhall Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist,
ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 402). ENGLAND: Clevedon Cave, Chudleigh Cave, Longcliffe
Cave, and Langwith Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 402). PORTU-
GAL: Gruta de Furninha (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). MALLORCA: Cueva
de Son Bauzi? (Ballmann and Adrover, 1970, Acta Geologica Hispanica, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 62).
BELGIUM: Trou du Frontal and Trou du Sureau (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778).
FRANCE: *Grotte de l'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, p.
290); Les Romains at Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvir6, 1973, Quartair, p. 153);
Rond du Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 38); Le Vallonnet
at Roquebrune-Cap-martin?, L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson, Lunel-Viel, Abfmes de la Fage at
Noailles, Orgnac 3 at Orgnac-l'Aven, Le Lazaret at Nice, La Chaise, Fontechevade at Montbrun,
Soulab6 at Montseron, Saint-Romans?, Campalou at Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans, Pech de l'Az6 at
Carsac, Grotte Simard at Puymoyen, Le Placard at Vilhonneur, Les Tani6res de Vergisson,
Jean Pierre and *Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Grand Caveau and *Grand Caveau at
Falvigny-sur-Ozerain, Baume de Gonvillars and *Baume de Gonvillars, and *Arago actuel at
Tautavel (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 201). MONACO:
Grotte de l'Observatoire (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778). ITALY: Grotte de
Grimaldi and Cavema d'Equi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778); Grotte du Prince
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 2, p. 363). SWITZERLAND:
Kesslerloch, Thierstein?, and Schweizersbild bei Schaffhausen (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Pal-
aeorn., p. 778). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarova skala (Capek, 1910, Ber. V. internal. ornith.
Kongr. Berlin, p. 938); Holubice and Bulovka near Kosir (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p.
778); Certova dira, Sipka, Holstyn, and Katerinski (Skutil and Stehhlk, 1939, Ornitholog, 1939,
vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22). AUSTRIA: Hundscheim? (JAnossy, 1974, Sitz. Osterr. Akad. Wiss.,
math.-nat., pt. 1, vol. 182, no. 6-8. p. 212). HUNGARY: Somlyohegy (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila,
vol. 19, p. 286); Suitto (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 201).
RUMANIA: Pilspokfiirdo [Betfia] (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 286). UKRAINE:
Nizhnee Krivche and *Rasponints (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Prosh-
logo, vol. 3, pp. 42, 44); Murzan-Koba Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves
of USSR, p. 237). RUSSIA: *Zhiguley Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves
of USSR, p. 242). GEORGIAN SSR: Krivachanska Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil
Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 239).
36. Turdus philomelos Brehm. [T. erecetorum Turton is a suppressed senior synonym. Much
of the literature is under the name T. musicus (not of Linnaeus) and hence is often confused


1978








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


with that of T. iliacus.] IRELAND: Kesh Cave, Edenvale Cave, Bantick Cave, and Newhall
Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 402). ENGLAND: Ightham? (E. T.
Newton, 1894, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 50, p. 191); Clevedon Cave, Chudleigh
Cave, and Langwith Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 402); Grimes
Cave, *Dowkabottom Cave, and *London Wall (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, no. 787-788, p. 251);
Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). BELGIUM: Trou du Sureau (Lam-
brecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304); Trou du Frontal (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 777). PORTUGAL: Gruta de Furninha (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). SPAIN:
Caverna de Santimamife and Caverna de Lumentxa (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 97).
FRANCE: "Grotte de l'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, Mem. no. 1, p.
290). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu? (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2,
p. 230). SARDINIA: bone breccia (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 597);
Monte San Giovanni? and Pietro Tampoia? (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 472,
pl. 37, figs. 6, 8). MALTA: Ghar Dalam Cave? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777).
ITALY: Buco della Volpe above Rovenna (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol.
38, p. 197); Grotta Romanelli, Caverna d'Equi, Bucca del Tasso, and Grotta di Cucigliana
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). SWITZERLAND: Saleve? (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarova skila, Sipka, and Certova dira
(Capek, 1910, Ber. V. internal. ornith. Kongr. Berlin, p. 938): Katerinski (Skutil and Stehhlk,
1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22); StrAnska skAla (JAnossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20 (n.s.
12), p. 60). AUSTRIA: Schreiberwand Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777).
HUNGARY: Puskaporos? (Kormos, 1911, Jahrb. Kgl. ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 19, p. 151);
Balla cave (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 276); Oregk6 cave bei Baj6t (Kormos and
Lambrecht, 1914, BarlankutatAs, vol. 2, p. 106); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p.
90); Pilisszant6 and *Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23,
p. 480); Otto Herman Cave (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 189); O-Ruzsin, Palffy cave,
Siittb, *Devence, and Legenybarlang bei Pilisszentlel6k (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 777). POLAND: Raj Cave, *Niedostepna Cave, and *Zytnia Cave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds
Late Quarternary Poland, pp. 125, 127, 200, fig. 77). RUMANIA: "Somly6hegy bei Piuspok-
fiirdo [Betfia] (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 276); Piispokffirdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917,
BarlangkutatAs, vol. 5, pp. 30, 71). UKRAINE: Kiik-Koba, Grotto Chokurcha, Syuren I, *Syuren
II, *Krementsa, *Zaporozhya, *Alimovsk, Murzak-Koba, Perevoloka, and *Kiev (Voinstvenski,
1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 25, 31, 37, 43, 45, 51, 53, 58);
*Uzhn Donguzlausk (Burchak-Abramovich and Zalkin, 1971, Bull. Moscow Obshch. Ispit.
Prirodi, vol. 76, no. 5, p. 55). RUSSIA: *Zhiguley Cave on River Volga (Burchak-Abramovich,
1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 242). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Re-
search Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 106, 113);'Ubeidiya (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest.
Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 24). AZERBAIJAN: Binagady (Burchak-Abramovich, "1963",
1962, Ornitologiya, vol. 4, p. 463).
37. Turdus viscivorus Linnaeus. IRELAND: Doneraile Cave, Kesh Cave, and Edenvale
Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 402). ENGLAND: Wye Valley Cave, Chud-
leigh Cave, and Grimes Cave? (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, p. 402); *London Wall
(Bell, 1922, Naturalist, no. 787-788, p. 250); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 777). FRANCE: Lacombe-Thayac and Teyjat (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777);
Le Morin at Passac-sur-Dordogne (Chauvir6, 1965, 89 Congr. Soc. Savantes, p. 255); Combe-
Grenal at Domme, Grottes de l'Hortus and *Grottes de l'Hortus at Valflaunes (Mourer-Chauvire,
1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, pp. 279, 292, 360, figs. 5-6); Rond du Barry and *Rond
du Barry at Sinzelles (Mourer- Chauvire, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 38); Les Valerots
at Nuits-Saint-Georges?, L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson, Lunel-Viel, Abtmes de la Fage at
Noailles, Orgnac-l'Aven, L'Arago at Tautavel, Le Lazaret at Nice, Pech de l'Az6 at Carsac,
Font6chevade at Montbron, Pi6 Lombard at Tourrettes-sur-Loup, Eden Roc at Vaison-la-
Romaine, Salp6tre de Pompignan, Grotte Tournal at Bize, La Balauzibre at Vers, Soulab6 at
Montseron, Aurensan sup6rieure, Espblugues at Lourdes, Deux Avens at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc,
Saint Romans?, Abri Gay at Poncin, Campalou at Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans, La Colombibre at
Neuville-su-Ain, Jean Pierre and "Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Cottier at Retournac,
Grotte Simard at Puymoyen, and Baum de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol.
Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 201). MONACO: L'Observatoire? (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab.


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 202). BELGIUM: Trou de Sureau (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila,
vol. 19, p. 304); Trou de Frontal (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777); Grotte Marie-
Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63, p. 11). DENMARK: Soelager (0. Winge, 1903,
Vidensk. Meddel. naturh. Foren., vol. 6, p. 104). SPAIN: Cueva de la Campana (Villalta,
1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 97). GIBRALTAR: Devil's Tower (Bate, 1928, Jour. Roy. Anthr. Inst.,
vol. 58, p. 104). MALLORCA: Son Bauza cave? (Ballmann and Adrover, 1970, Acta Geol6gica
Hispanica, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 62). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc.
Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). ITALY: Cavernes de Verrezzi (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois.
Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 595); Grotta dei Colombi? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777).
SWITZERLAND: Ermitage, Ettingen, Felsen bei Birseck, and *Bsetzi bei Thayingen),(Lam-
brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Sipka and Certova dira (Capek,
1910, Ber. V. internal. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 939); Balcarka cave and Veruncina cave (Skutil
and Stehhlk, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22); Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 777); Stranska skdla? (Janossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20, p. 60). AUSTRIA: Schreiberwand
caves (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 777). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911,
Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 19, p. 151); Pesko (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19,
p. 281, pl. 4, fig. 30); PAlffy cave (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila, vol. 20, p. 428); Remetehegy (Lam-
brecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 480); Otto Herman cave and Kiskev61y
cave (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 189); Solymarer Felsspalte (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 777); IstAll6sk6 (JAnossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 215); Csev Passage (Jinossy,
1959, Ann. Mus. 'Hungarica, vol. 51, p. 117); *Lambrecht Cave? (JAnossy, 1963, Acta Zool.
Acad. Sci. Hungaricae, vol. 9, fasc. 3-4, pp. 295, 308); "Visegrid (B6kbnyi and Janossy, 1966,
Vertebrata Hungarica, vol. 7, p. 92). YUGOSLAVIA: Krapina (Lambrecht, 1915, Barlangkutatis,
vol. 3, p. 118); Drazica (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 189). RUMANIA: Pfisp6kfiirdb
[Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 30). POLAND: Zamkowa Cave (Bochenski,
1974, Birds Late Pleistocene Poland, pp. 128, 200). UKRAINE: *Azil, *Tardenuaz, Rasponintsy,
"Kiev, *Alimovsky (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp.
34, 35, 44, 51, 58); Tash-Air cave near Bakchisaray (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds
Caves of USSR, p. 243). MOLDAVIA: *Starye Druitory (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob-
stanovka i Fanny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 46). RUSSIA: Zhiguley Cave on River Volga (Burchak-
Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 242). GEORGIAN SSR: "Darkweti (Ben-
dukidze, 1973, Tezisi Doklad. Vsesouz. Sov. Izuchen. Chetvert. Periodi, p. 88).
38. Turdus plumbeus Linnaeus. BAHAMAS: Great Exuma Island (Wetmore, 1937, Bull.
Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 80, p. 441); *Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida
Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 238). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco and *Cerro
de San Francisco (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad, Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 280).
PUERTO RICO: *Cueva Catedral, 'Cueva Clara, *Cueva Torahio, and *Cueva San Miguel
(Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 326).
39. Turdus migratorius Linnaeus. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ.
Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 178, pl. 13, figs. h, k); Rancho La Brea (Howard, 1962,
Los Angeles Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., no. 58, p. 23). NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave (Howard, 1952,
Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pt. 2, p. 54). IDAHO: *Weiss rock shelter (L. Miller, 1963,
Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 62, pt. 4, p. 181). ARIZONA: *Indian site 35 mi. N. of Flag-
staff (A. H. Miller, 1932, Condor, vol. 34, p. 138). NEW MEXICO: Conkling Cavern and Shelter
Cave (Howard and A. H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, p. 16). TEXAS: Miller's Cave in Llano
County (Weigel, 1967, Texas Jour. Sci., vol. 19, p. 108). OHIO: "Indian Hills (Mayfield, 1972,
Condor, vol. 74, no. 3, p. 345). NEW YORK: *Cole quarry (Moore, 1973, Bull. N.Y. Arch.
Assn., no. 58, p. 33). PENNSYLVANIA: *Sheep rock shelter (Guilday and Parmalee, 1965,
Pennsylvania Archaeologist, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 39). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore,
1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 14). FLORIDA: Vero Beach (Weigel, 1963,
Florida Geol. Surv., Spec. Publ., no. 10, p. 30). Reports from Verrezzi, Italy (Milne-Edwards,
1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 595) and Grottes de Menton, France (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 778 ex Riviere) must refer to some Palearctic species.
Subfamily Leiothrichinae
40. Garrulux davidi (Swinhoe). CHINA: Chou Kou Tien? (Howard, 1939, Fortschritte der
Palaont., vol. 2, p. 314).


1978








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


41. Turdoides squamniceps Cretzschmar. ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962,
Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 100).


Subfamily Chamaeinae
42. Chamaea fasciata (Gambel). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 177, pl. 13, fig. f).


Subfamily Muscicapinae
43. Miro australis (Sparrman). NEW ZEALAND: Martinborough Cave (Yaldwyn, 1956,
Rec. Dominion Mus., vol. 3, p. 3); Pyramid Valley Swamp? (Scarlett, 1955, Rec. Canterbury
Mus., vol. 6, no. 4, p. 263).
44. Muscicapa striata Pallas. BELGIUM: Grotte Marie-Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut,
vol. 63, p. 12). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim? (Jinossy, 1974, Sitz. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat.,
pt. 1, vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212). UKRAINE: *Tardenuaz and *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967,
Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 35, 58). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave
(Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 100).
45. Muscicapa hypoleuca Pallas. FRANCE: Grotte de l'Hortus and *Grotte de l'Hortus
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, pp. 280, 290); Les Romains at
Pierre-Chitel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvir6, 1973, Quartar, p. 153); Mas Rambault at
Frontignan?, Orgnac-l'Aven, and Deux Avens at Vallons-Pont-d'Arc (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975,
Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 205).
46. Muscicapa albicollis Temminck. FRANCE: L'Escale at Saint-Est6ve-Janson, Caune de
L'Arago and *Arago at Tautavel, Grand Caveau and *Grand Caveau at Flavigny-sur-Ozerain
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 205, pl. 17, fig. 10). UKRAINE:
Syuren II shelter (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 37).


Family SYLVIIDAE (Vigors)
Sylviana Vigors, 1825, fide Gray (type Sylvia Scopoli, 1769).-Sylviadae Vigors, 1825, Trans.
Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 435.-Sylvinae Bonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribu-
zione Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati, p. 4.-Sylvianae Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp.
List Birds Eur. N. Amer., p. 38.-Sylviadae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera
of Birds, p. 19 (family).-Sylviinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), op. cit., p. 20 (sub-
family).-Sylviidae Baird, 1864, Review Amer. Birds, p. 64.-Sylviinae Sundevall, 1872,
Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 15 familiar) .
Philomelinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, p. 200 (subfamily; type Philomela
Swainson, 1832, a junior synonym of Ficedula Brisson, 1790).
Calamoherpinae Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp. List Birds Eur. N. Amer., p. 11 (subfamily;
type Calamoherpe Boie, 1822, a junior synonym of Acrocephalus Naumann, 1819).-
Calamodytinae Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt. 1, pp. xiii, 206 (subfamily;
type Calamodyta Myer, 1815, = Acrocephalus Naumann, 1819).
Malurinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 19 (subfamily; type
Malurus Vieillot).-Maluridae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p.
216.-Malurinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 7 familiar) .
Rhacnemididae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv fir Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 204 (apparently
not based on generic name).
Polioptilinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix, 379 (sub-family; type
Polioptila Sclater).-Polioptilidae Ridgway, 1904 (Dec. 31), Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50,
pt. 3, p. 693 in text (family tentatively proposed).
Regulinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix, 207, 226 (sub-family;
type Regulus Cuvier).-Regulidae Lilljeborg, 1866, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 17.
Cisticolinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 6 familiar ; type Cisticola Kaup).
Bradypterinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 7 familiar ; type Bradypterus Swainson).
Phyllopseustinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 15 familiar ; type Phyllopseustes Meyer,
an emendation of Phyllopneuste Boie).


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Calanmodytinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 15 familiar ; type Calamodyta Meyer).
Ptenoedinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 16 familiar ; type Ptenoedus Cabanis).
Acanthizinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. familiar ; type Acanthiza Vigors and Hors-
field).-Acanthizidae Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union, 1926, Official Check-list
Birds of Australia, ed. 2, p. 75.
Acanthopneustae Seebohm, 1881, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 5, p. 38 (type Acanthopneuste
Blasius, a junior synonym? of Phylloscopus Boie).
Phylloscopinae Ridgway, 1904 (Dec. 31), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 3, pp. 693, 694 (sub-
family; type Phylloscopus Boie).
Hyliidae Bannerman, 1923, Ibis, ser. 11, vol. 5, p. 704 (family; type Hylia Cassin).
Priniidae Roberts, 1940, Birds South Africa, p. 274 (family; type Prinia Horsfield).

Neospecies of Sylviidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene

1. Phylloscopus collybita (Vieillot). FRANCE: Deux Avens at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc (Mourer-
Chauvirb, 1975, Doc. Lab. Gbol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 204, pl. 17, fig. 8). CZECHOSLO-
VAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 776); Strinska skila (Skutil and
Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). ISRAEL: Abu-Usba Cave? (Bar-Yosef and
Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 134).
2. Phylloscopus trochilus (Linnaeus). CORSICA: Gratta di Funtanedu (E. 1. Newton, 19z1,
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 776); Stranki skila (Skutil and Stehhlk, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4,
p. 22).
3. Phylloscopus bonellii (Vieillot). FRANCE: Combe Grenal at Domme (Mourer-Chauvire,
1975, Doc. Lab. CGol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 204, pl. 17, fig. 9).
4. Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (Linnaeus). UKRAINE: *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro-
dnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, p. 58). ISRAEL: Abu-Usba Cave (Bar-Yosef and
Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 134); 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. invest.
birds in Pleist. deposits of 'Ubeidiya, p. 24).
5. Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Omac-l'Aven? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975,
Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 202). HUNGARY: Pilisszint6 (Lambrecht, 1915,
Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 481). UKRAINE: Kiev (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro-
dnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, p. 51).
6. Acrocephalus palustris (Bechstein). FRANCE: Combe Grenal at Domme? (Mourer-Chau-
vir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 202). RUMANIA: Piispokfiird6? [= Betfia]
(Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 30).
7. Acrocephalus paludicola (Vieillot). FRANCE: Les Romains at Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse
and Mourer-Chauvirb, 1973, Quartar, p. 153).
8. Sylvia atricapilla (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and
Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar, p. 153); Abimes de la Fage, Orgnac-l'Aven, Deux Avens at
Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Combre Grenal, Puy Moyen, *Saint-
Thibaud-de-Couz, and *Arago actuel (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,
no. 64, p. 203, pl. 17, fig. 5). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 776). UKRAINE: *Tardenuaz and *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka
i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, p. 35, 58). ISRAEL: 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. invest.
birds in Pleist. deposits of 'Ubeidiya, p. 24).
9. Sylvia communis (Latham). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,
vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). FRANCE: Grotte sup6rieure d'Aurensan? (Bouchud, 1972, Bull.
Asso. Franq. Etude Quatern., vol. 1, p. 5). Abimes de la Fage, Le Lazaret at Nice, Abri Campalou
at Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans?, Jean Pierre and *Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz (Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 204, pl. 17, fig. 6). RUMANIA:
Piuspokfiird6 [= Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatis, vol. 5, p. 30). UKRAINE: *Tardenuaz
(Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, p. 35).
10. Sylvia curruca (Linnaeus). HUNGARY: O-Ruzsin (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 776).
11. Sylvia nisoria (Bechstein). FRANCE: Saint-Esteve-Janson? and Orgnac-l'Aven (Mourer-
Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, p. 203). UKRAINE: "Tardenuaz (Voinstvenski,
1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, p. 35).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


12. Sylvia hortensis Gmelin. FRANCE: Combe Grenal at Domme and *Grotte Jean Pierre
at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 203,
pl. 17, fig. 4).
13. Sylvia sarda Temminck. MALLORCA: *Son BauzA cave? (Ballmann and Adrover, 1970,
Acta Geol6gica Hispanica, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 62).
14. Agrobates galactotes (Temminck). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave and Kebare Cave (Tcher-
nov, 1962, Bull. Res. Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 100).
15. Locustella naevia Boddaert. CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 776); Stranska skila (Skutill and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22).
16. Regulus regulus (Linnaeus). FRANCE: *Rond du Barry at Sinzelles (Mourer-Chauvir6,
1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 38). AUSTRIA: Niederosterreich? (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 788). POLAND: Nietoperzowa Cave? (Bochefiski, 1974, Birds Late Quater-
nary Poland, pp. 129, 200).
17. Mohoua albicilla (Lesson). NEW ZEALAND: *Awakino-Mohoenui area (Medway, 1971,
Notornis, vol. 18, p. 218).
18. Sylvia melanocephala (Gmelin). FRANCE: Orgnac-l'Aven (Mourer-Chauvirb, 1975,
Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 204, pl. 17, fig. 7).
19. Sylvia hortensis (Gmelin). FRANCE: Combe Grenal at Domme and "Jean Pierre at Saint-
Thibaud-de-Couz (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 203, pl.
17, fig. 4).
20. Hippolais icterina (Vieillot). FRANCE: Combe Grenal at Domme (Mourer-Chauvirb,
1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 203, pl. 17, fig. 3).


Family PRUNELLIDAE Richmond
Accentorinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 22 (subfamily; type
Accentor Bechstein, 1802, preoccupied by Accentor Bechstein, Sept. or later, 1797,
the latter a junior synonym of Cinclus Borkhausen, 1797.-Accentorinae Sundevall, 1872,
Tentamen, pt. 2, p. 30 (familia).-Accentoridae Hartert, 1910, V6gel der palaarktischen
Fauna, vol. 1, pp. xlvii, 761.
Prunellidae Richmond, 1908 (Dec. 16), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 35, no. 1656, p. 585 footnote
(family; type Prunella Vieillot, 1816).


Neospecies of Prunellidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Prunella collaris (Scopoli). FRANCE: Grotte des Romains at Pierre-Chatel (Desbrosse and
Mourer-Chauvir6, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 153); Grotte du Lazaret at Nice, Font6chevade
at Montbron, and Le Colombier at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol.
Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 196); Grotte de Cottier at Retournac (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976, op. cit.,
fasc. 2, p. 472). ITALY: Buco della Volpe sopra Ravenna? (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Torino,
ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 197); Caverna d'Equi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 780); Grotte du
prince at grimaldi (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 196).
SWITZERLAND: *Grotte de Cotencher (Dubois and Stehlin, 1932, M6m. Soc. Pal. Suisse,
vol. 52, p. 29). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Stranska skala (Janossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20, p. 60).
2. Prunella modularis (Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Ightham fissure (E. T. Newton, 1899, Quart.
Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 55, no. 219, p. 420); Chudleigh Cave, Langwith Bassett Cave,
and *Caervent (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Merlin's Cave (Lam-
brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 780). FRANCE: Le Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvir6,
1976, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, fasc. 2, p. 336). UKRAINE: Adzhi-Koba, Syuren
I, "Tardenuaz, and 'Rukomysh (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo,
vol. 3, pp. 28, 31, 45).


Family MOTACILLIDAE (Vigors)
Motacillina Vigors, 1825, fide Gray (type Motacilla Linnaeus).-Motacillidae Boie, 1826, Isis
von Oken, fide Gray.-Motacillinae Bonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzione Meto-


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


dica degli Animali Vertebrati, p. 47.-Motacillinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-
Americana, pt. 2, p. 200 (subfamily).-Motacillinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 26
familiar) .
Anthinae Bonaparte, 1850 (March), Conspectus Generum Avium, vol. 1, sig. 31, p. 247 (sub-
familia; type Anthus Bechstein).

Neospecies of Motacillidae from the Pleistocene and Holocene
1. Motacilla alba Linnaeus. [Includes Motacilla lugubris Temminck and M. yarrellii Gould].
IRELAND: *Kesh Cave and Edenvale Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,
p. 403). ENGLAND: Langwith Bassett Cave, Chudleigh Cave, and Ightham Cave (Bell, 1915,
Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). FRANCE: Balme-les-grottes (Chauvir6, 1963, C. R.
Sommaire Soc. G6ol. France, fasc. 2, p. 53); Grotte de l'Hortus at Valflaunes (Mourer-Chauvir6,
1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, p. 280); Lunel-Viel, Orgnac-l'Aven, Saint-Romans?, Rond
du Barry at Sinzelles, Laugerie Haute Est at Les Eyzies, Grotte Simard at Puymoyen, and
*Arago actuel at Tautavel (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64,
p. 191). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu? (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2,
p. 230). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Zechovice and Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p.
778); Kulna (Skutil and Stehh'k, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). HUNGARY: Pilisszant6
(Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 480, 506). RUMANIA: Pfisp6k-
fiurdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 30). POLAND: Niedostepna rock-shelter?
(Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 131, 200). UKRAINE: *Novgorod-Siverskii
(Zubareva, 1950, Trudi Inst. Zool. Akad. Nauk Ukrainsk. RSR, vol. 4, pp. 80, 92, pl. 3, fig. 15);
Azil and *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3,
pp. 34, 40, 58). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol.
11, no. 3, p. 106); Abu-Usba Cave? (Bar-Yosef and Tchemov, 1966, Israel Jour. Sci., vol. 15,
p. 134); 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 20).
2. Motacilla cinerea Tunstall. UKRAINE: *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob-
stanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 58).
3. Motacilla flava Linnaeus. FRANCE: Abfmes de la Fage at Noailles and Grotte Simard
at Puymoyen (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 191); Grotte
de Cottier at Retournac (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976, op. cit., fase. 2, p. 472).
4. Anthus campestris (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Mas Rambaut at Frontignan?, Abfmes de la Fage
at Noailles, Pi6 Lombard at Tourrettes-sur-Loup, and *Arago actuel at Tautavel (Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 190). HUNGARY: Pilisszant6?
(Lambrecht, 1915, Mittl. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 481, 506). UKRAINE: Adzhi-
Koba, Syuren I, Novgorod-Seversk, and *Chernigov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka
i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 28, 31, 41, 49).
5. Anthus trivialis (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Grotte de' l'Hortus and 'Grotte de I'Hortus at
Valflaunes (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, pp. 280, 292); Abfmes de
la Fage at Noailles (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Ge6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 190).
HUNGARY: Kalten-Szamos-Tal (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 194); Puskaporos (Lam-
brecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4, p. 206). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: StrAnska skAla? (Janossy,
1972, Anthropos, vol. 20, p. 60). POLAND: Niedostepna rock-shelter? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds
Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 130, 200). UKRAINE: Syuren I and *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967,
Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 31, 58).
6. Anthus pratensis (Linnaeus). IRELAND: *Kesh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,
no. 893, p. 403). ENGLAND: Ightham fissure? (E. T. Newton, 1894, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.
London, vol. 50, p. 191); Langwith Bassett Cave and Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist,
ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). FRANCE: Grotte du Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964,
Bull. Mus. Anthrop. pr6hist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 64-78); *Roquefure at Bonnieux (Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 190). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu
(E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). SWITZERLAND: Schlossfelsen
cave near Basel? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 789). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 789). HUNGARY: Puskaporos? (Kormos, 1911, Mitt.
Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 19, p. 151). ISRAEL: Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull.
Research Council Israel, vol. 11, pp. 106, 113).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


7. Anthus cervinus (Pallas). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim? (Jinossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr. Akad.
Wiss., math.-nat., pt. 1, vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212). POLAND: Rebielice (Kr61lewskie? (Jinossy,
1974, Acta Zool. Cracov., vol. 19, no. 21, p. 558).
8. Anthus spinoletta (Linnaeus). [Includes A. petrosus (Montagu)]. ENGLAND: Langwith
Bassett Cave and Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403). FRANCE:
Abimes de la fage at Noailles, Abri Suard at La Chaise?, Le Lazaret at Nice, Font6chevade
at Montbron?, and Deux Avens at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. G0ol.
Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 191, pl. 16, fig. 10); Pech de l'Az6 at Carzac (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976,
op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 492). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921, Proc. Zool.
Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 230). HUNGARY: O-Ruzsin (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 789).

Family BOMBYCILLIDAE (Swainson)
Bombycillinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 237 (subfamily; type Bomby-
cilla Brisson).-Bombycillidae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R.R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix,
316 (family).
Ptiliogonidinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R.R. Pac., vol. 9, pt. 2, pp. xix, 318 (subfamily;
type Ptiliogonys Swainson, 1827).-Ptiliogonatidae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
no. 50, pt. 1, p. 21 (family).
Ptilogonydinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Am. Birds, p. 41 (subfamily; type liii..-..',o Swainson,
1842).-Ptilogonatinae Baird, Review Amer. Birds, pp. 401, 408 (subfamily).-Ptilogon-
atidae Ridgway, 1904, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 4, pp. viii, 113 (family).
Hypocoliinae Delacour and Amadon, 1949, Ibis, vol. 91, p. 427 (subfamily; type Hypocolius
Bonaparte).

Neospecies of Bombycillidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Bombycilla garrula (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Lherm (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 780); Orgnac-l'Aven (Mourer-Chauvirb, 1975, Docum. Lab. Gbol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, pl.
16, figs. 12.-13). ITALY: Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 780). BELGIUM: Grotte-Marie-Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63, p. 11) CZECHO-
SLOVAKIA: BalcArka (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22).
2. Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot. CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (A. H. Miller, 1929, Univ.
Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, p. 12, pl. 1, fig. a); Carpinteria (A. H. Miller,
1932, op. cit., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 180, pl. 14, fig. h). ILLINOIS: *Meyer cave (Parmalee, 1967,
Nat. Speleological Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130).

Family DULIDAE (Sclater)

Dulinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 41 (subfamily; type Dulus Vieillot).-Dulidae
Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 22 (family).

Neospecies of Dulidae from the Pleistocene
1. Dulus dominicus (Linnaeus). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco (Bern-
stein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 280).

Family ARTAMIDAE Blyth

Artamidae Blyth, 1849, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiatic Soc., p. 199 (family; type Artamus Vieillot).-
Artaminae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 343 (subfamilia).-
Artaminae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 21 familiar) .
No fossil record.

Family LANIIDAE Swainson

Laniidae Swainson, 1824, fide Gray (type Lanius Brisson).-Lanianae Swainson, 1824, fide
Gray.-Laniadae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 435 (family).-


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALO(;UE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Lanianae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 105 (subfamily).-Lanidae
Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp. List Birds Eur. N. Amer., p. 26.-Laniinae Sundevall,
1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 17 familiar) .
Malaconotinae Cabanis, 1850, Museum Heineanum, pt. 1, p. 67 (subfamily; type Malaconotus
Swainson).-Malaconotinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 12 familiar) .
Euricerotinae Bonaparte, 1850 (March), Conspectus Generum Avium, vol. 1, pt. 1, sig. 12, p. 92
(subfamilia; type Euryceros Lesson, 1830).-Eurycerotinae Bonaparte, 1850 (Nov.), op. cit.,
sig. 53, p. 423 (subfamilia; same type).
Prionopidae Sharpe, 1877, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 3, p. 272 (type Prionops Vieillot).-Priono-
pinae Mayr and Amadon, 1951, Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1496, p. 37 (subfamily).
Vangidae Shelley, 1896, Birds Africa, vol. 1, p. 48 (family; type Vanga Vieillot).
Laniariinae Shelley, 1896, Birds Africa, vol. 1, p. 53 (subfamily; type Laniarius Vieillot).
Aerocharidae Sharpe, 1903, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, vol. 3, pp. xi, 275 (family; type Aerocharis
Gistel, 1848, a junior synonym of Euryceros Lesson, 1831).
Pityriasidinae Mayr and Amadon, 1951, Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1496, p. 37 (subfamily; type
Pityriasis Lesson).-Pityriasinae Rand, in Peters, 1960, Check-list Birds World, vol. 9,
p. 364.
Hyposittidae Wetmore, 1930 (Jan. 8), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 76, no. 2821, p. 7 (family;
type Hypositta Newton).-Hyposittinae Amadon, 1951 (Apr. 2), Amer. Mus. Novitates,
no. 1496, pp. 24, 37 (subfamily).


Genus Lanius Linnaeus

Lanius Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 93 (type Lanius excubitor Linnaeus, Recent).


1. Lanius miocaenus Milne-Edwards
Lanius miocaenus Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, sig. 49, p. 391, figs. 1-3 (types
from near Langy, 2 humeri, Paris Mus.).
LOWER MIOCENE (Aquitanian). FRANCE: Dept. Allier: near Langy.

Neospecies of Laniidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Lanius collurio Linnaeus. ENGLAND: Ightham? (E. T. Newton, 1899, Quart. Jour.
Geol. Soc. London, vol. 55, no. 219, p. 420). FRANCE: Combre Grenal at Domme (Mourer-
Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 191, pl. 16, fig. 11); CZECHOSLO-
VAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 780). HUNGARY: Remetehegy (Lam-
brecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, pp. 90, 96, 97).
2. Lanius minor Gmelin. HUNGARY: Polgardi (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 286);
Pilisszant6 and *Pilisszint6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp.
480, 505,508). RUMANIA: Puspokfilrd6 [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 21).
3. Lanius ludovicianus Linnaeus. CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (L. Miller, 1912, Univ.
Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol. 7, no. 5, p. 78); McKittrick (A. H. Miller, 1937, Condor,
vol. 39, no. 6, p. 250). ARIZONA: *Wupatki Pueblo (Hargrave, 1939, Condor, vol. 41, no. 5,
p. 209). NEW MEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1,
p. 16). FLORIDA: Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283);
Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull., no. 44, p. 195).
4. Lanius cristatus Linnaeus. UKRAINE: Syuren I, "Kara-Koba, *Novgorod-Seversk, and
*Okunevki (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, pt. 3, pp. 31, 36,
41, 59).
5. Lanius excubitor Linnaeus. ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1922, Naturalist, no.
787-788, p. 251). FRANCE: Fonte chevarde at Montbron (Mourer-Chauvir6, Doe. Lab. G6ol.
Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 194). AUSTRIA: Schreiberwand cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 780). SWITZERLAND: Ettingen? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 780).
ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave and Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Res. Council Israel, vol.
11, p. 100); 'Ubeidiya? (Tchemov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 21).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


6. Lanius senator Linnaeus. FRANCE: Le Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc.
Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 114). HUNGARY: PilisszAnt6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt.
Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 480, 506, 508); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlang-
kutatas, vol. 4, p. 206). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Res. Council
Israel, vol. 11, p. 100); Hayonim Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15,
p. 132).
7. Lanius nubicus Lichtenstein. ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Res.
Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 100).

Family STURNIDAE Vigors
Sturnidae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 445 (type Sturnus Linnaeus).-
Sturninae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 274 (subfamily).-Sturninae
Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 40 familiar) .
Lamprotornina Stephens, 1826, Shaw's Gen. Zool., vol. 14, p. 54 (type Lamprotornis Temminck,
1820).-Lamprotorninae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 274 (sub-
family).-Lamprotornithinae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 414.
Buphaginae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 131, 320 (subfamily; type
Buphaga Latham = Buphagus Brisson).-Buphaginae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1,
p. 41 familiar) .
Graculinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 39 (subfamily; type Gracula
Linnaeus).
Promeropinae Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 12 (subfamily; type Promerops
Brisson).-Promeropidae Gray, 1847 (June), List of Genera of Birds, ed. 2, p. 95 (family).
Ptiloturinae Cabanis, 1850, Museum Heineanum, pt. 1, p. 103 (subfamilia; type Ptiloturus
Swainson, 1837, a junior synonym of Promerops Brisson, 1760).
Juidinae Gray, 1855, Cat. Genera and Subgen. Birds, p. 65 (subfamily; type Juida Lesson, 1831,
a junior synonym of Lamprotornis Temminck, 1820).
Eulabetinae Gray, 1855, Cat. Genera and Subgen. Birds, p. 67 (subfamily; type Eulabes Cuvier,
1829, a junior synonym of Gracula Linnaeus, 1758.



Genus / Necropsar Slater
Necropsar "H. H. Slater, MS," A. Giinther and E. Newton, 1879, Philos. Trans., vol. 168, p. 427
(type by monotypy Necropsar rodericanus "H. H. Slater").


1. Necropsar rodericanus Slater
Necropsar rodericanus "H. H. Slater, MS," A. Giinther and E. Newton, Philos. Trans., vol. 168,
p. 427, pl. 42, figs. A-G (type postcranial skeleton, Cambridge Univ.).
HOLOCENE. RODRIGUEZ ISLAND.


Neospecies of Sturnidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Onychognathus tristramii (Sclater). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull.
Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 100); Kebara Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, op. cit., pp.
106, 108, 127, 131, pl. 2, figs. 15-16; pl. 6, figs. 10-11).
2. Sturnus roseus (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Font6chevade at Montbron, Grotte Simard at
Puymoyen, and *Baume de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci.
Lyon, no. 64, p. 214, pl. 17, fig. 16). ITALY: Grotta dei Colombi? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 785). HUNGARY: Felsnische Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar.
Geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 481, 508). UKRAINE: *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya
Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 58).
3. Sturnus unicolor Temminck. FRANCE: Lespugue and Font6chevade at Montbron?
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 214).


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


4. Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus. IRELAND: Knockninney Cave (Lydekker, 1891, Ibis, ser. 6,
vol. 3, no. 11, p. 384); Bantick Cave, Edenvale Cave, Newhall Cave, Knockmore Cave, and
Grimes Cave? (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). ENGLAND: Chudleigh
Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht,
1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). GIBRALTAR: Forbes quarry (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Pal-
aeorn., p. 784). FRANCE: Grotte du Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop.
pr6hist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 61-78); *Grotte de l'Hortus at Valflaunes (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972,
Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, pp. 280, 289); Lunel Viel, Le Lazaret at Nice, Font6chevade
at Montbron, Soulab6 at Montseron, Deux Avens at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Les F6es at Chatel-
perron, Laugerie Haute Est aux Eyzies, and Gare de Couze at Lalinde (Mourer-Chauvire,
1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, pp. 213, 214). MONACO: Grotte de l'Observatoire
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom., p. 784). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu? (E. T. Newton,
1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 231). MALTA: Ghar Dalam cave (Fischer and Stephan,
1974, Zeitschr. geol. Wiss. Berlin, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 520). ITALY: Grotta Romanelli and Grotta
dei Colombi? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). SWITZERLAND: *lake-dwellings
(Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 599). "DENMARK (Loeppenthin, 1967,
Danske ynglefugle i fortid og nutid, pp. 46, 47, 492, 577). GERMANY: Beilstein Cave (Lam-
brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 784). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Strinski skala (Skutil and Stehlik,
1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22). HUNGARY: Baj6t Cave (Lambrecht, 1913, Aquila,
vol. 20, p. 433): Pilisszint6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 481);
Otto Hermman cave and Kiskev61ly cave (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 190); Puskaporos
(Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatis, vol. 4, p. 206); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb.
Kgl. ungar. Geol. Reichsanst., vol. 22, p. 403); Lambrecht Cave and *Lambrecht Cave (Jinossy,
1963, Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hungaricae, vol. 9, fasc. 3-4, pp. 295, 297, 309). POLAND: Rai
Cave (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 132, 200). RUMANIA: Curata Cave
(Janossy, 1965, Vertebrata Hungarica, vol. 7, p. 113). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937,
Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 101, 102); Adzhi-Koba, *Novgorod-
Seversk, *Rasponints, *Kiev, and *Zaporozhya (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i
Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 27, 41, 44, 51, 52, 57, 59). RUSSIA: *Zhiguley Cave and *Upper
Don River caves (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 242). ISRAEL:
Mugharet-el-Zuttiyeh (Bate, 1927, in Turville-Petre, Researches in Prehistoric Galilee 1922-1926,
p. 28); Oumm Qatafa Cave and Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel,
vol. 11, no. 3, p. 100); Hayonim Cave and Abu-Usba Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966,
Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 132); 'Ubeidiya (Tchernov, 1968, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist.
Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 22).

Family MELIPHAGIDAE Vigors

Meliphagidae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 463 (family; type Meliphaga
Lewin).-Meliphaginae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 15
(subfamily).-Melliphagidae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 389
(familia).-Melliphaginae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 389
(subfamilia).-Meliphaginae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 49 familiar) .
Myzomelinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 15 (subfamily; type
Myzomela Vigors and Horsfield).
Manorhinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 16 (subfamily; type
Manorhina Vieillot).
Melithreptinae Gray, 1841, List of Genera of Birds, ed. 2, p. 21 (subfamily; type Melithreptus
Vieillot).-Melithreptidae Wetmore, 1934, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 89, no. 13, p. 11.
Philedoninae Sundevall, 1872, Tenftmen, pt. 1, p. 51 familiar ; type Philedon Cuvier, Philemon
Vieillot).

Neospecies of Meliphagidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae (Gmelin). NEW ZEALAND: Pyramid Valley swamp
(Scarlett, 1955, Rec. Canterbury Mus., vol. 6, p. 263; Martinborough Cave V (Yaldwyn, 1956,
Rec. Dom. Mus., vol. 3, p. 4); *Swiss Cheese (Medway, 1967, Notornis, vol. 14, p. 160); Awakino-
Mahoenui area (Medway, 1971, Notomis, vol. 18, p. 218).


1978








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


2. Anthornis melanura (Sparrman). NEW ZEALAND: Awakino-Mahoenui area (Medway,
1971, Notornis, vol. 18, p. 218).


Family CALLAEATIDAE (Gray)
Callaeatinae Gray, 1841, List Genera Birds, p. 00 (subfamily; type Callaeas Forster).-Callaeidae
Stonor, 1942, Ibis, p. 1 (family).-Callaeadidae Oliver, 1955, New Zealand Birds, ed.
2, pp. 10, 519.-Callaeatidae Amadon, 1962, in Peters, Check-list Birds World, vol. 15,
p. 157 note.
Philesturnidae Oliver, 1955, New Zealand Birds, ed. 2, pp. 10, 512 (family; type Philesturnus
Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1832, a junior synonym of Creadion Vieillot, 1816).

Neospecies of Callaeatidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Callaeas cinerea (Gmelin). NEW ZEALAND: Pyramid Valley Swamp (Scarlett, 1955,
Records Canterbury Mus., vol. 6, no. 4, p. 263); *Martinborough Cave (Yaldwyn, 1956, Records
Dominion Mus., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 3); *Robbers Hole (Medway, 1967, Notornis, vol. 14, p. 160);
Awakino-Mahoenui area (Medway, 1971, Notornis, vol. 18, p. 218).
2. Heterolocha acutirostris (Gould). NEW ZEALAND: *Waingongoro (Lydekker, 1891, Cat.
Foss. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 5, fig. 1); *Awakino-Mahoenui area (Medway, 1971, Notornis, vol. 18,
p. 218). Exterminated by feather-hunters; last seen December 28, 1907.
3. Creadion carunculatum (Gmelin). NEW ZEALAND: Pyramid Valley Swamp (Scarlett,
1955, Records Canterbury Mus., vol. 6, no. 4, p. 263); *Martinborough Cave (Yaldwyn, 1956,
Records Dominion Mus., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 4); *Awakino-Mahoenui area (Medway, 1971, Notornis,
vol. 18, p. 218).


Family NECTARINIIDAE (Vigors)
Nectariniadae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 463 (family; type Nectarinia
Illiger).-Nectarinidae Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken, fide Gray.-Nectarininae G. R. Gray,
1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 12 (subfamily).-Nectariniidae Bonaparte,
1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 402 (familia).-Nectariniinae Sundevall, 1872,
Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 48 (familia).-Nectariniidae Gadow, 1884, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol.
9, p. 1 (family).
Cinnyridae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 463 (family; type Cinnyris
Cuvier).
Arachnotherinae Cabanis, 1850, Museum Heineanum, pt. 1, p. 104 (subfamilia; type Arachno-
thera Temminck).


Family PARDALOTIDAE (Bonaparte)
Pardalotinae Bonaparte, 1850, (30 Apr.), Conspectus Generum Avium, vol. 1, pt. 2, sig. 42, p. 334
(subfamilia; type Pardalotus Vieillot).
Dicaeidae Bonaparte, 1853 (seance du 31 Oct.), C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, no. 18, p. 664
familiar ; type Dicaeum Cuvier).-Dicaeinae Bonaparte, 1853, loc. cit. (subfamilia).
Paramythiidae Sclater, 1893, Ibis, p. 244 (type Paramythia DeVis).
No fossil record.


Family ZOSTEROPIDAE (Bonaparte)
Zosteropinae Bonaparte, 1853, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, p. 644 (subfamilia; type Zos-
terops Vigors and Horsfield).-Zosteropidae Sharpe, 1891, Review Recent Attempts Clas-
sify Birds, p. 86.
No fossil record.


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Family VIREONIDAE (Swainson)

Vireoinae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, p. 249 (subfamily; type Vireo Vieillot).-
Vireoninae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv fflr Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 321 (subfamilia).-
Vireonidae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 43 (family).- Vireoninae Sundevall,
1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 14 familiar) .
Hylophilinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 12 familiar ; type Hylophilus Temminck).
Vireolaniidae Pycraft, 1907, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 352 (type Vireolanius DuBus).-
Vireolaniinae Blake, 1968, in Peters, Check-list Birds World, vol. 14, p. 108 (subfamily).
Cyclarhidae Pycraft, 1907, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 352 (type Cyclarhis Swainson).-Cy-
clarhinae Blake, 1968, in Peters, Check-list Birds World, vol. 14, p. 103 (subfamily).


Neospecies of Vireonidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Cyclarhis guianensis (Gmelin). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania? (0. Winge, 1887, E. Museo
Lundii, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 49).
2. Vireo calidris (Linnaeus). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco (Bern-
stein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 280). PUERTO RICO: *Cueva
Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 328).
3. Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus). ILLINOIS: *Miller Cave? (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleological
Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130.
4. Vireo solitarius (Wilson). BAHAMAS: 'Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour.
Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 238).
5. Vireo griseus (Boddaert). FLORIDA: Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10,
no. 4, p. 150).
6. Lawrencia nana (Lawrence). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco? (Bern-
stein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, p. 280).


Family COEREBIDAE (Gray)
Sylvicolinae Bonaparte, 1838, Geographical and Comparative List of Birds of Europe and North
America, p. 20 (subfamily; type Sylvicola Swainson, 1827, preoccupied by Sylcicola
Harris, 1792, by Sylvicola Humphrey, 1797, and by Sylvicola Hflbner, 1810).-SyIlicoli-
dae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv fflr Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 315 (familia).-
Sylvicoleae Bonaparte, 1853 (read 31 Oct.), C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, no. 18, p. 644
(section).
Caerebinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 13 (subfamily; type
"Caereba Briss," i.e. Coereba Vieillot).-Caerebidae Bonaparte, 1850 (15 May), Conspectus
Generum Avium, vol. 1, pt. 2, sig. 50, p. 399).-Coerebidae Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen.
Sp. Birds, pt. 1, pp. ix, 116.-Coerebinae Sclater, 1886 (after May 7), Cat. Birds Brit.
Mus., vol. 11, pp. xi, 2, 29 (subfamily).-Coerebini Beecher, 1951 (Dec. 21), Wilson
Bull., vol. 63, no. 4, p. 286 (tribe).
Mniotiltinae G. R. Gray, 1848 (Dec.), Genera of Birds, vol. 1, p. 195 (subfamily; type Mniotilta
Vieillot).-Mniotilteae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix, 235
(section).-Mniotiltidae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 25 (family).-Mniotiltae
Ridgway, 1902 (Oct. 16), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 428 (section).
Setophageae Bonaparte, 1853 (read 31 Oct.), C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, no. 18, p. 644
(section; type Setophaga Swainson).-Setophaginae Baird, 1864 (Nov.), Review Amer.
Birds, sig. 11, pp. vi, 166 (subfamily).- Setophaginae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1,
p. 27 (familia).-Setophagae Ridgway, 1902 (Oct. 16), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50,
pt. 2, p. 430 (section).
Helmithereae Bonaparte, 1853 (read 31 Oct.), C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, no. 18, p. 644
(section; type Helmitheros Rafinesque).
Geothlypeae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix, 240 (section; type
Geothlypis Cabanis).-Geothlypinae Baird, 1864 (Nov.), Review Amer. Birds, sig. 11,
pp. vi, 166 (subfamily).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Icterieae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix, 248 (section; type Icteria
Vieillot).-Icterianae Baird, 1864 (Nov.), Review Amer. Birds, sig. 11, pp. vi, 166 (sub-
family.-Icteriinae G. R. Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt. 1, pp. xx, 384 (sub-
family).-Icteriinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 28 (familia).-Icteriae Ridgway,
1902 (Oct. 16), Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 430 (section).
Vermivoreae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xix, 251 (section; type
Vermivora Swainson).
Henicocichlinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 25 (subfamily; type Henicocichla
Agassiz, 1846 = Enicocichla Gray, 1840, a junior synonym of Seiurus Swainson, 1827).-
Enichocichlinae G. R. Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt. 1, p. 249 (subfamily).
Siureae Baird, 1864 (Nov.), Review Amer. Birds, sig. 11, p. 166 (section; type Siurus Strick-
land, 1841 = Seiurus Swainson, 1827).
Teretristeae Baird, 1864 (Nov.), Review Amer. Birds, sig. 11, p. 166 (section; type Teretristis
"Cabanis" = Teretristris Cabanis, 1855).
Trichadinae G. R. Gray, 1869, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, pt. 1, pp. xiv, 242 (subfamily; type
Trichas Swainson, 1827, a senior synonym of Geothlypis Cabanis, 1847, but apparently
preoccupied by Trichas Gloger, 1827).
Dendroecinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 26 familiar ; type Dendroeca Gray).-Den-
droicae Ridgway, 1902 (Oct. 16), Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 429 (section;
type Dendroica Gray).
Arbelorhininae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 48 familiar ; type Arbelorhina Cabanis,
new name for Caereba Vieillot).
Helinaiae Ridgway, 1902 (Oct. 16), Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 428 (section; type
Helinaia Audubon, a synonym of Helmitheros Rafinesque).
Compsothlypidae Oberholser, 1919 (Apr. 11), Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 32, p. 46 (family;
type Compsothlypis Cabanis, 1850, a junior synonym of Parula Bonaparte, 1838).
Parulidae American Ornithologists' Union, 1947 (July 22), Auk, vol. 64, no. 3, p. 451 (family;
type Parula Bonaparte).-Parulinae Mayr and Amadon, 1951 (Apr. 2), Amer. Mus. Novi-
tates, no. 1496, pp. 27, 37 (subfamily).


Neospecies of Coerebidae from the Pleistocene and *Holocene
1. Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull.
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 329).
2. Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus). TEXAS: Miller's Cave? (Weigel, 1967, Texas Jour. Sci., vol.
19, no. 1, p. 108).
3. Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert). BAHAMAS: *Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart.
Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 239).
4. Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco?
(Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 281).
5. Vermivora pinus (Linnaeus). BAHAMAS: *Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour.
Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 239).
6. Dendroica coronata (Linnaeus). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull.
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 329).
7. Dendroica tigrina (Gmelin). BAHAMAS: *Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart.
Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 239).
8. Dendroica adelaidae (Baird). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull.
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 329).
9. Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus). FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleontology,
vol. 31, no. 1, p. 136); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 151).
10. Seiurus auricapillus (Linnaeus). ILLINOIS: *Meyer Cave? (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Spe-
leological Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130). BAHAMAS: *Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971,
Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 239). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de
San Francisco (Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 281).
11. Wilsonia citrina (Boddaert). BAHAMAS: "Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart.
Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 239).


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Family TANAGRIDAE (Vigors)1

Tanagrina Vigors, 1825 (Oct.), Zool. Jour., vol. 2, no. 7, p. 358 (type Tanagra Linnaeus).- Tana-
grinae Bonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzione Metodica degli Animali Vertebrati,
p. 51 (subfamilia).-Tanagridae Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken, fide Gray.-Tanagrinae Sunde-
vall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 37 (familia).-Tanagrae Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat.
Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 2.
Tangaridae Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken, vol. 10, p. 973 (type Tangara Brisson).-"Tangaras"
Lesson, 1828, Manuel d'Ornithologie, vol. 1, p. 152 (famille).
Thraupinae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv fOr Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 316 (subfamilia;
type Thraupis Boie).-Thraupinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 36 (familia).-
Thraupidae Wetmore and W. D. Miller, 1926, Auk, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 346.-Thraupididae
(recte?).
Euphoninae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv fOr Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 316 (subfamily; type
Euphonia Desmarest, 1806, a junior synonym of Tanagra Linnaeus, 1764).-Euphoniae
Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 2.
Dacnidinae Cabanis, 1847, Arch. for Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 325 (subfamilia; type
Dacnis Cuvier).-Dacnini Beecher, 1951 (Dec. 21), Wilson Bull., vol. 63, no. 4, p. 286
(tribe).
Pitylinae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv fOr Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 329 (subfamilia; type
Pitylus Cuvier).-Pityleae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28
("group").
Cyanospizinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 106 (subfamily; type Cyanospiza Baird,
1858, a junior synonym of Passerina Vieillot, 1816).-Cyanospizae Ridgway, 1901, Bull.
U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 ("group").
Procniatinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 54 (subfamily; type Procnias Temminck,
1820, preoccupied by Procnias Illiger, 1811).-Procniatidae Ridgway, 1896 (June 24), Proc.
U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 95, p. 449.
Hemithraupinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 28 familiar ; type Hemithraupis Cabanis).
Pitylinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 34 familiar ; type Pitylus Cuvier).
Cissopinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 35 familiar ; type Cissopis Vieillot).
Tachyphoninae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 36 familiar ; type Tachyphonus Vieillot).
Rhamphocelinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 36 familiar ; type Rhamphocelus Desmeret).
Lamprotinae Sclater, 1886, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 11, pp. xiv, 50, 231 (subfamily; type
Lamprotes Swainson, 1837, a senior synonym of Compsothraupis Richmond, 1915, but
preoccupied by Lamprotes "R. L.", 1817).
Phoenicophilinae Sclater, 1886, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 11, pp. xiv, 50, 233 (subfamily; type
Phaenicophilus Strickland).
Cardinaleae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 ("group"; type Cardinalis
Bonaparte, 1838, preoccupied by Cardinalis Jarocki, 1821; a synonym of Richmondena
Mathews and Iredale, 1918.-Cardinalinae Sushkin, 1924 (Nov.), Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol.
45, p. 38 (subfamily).
Catamblyrhynchidae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 19 (type Catambly-
rhynchus Lafresnaye).-Catamblyrhynchinae Mayr and Amadon, 1951, Amer. Mus. Novi-
tates, no. 1496, p. 38.
Rhodinocichlinae Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 431 (subfamily; type
Rhodinocichla Hartlaub).
Tersinidae Ridgway, 1907, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 4, p. 880 footnote (family; type
Tersina Vieillot, 1812, a synonym of Procnias Temminck, preoccupied).-?Tersidae
Ridgway, 1907, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 4, p. 880 footnote (type Tersa Vieillot;
unidentifieable?).-Tersininae J. Fisher and Peterson, 1964, World of Birds, p. 232 (sub-
family).

The International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (1968, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol. 25, pp. 74-75) placed
Tanagridae Bonaparte (1838) on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Family-Group Names, without mention of the
prior family-group names Tanagrina Vigors (1825) or Tanagrinae Bonaparte (1831), all based on the genus Tanagra Lin-
naeus (1764), which was likewise suppressed. The Commission overlooked the family-group name Tangaridae Boie (1826),
based on the genus Tangara Boie (1826, ex Brisson, 1760). It is deplorable that the Commission continually violates its own
fundamental principle, priority.,








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Richmondeninae Wetmore and W. D. Miller, 1926, Auk, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 346 (subfamily;
type Richmondena Mathews and Iredale).
Pyrrhuloxiinae Mayr and Amadon, 1951, Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1476, p. 38 (subfamily;
type Pyrrhuloxia Bonaparte).

Neospecies of Tanagridae from the Pleistocene and Holocene
Subfamily Tersininae
1. Tersina viridis (Illiger). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania (0. Winge, 1887, E. Museo Lundii,
vol. 1, no. 2, p. 50).

Subfamily Tanagrinae
2. Nesospingus speculiferus (Lawrence). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral and Cueva Clara
(Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 331, figs. 24-25).
3. Spindalis zena (Linnaeus). BAHAMAS: *Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour.
Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 239). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral and Cueva Clara
(Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 332).
4. Calyptophilus frugivorus (Cory). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco
(Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 281).
5. Phaenicophilus palmarum (Linnaeus). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco
(Bernstein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 281).

Subfamily Pitylinae
6. Saltator similis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania (0. Winge, 1887,
E Museo Lundii, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 50).
7. Pyrrhyloxia cardinalis (Linnaeus). WISCONSIN: *Raddatz rock shelter (Parmalee, 1959,
Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 85). ILLINOIS: *Meyer cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat.
Speleological Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130). FLORIDA: Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull.
Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 286); Rock Spring (Woolfenden, 1959, Wilson Bull., vol.
71, no. 2, p. 185); Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull., no. 44, p. 199);
Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 15).
8. Pheucticus melanocephalus (Swainson). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Dawson, 1948,
Condor, vol. 50, no. 2, p. 58).
9. Passerina ciris (Linnaeus). BAHAMAS: *Abaco Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour.
Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3. p. 240).

Family ICTERIDAE (Vigors)
Icterina Vigors, 1825, fide Gray (type Icterus Brisson).-Icterinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna
Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 274 (subfamily).-Icteridae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv filr Naturg.,
vol. 1, p. 332 (familia).-Icterinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 39 (familia).-
Icteri Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 174.
Agelainae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 274 (subfamily; type Agelaius
Vieillot).-Aglainae [sic] G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List Genera of Birds, p. 42 (sub-
family).-Agelaiinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xx, 521 (sub-
family).-Agelaeinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 38 (familia).-Agelaeinae Sclater,
1886, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 11, pp. xvi, 308, 330.-Agelaiae Ridgway, 1887, Man.
N. Amer. Birds, p. 365.-Agelaii Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 174.
Scaphidurinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, vol. 2, p. 274 (subfamily; type Scaphi-
durus Swainson).
Quiscalinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List Genera of Birds, p. 41 (subfamily; type Quis-
calus Vieillot).-Quiscali Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 174.
Cacici Lacepbde (type Cacicus Lacepede).-Cacininae Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus.,
vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283 (subfamily).


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Cassiceae Bonaparte, 1853, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 37, p. 644 (type Cassicus Illiger).-Cas-
sicinae Sclater, 1886, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 11, pp. xvi, 308, 309 (subfamily).
Chalcophaninae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 38 familiar ; type Chalcophanes Wagler, a
synonym of Quiscalus Vieillot).
Sturnellinae Sclater, 1886, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 11, pp. xvii, 308, 355 (subfamily; type
Sturnella Vieillot).-Sturnellae Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 175.
Cassidices Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 173 (group; type Cassidix
Lesson).
Molothri Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 174 (group; type Molothrus
Swainson).
Trupiales Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 175 (group; type Trupialis
Merrem).
Dolichonyces Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 175 (group; type Dolichonyx
Swainson).-Dolichonychinae Blake, 1968, in Peters, Check-List Birds World, vol. 14, pp.
ix, 201 (subfamily).


Genus f Cremaster Brodkorb
Cremaster Brodkorb, 1959 (May 22), Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 284 (type by
original designation Cremaster tytthus Brodkorb).

1. Cremaster tytthus Brodkorb
Cremaster tytthus Brodkorb, 1959 (May 22), Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 284, figs.
10-12 holotypee from Arredondo II, distal portion of left tibiotarsus, Brodkorb no. 1663;
referred humerus and distal part of femur).
MIDDLE UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Arredondo clay). FLORIDA: Alachua
County: Arredondo II (Brodkorb, loc. cit.); Haile XIB (Ligon, 1966,
Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 151).


Genus fPandanaris A. H. Miller
Pandanaris A. H. Miller, 1947 (Jan.), Condor, vol. 49, no. 1, p. 22 (type by original designation
Pandanaris convexa A. H. Miller).

2. Pandanaris floridana Brodkorb
Pandanaris floridana Brodkorb, 1957 (Feb. 26), Jour. Paleontology, vol. 31, no. 1, p. 134,
text-fig. 1 holotypee from near Reddick, rostrum, Brodkorb no. 294; referred 2 mandibles).
-Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv. Geol. Bull., no. 44, p. 197, fig. 12 (Reddick; descr.
coracoid, humerus, ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus).
MIDDLE UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Reddick beds). FLORIDA: Marion County:
Dixie Lime Products Company mine, 1 mi SE Reddick (Brodkorb, loc. cit.).
Alachua County: Haile XIB (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10,
no. 4, p. 151).

3. Pandanaris convexa A. H. Miller
Pandanaris convexa A. H. Miller, 1947 (Jan.), Condor, vol. 49, no. 1, p. 22, fig. 4 holotypee from
Rancho La Brea, rostrum, Los Angeles Co. Mus. no. K7278).
UPPER UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Rancholabrean tar). CALIFORNIA: Los
Angeles County: Los Angeles, pit A.








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Genus Euphagus Cassin
Euphagus Cassin, 1867, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 18, no. 5, p. 413 (type Psaro-
colius cyanocephalus Wagler, Recent).

4. Euphagus magnirostris A. H. Miller
Euphagus magnirostris A. H. Miller, 1929 (Dec. 21), Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci.,
vol. 19, no. 1, p. 14, pl. 1, figs. f, h holotypee from Rancho La Brea, mandible, Univ.
Calif. Mus. Paleo. no. 29442; referred 2 femora; tentatively referred tibiotarsi, tarso-
metatarsus, mandible). Needs restudy.
UPPER UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Rancholabrean tar). CALIFORNIA: Los
Angeles County: Los Angeles: Rancho La Brea.

Genus f Pyelorhamphus A. H. Miller
Pyelorhamphus A. H. Miller, 1932 (Jan.), Auk, vol. 49, no. 1, p. 39 (type by original designation
Pyelorhamphus molothroides A. H. Miller).


5. Pyelorhamphus molothroides A. H. Miller
Pyelorhamphus molothroides A. H. Miller, 1932 (Jan.), Auk, vol. 49, no. 1, p. 39, pl. 4 (holo-
type from Shelter Cave, mandible, Los Angeles Co. Mus. no. 320; referred rostrum).
QUATERNARY. NEW MEXICO: Dona Ana County: Shelter Cave on Pyra-
mid Peak, west slope of Organ Mountains.

Neospecies of Icteridae from the Pleistocene and Holocene
1. Psarcolius decumanus (Pallas). BRAZIL: Salpeter cave near Escrivania (0. Winge, 1887,
E. Museo Lundii, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 50).
2. Icterus galbula (Linnaeus). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (A. H. Miller, 1929, Univ.
Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, p. 13).
3. Icterus gularis (Wagler). YUCATAN: *Actun Coyok (Fisher, 1953, Cranbrook Inst. Sci.
Bull., vol. 33, p. 83).
4. Icterus dominicensis (Linnaeus). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral and Cueva Clara (Wet-
more, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 330).
5. Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte). OREGON: Fossil Lake? (Howard, 1946,
Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ., no. 551, pp. 190, 192). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea
(L. Miller, 1912, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol. 7, no. 5, p. 78). NEW MEXICO:
*Rocky Arroyo (Wetmore, 1932, Condor, vol. 34, no. 3, p. 141); Burnet Cave (C. B. Schultz
and E. B. Howard, 1935, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 87, p. 277).
6. Agelaius xanthomus (Sclater). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Clara and Cueva Catedral (Wet-
more, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 330).
7. Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus). ONTARIO: Hamilton (Wetmore, 1958, Smithsonian
Misc. Coll., vol. 135, no. 8, p. 9). OREGON: Fossil Lake? (Howard, 1946, Carnegie Inst.
Washington Publ., no. 551, pp. 189, 192). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea? (L. Miller, 1912,
Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 7, no. 5, p. 78); *Buena Vista Lake (DeMay, 1942,
Condor, vol. 44, no. 5, p. 228). NEVADA: Smith Creek Cave? (Howard, 1952, Bull. So. Calif.
Acad. Sci., vol. 51, pt. 2, p. 54). IDAHO: American Falls (Brodkorb, 1963, Quart. Jour. Florida
Acad. Sci., vol. 26, no. 3, p. 280). UTAH: *Sand Dune Cave (Hargrave, 1970, Tech. Ser. Mus.
N. Ariz., no. 9, pp. 40, 45). NEW MEXICO: Conkling Cavern (Howard and A. H. Miller,
1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16). KANSAS: Jones Sink? (Downs, 1954, Condor, vol. 54, p.
213, fig. 5c). IOWA: "Mill Creek (Hamon, 1961, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 6, p. 211). WISCON-
SIN: *Raddatz rock shelter (Parmalee, 1959, Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 85).


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


ILLINOIS: *Kingston (Baker, 1936, Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci., vol. 29, no. 2, p. 245);
*Plum Island (Baker, 1941, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n.s., vol. 32, p. 69); Modoc rock shelter
(Parmalee, 1956, Illinois State Mus. Rept. Invest., no. 4, p. 53). PENNSYLVANIA: *Sheep rock
shelter (Guilday and Parmalee, 1965, Pennsylvania Archaeologist, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 39). VIR-
GINIA; Natural Chimneys (Guilday, 1962, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 36, p. 92). FLORIDA:
Seminole Field (Wetmore, 1931, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 85, no. 2, p. 41); Reddick (Brodkorb,
1956, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no. 1, p. 136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State
Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283); Itchtucknee River (McCoy, 1963, Auk, vol. 80, no. 3, p. 347); *Vero
Beach (Weigel, 1963, Florida Geol. Surv. Special Publ. no. 10, p. 30). BAHAMAS: *Abaco
Island cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 240). CUBA: Pio
Domingo cave? (Dolichonyx kruegeri Fischer and Stephan, 1971, Wiss. Zeitschr. Humboldt-
Univ. Berlin, Math.-Nat.R., vol. 20, no. 4-5, p. 597, pl. 3, 5, 6, figs. 18-21; holotype right humerus,
Univ. Habana no. 877/67; see Aves Incertae Sedis, postea). YUCATAN: *Actun Lara, *Actun
Coyok, and *Actun Spukil (H. I. Fisher, 1953, Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33, p. 83).
8. Sturnella magna (Linnaeus). FLORIDA: Eichelberger Cave (Brodkorb, 1956, Auk, vol. 73,
no. 1, p. 136); Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no. 1, p. 136); Arredondo (Brod-
korb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 283); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida
State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 151).
9. Sturnella neglect Audubon. OREGON: Fossil Lake (Howard, 1946, Carnegie Inst. Wash.
Publ., no. 551, p. 190). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea and San Pedro (L. Miller, 1912, Univ.
Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol. 7, no. 5, p. 78); Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 180, pl. 13, figs. g, j); McKittrick (Miller and DeMay, 1942,
Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., vol. 47, no. 4, p. 68). IDAHO: *Weiss rock shelter (L. Miller, 1963, Bull.
So. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 62, pt. 4, p. 182). TEXAS: Miller's Cave? (Weigel, 1967, Texas Jour.
Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, p. 108).
10. Pseudoleistes guirahuro (Vieillot). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania (0. Winge, 1887, E Museo
Lundii, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 50).
11. Gnorimopsar chopi (Vieillot). BRAZIL: Lapa da Escrivania (0. Winge, 1887, E Museo
Lundii, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 50).
12. Quiscalus mexicanus (Gmelin). YUCATAN: *Actun Lara (H. I. Fisher, 1953, Cranbrook
Inst. Sci. Bull., vol. 33, p. 83).
13. Quiscalus major (Vieillot). FLORIDA: Seminole Field (Wetmore, 1931, Smithsonian
Misc. Coll., vol. 85, no. 2, p. 41); *Vero Beach (Weigel, 1963, Florida Geol. Surv. Spec. Publ., no.
10, p. 31).
14. Quiscalus quiscula (Linnaeus). ONTARIO: Hamilton (Wetmore, 1958, Smithsonian Misc.
Coll., vol. 135, no. 8, p. 9). IOWA: *Mill Creek (Hamon, 1961, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 6, p.
211). ARKANSAS: *Zebree site (Guilday and Parmalee, 1971, Amer. Midland Naturalist, vol.
86, no. 1, p. 228). ILLINOIS: *Kingston (Baker, 1936, Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci., vol. 29,
no. 2, p. 245); Cahokia (Parmalee, 1957, Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci., vol. 50, p. 239); *Meyer
Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleolog. Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130); *Apple Creek (Parmalee,
Paloumpis, and Wilson, 1972, Illinois State Mus. Rept. Invest., no. 23, pp. 31, 33). OHIO:
*Canter Caves (Goslin, 1955, Ohio Jour. Sci., vol. 55, no. 6, p. 361); *Indian Hills (Mayfield,
1972, vol. 74, no. 3, p. 345). PENNSYLVANIA: Varner site? (Guilday, 1961, Penns. Archaeologist,
vol. 31, p. 122). FLORIDA: Seminole Field (Wetmore, 1931, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 85,
no. 2, p. 41); Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Paleont., vol. 31, no. 1, p. 136); Itchetucknee
River (McCoy, 1963, Auk, vol. 80, no. 3, p. 347); Vero Beach (Weigel, 1963, Florida Geol. Surv.
Spec. Publ., no. 10, p. 30); Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 151).
15. Quiscalus niger (Cassin). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 331).
16. Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler). OREGON: Fossil Lake (Scolecophagus affinis
Shufeldt, 1892, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 9, p. 418, pl. 15, fig. 10, syntypes 2
left humeri, left coracoid, 3 right ulnae, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. no. 3466; see Howard, 1946,
Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ., vol. 551, p. 189). CALIFORNIA: Hawver Cave (L. Miller,
1911, Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol., vol. 6, no. 16, p. 399; error?, see Wetmore, 1940,
Smithsonian Misc., Coll., vol. 99, no. 4, p. 76 note). KANSAS: Kentuck (Galbreath, 1955, Wilson
Bull., vol. 67, no. 1, p. 62); Big Springs Ranch (Harrell, 1959, Proc. S. Dakota Acad. Sci., vol. 38,
p. 105). IOWA: *Mille Creek (Hamon, 1961, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 6, p. 211).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


17. Molothrus ater (Boddaert). OREGON: Fossil Lake? (Howard, 1946, Carnegie Inst.
Washington Publ., vol. 551, p. 190). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Howard, 1962, Los Angeles
Co. Mus. Contr. Sci., vol. 58, p. 23). NEW MEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H. Miller,
1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16). KANSAS: Jones Sink? (Downs, 1954, Condor, vol. 56, p. 214,
fig. 5d, f). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian Misc., Coll., vol. 145, no.
2, p. 14). FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv. Geol. Bull., no. 44, p. 196);
Haile (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 151).
18. Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus). IOWA: *Mill Creek (Hamon, 1961, Plains Anthropolo-
gist, vol. 6, p. 211). FLORIDA: Reddick (Hamon, 1964, Florida Geol. Surv. Geol. Bull., no. 44,
p. 197).

Family EMBERIZIDAE Vigors
Emberizidae Vigors, fide Brehm, 1831, Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vogel Deutschlands,
pp. 261, 289 (family; type Emberiza Linnaeus).-Emberizidae Boie, fide Brehm, 1831,
Handbuch, p. 1049.-Emberizinae Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp. List Birds Eur. N.
Amer., p. 35 (subfamilia).-Emberizinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 33 familiar) .
Geospizinae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv fuir Naturg., vol. 1, no. 2, p. 328 (subfamilia; type Geospiza
Gould).-Geospizae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 ("group").-
Geospizidae Swarth, 1929, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 18, p. 29 (family).
Spizinae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 468 (subfamily; type Spiza Bona-
parte).-Spizae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 26 ("group").
Passerellinae Cabanis, 1851 (Apr.), Museum Heineanum, pt. 1, p. 131 (subfamily; type Passerella
Swainson).
Spizellinae Baird, 1858, Rept. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pp. xx, 406, 438 (subfamily; type
Spizella Bonaparte).
Zonotrichiinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Am. Birds, p. 110 (subfamily; type Zonotrichia Swainson).
-Zonotrichinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 33 (familia).-Zonotrichiae Ridgway,
1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 ("group").
Spermophilinae Sclater, 1862, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 99 (subfamily; type Spermophila Swain-
son, 1827, preoccupied by Spermophila Richardson, 1825).
Arremoniae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 35 familiar ; type Arremon Vieillot).
Sporophilae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 (group; type Sporophila
Cabanis, 1844, a junior synonym of Spermophila Swainson, preoccupied).
Calcarieae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 (group; type Calcarius
Bechstein).
Calamospizae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 (group; type Calamospiza
Bonaparte).
Chondesteae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 (group; type Chondestes
Swainson).
Ammodrami Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 (group; type Ammodramus
Swainson).
Haplospizae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 (group; type Haplospiza
Cabanis).
Oryzoborae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 (group; type Oryzoborus
Cabanis).
Certhideinae Ridgway, 1902, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2, p. 431 (subfamily; type Certhidea
Gould).

Genus f Palaeostruthus Wetmore
Palaeostruthus Wetmore, 1925 (May), Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 67, no. 2, p. 192, figs. 3-4
(type by original designation Palaeospiza hatcheri Shufelst).

1. Palaeostruthus hatcheri (Shufeldt)
Palaeospiza hatcheri Shufeldt, 1913 (Aug. 4), Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 32, art. 16, p. 301,
pl. 55, fig. 28 holotypee from Quarry E, Long Island, rostrum, U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 6647).
LOWER PLIOCENE (Republican River Formation). KANSAS: Phillips
County: Long Island.


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


2. Palaeostruthus eurius Brodkorb
Palaeostruthus eurius Brodkorb, 1963 (Feb. 8), Florida Geol. Surv. Spec. Publ., no. 2, Paper no.
4, p. 6, pl. 3, figs. a-b holotypee from Haile VI, distal part of left tarsometatarsus, Brodkorb
coll. no. 8502).
MIDDLE PLIOCENE (Alachua Clay). FLORIDA: Alachua County: Haile.

Genus Pipilo Vieillot
Pipilo Vieillot, 1816, Analyse nouv. Orn. 616mentaire, p. 32 (type Fringilla erythorophthalma
Linnaeus, Recent).

3. Pipilo angelensis Dawson
Pipilo angelensis Dawson, 1948 (March 16), Condor, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 59, fig. 16 holotypee from Pit
A at Rancho La Brea, rostrum, Los Angeles Co. Mus. no. K7291).
UPPER UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Rancholabrean tar). CALIFORNIA: Los
Angeles County: Los Angeles: Rancho La Brea.

Genus Zonotrichia Swainson
Zonotrichia Swainson, 1832, Fauna Bor.-Amer., vol. 2, p. 493 (type designated by Bonaparte,
1832, Fringilla pensylvanica Latham = F. albicollis Gmelin, Recent).

4. Zonotrichia robusta Tonni
Zonotrichia robusta Tonni, 1970 (June), Ameghiniana, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 161, fig. 2a-d holotypee
from Miramar, rostrum and mandible, Mus. La Plata, no. 63-VII-30-6).
MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE (Miramar Formation, Ensenadensan age). ARGEN-
TINA: Prov. Buenos Aires: Miramar: 900 meters SW of Punta Hermengo.

Neospecies of Emberizidae from the Pleistocene and "Holocene
1. Tiaris bicolor (Linnaeus). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco (Bernstein,
1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 282).
2. Tiaris olivacea (Linnaeus). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 333).
3. Loxigilla portoricensis (Daudin). PUERTO RICO: Cueva Catedral (Wetmore, 1922, Bull.
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 332).
4. Loxigilla violacea (Linnaeus). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro de San Francisco (Bern-
stein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 281). BAHAMAS: *Abaco Island
cave (Conklin, 1971, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, p. 240).
5. Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ.
Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 182, pl. 12, fig. f); Rancho La Brea (Dawson, 1948, Condor,
vol. 50, no. 2, p. 60). UTAH: *Catfish Canyon (Hargrave, 1960, Univ. Utah Anthr. Papers,
no. 44, p. 239). NEW MEXICO: Conkling Cavern and Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H. Miller,
1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16). ILLINOIS: *Meyer Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleol.
Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 131). FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Pal., vol. 31, no. 1,
p. 136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, 9, p. 286); Haile (Ligon,
1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 152); *Vero Beach (Weigel, 1963, Florida Geol.
Surv., Spec. Publ., no. 10, p. 31).
6. Pipilo fuscus Swainson. CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 182, pl. 12, fig. g. pl. 13, fig. d); Rancho La Brea (Dawson,
1948, Condor, vol. 50, no. 2, p. 60). NEW MEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H. Miller,
1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


7. Calamospiza melanocorys Steineger. CALIFORNIA: (A.O.U. Checklist, ed. 5, 1957, p. 585).
NEW MEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H. Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16).
KANSAS: Jones Sink (Downs, 1954, Condor, vol. 56, p. 214, fig. 5 g-h, k-1). SOUTH DA-
KOTA: *Black Partizan (Parmalee, 1977, Plains Anthropologist, vol. 22-27, p. 198).
8. Passerculus sandwichensis (Gmelin). FLORIDA: Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida
State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 286).
9. Ammodranus savannarum (Gmelin). FLORIDA: Haile I (Brodkorb, 1953, Wilson Bull.,
vol. 65, no. 1, p. 50); Haile XI (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 152).
PUERTO RICO: *Cueva Clara (Wetmore, 1922, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 46, p. 333).
10. Ammodramus henslowii (Audubon). FLORIDA: Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957, Jour. Pal.,
vol. 31, no. 1, p. 136); Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 286);
Haile XI (Ligon, 1966, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 152).
11. Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Dawson, 1948, Condor,
vol. 50, no. 2, p. 60).
12. Chondestes grammacus (Say). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Dawson, 1948, Condor,
vol. 50, p. 60).
13. Amphispiza bilineata (Cassin). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Sibley, 1939, Condor, vol.
41, no. 3, p. 126). NEW MEXICO: Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H. Miller, 1933, Condor,
vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16).
14. Amphispiza belli (Cassin). CALIFORNIA: McKittrick (A. H. Miller, 1937, Condor, vol.
39, no. 6, p. 250); Rancho La Brea (Sibley, 1939, Condor, vol. 41, no. 3, p. 126).
15. Spizella passerina (Bechstein). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Sibley, 1939, Condor,
vol. 41, no. 3, p. 127). FLORIDA: Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol.
4, no. 9, p. 286).
16. Spizella arborea (Wilson). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea? (Dawson, 1948, Condor, vol.
50, no. 2, p. 61).
17. Spizella pusilla (Wilson). FLORIDA: Arredondo (Brodkorb, 1959, Bull. Florida State
Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, p. 286).
18. Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus). ILLINOIS: *Meyer Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleological
Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 131). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smithsonian
Misc. Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 14.
19. Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forster). CALIFORNIA: Rancho la Brea (Dawson, 1948, Condor,
vol. 50, no. 2, p. 61).
20. Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore, 1962, Smith-
sonian Misc. Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 14).
21. Zonotrichia capensis (Miller). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Cerro San Francisco (Bern-
stein, 1965, Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 282).
22. Zonotrichia melodia (Wilson). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Dawson, 1948, Condor,
vol. 50, no. 2, p. 62). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys, 1962, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 145,
no. 2, p. 15).
23. Zonotrichia iliaca (Merrem). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 182, pl. 13, fig. a-b); Rancho La Brea (Dawson, 1948,
Condor, vol. 50, no. 2, p. 62). PENNSYLVANIA: New Paris (Guilday, Martin, and McCrady,
1964, Bull. Nat. Speleol. Soc., vol. 26, pp. 134, 143). VIRGINIA: Natural Chimneys (Wetmore,
1962, Smithsonian Misc., Coll., vol. 145, no. 2, p. 14).
24. Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 785). FRANCE: L'Escale at Saint-Estbve-Janson (?), Abfmes de la Fage at Noailles,
La Colombiere at Neuville-sur-Ain (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol., Fac. Sci. Lyon, no.
64, p. 208). SWITZERLAND: Thierstein and Kaltbrunnental (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Pal-
aeorn., p. 785). CZECHOSLAVAKIA: Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber. V. Intern. Orn. Kongr.
Berlin. p. 940). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 785).
HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 19, no. 3, p. 151);
Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); Subalyuk Cave (JAnossy, 1962, Aquila,
vol. 67-68, p. 185). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso. Internat.
Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 102, 112); Tankov and *Nizhnee Krivche (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya
Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 30,42). GEORGIAN SSR: Krivchanska Cave (Burchak-
Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds in Caves of USSR, p. 239).


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


25. Emberiza calandra Linnaeus. ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,
vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). FRANCE: Aven I des Abimes de la Fage at Noailles (Mourer-Chauvire,
1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol., Fac. Sci. Lyon no. 64 p. 207). GERMANY: Thiede (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 785). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber. V. Intern. Orn.
Kongr. Berlin, p. 941); Stranska skala and Balcarka (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Omitholog, vol.
6, nos. 2-4, p. 22). POLAND: Volyn? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 785). HUNGARY:
Novi III? (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304); Pilisszint6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb.
ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 481); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatis, vol. 4, p.
206). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave and Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Res. Council Is-
rael, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 100); Hayonim Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool.,
vol. 15, p. 133). UKRAINE: Adzhi-Koba, Syuren I, *Azil, *Tardenuaz, *Novgorod-Seversk, *Ras-
ponints, *Alimovsk, and *Okunevki (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fanny Prosh-
logo, vol. 3, pp. 27, 31, 34, 35, 44, 58, 59).
26. Emberiza citrinella Linnaeus. IRELAND: Newhall Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,
vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,
no. 893, p. 404). FRANCE: Abimes de la Fage (Chauvir6, 1965, C., R. Soc. G6ol. France, no.
1, p. 8); Grotte de l'Hortus at Valflaunes (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quatemaires, M6m.
no. 1, pp. 280, 292); Rond du Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Antfropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p.
39); L'Escale at Saint-Estbve-Janson, Orgnac-l'Aven?, Le Lazaret at Nice, Eden Roc at Vaison-
la-Romaine?, Salp6tre de Pompignan, Deux Avens at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, and *Rond du Barry
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 207). GERMANY: Thiede?
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 785). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 785); Stranska skala (JAnossy, 1972, Anthropos, vol. 20, p. 60). HUNGARY:
"Lambrecht Cave (Janossy, 1963, Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung., vol. 9, p. 295). UKRAINE:
*Azil, *Tardenuaz, *Novgorod-Seversk, and "Krementsa (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob-
stanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 34, 35, 41, 43).
27. Emberiza schoeniclus Linnaeus. CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Holubic (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 785); Certova dira and Balcarka (Skutil and Stehhk, 1939, Ornitholog,
vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4, p. 206).
POLAND: Rai Cave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 136, 201).
28. Emberiza caesia Cretzschmar. ISRAEL: Hayonin Cave (Bar Yosef and Tchemov, 1966,
Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 133); 'Ubeidiya? (Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist.
Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 28).
29. Emberiza cia Linnaeus. UKRAINE: *Azil, *Tardenuaz, and *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski,
1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fanny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 34, 35, 58).
30. Emberiza hortulana Linnaeus. FRANCE: Grotte des Romains at Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse
and Mourer-Chauvir6, 1973, Quartir, p. 153); Orgnac 'Aven?, Rond du Barry, and *Rond du
Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 207). UKRAINE:
Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso. Internat. Etude Quat., pt. 1, pp. 102, 112);
Tankov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka i Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 30).
31. Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus). KANSAS: Jones Sink? (Downs, 1954, Condor, vol. 56,
p. 214, figs. 5 i-j).
32. Spiza americana Gmelin. ILLINOIS: *Meyer Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleolog.
Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4, p. 130).

Family PASSERIDAE (Illiger)
Passerini Illiger, 1811, Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium, pp. 196, 220 familiar ;
type by autonomy Passer Brisson).-Passerinae Bonaparte, 1853, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris,
vol. 37, p. 644 (subfamilia).-Passeroideae Steineger, 1885, Stand. Nat. Hist., vol. 4, p. 481
(superfamily).-Passeridae Ffirbringer, 1888, Untersuch. Morph. Syst. Vogel, vol. 2, p. 1567
familiar) .
Fringillidae Vigors, 1825, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 445 (family; type Fringilla
Linnaeus).-Fringillinae Bonaparte, 1831, Saggio di una Distribuzione Metodica degli
Animali Vertebrati, p. 00 (subfamily).-Fringillinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-
Americana, pt. 2, p. 243 (subfamily).-Fringillinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 32
(familia).-Fringillae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 ("group").








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


-Fringilloidei Sushkin, 1924, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 45, p. 30 (superfamily).-Frin-
gilloidae Hay, 1930, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ., no. 390, vol. 2, p. 354 (superfamily).
Carduelina Vigors, 1825, fide Brehm (type Carduelis Brisson).-Carduelinae Sushkin, 1924
(Nov.), Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 45, p. 38 (subfamily).
Loxidae Vigors, fide Brehm, 1831, Naturgeschichte aller V6gel Deutschlands, p. 239 (family;
type Loxia Brisson).-Loxinae Bonaparte, 1838, Geogr. Comp. List Birds Europe N. Amer.,
p. 38 (subfamily; type Loxia Linnaeus).-Loxiinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List
of Genera of Birds, p. 49 (subfamily).-Loxianae G. R. Gray, 1845 (Feb.), Genera of Birds,
vol. 2, p. 388 (subfamily).-Loxiinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 32 (familia).-
Loxiae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 ("group").
Pyrrhulinae Swainson, 1832, Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 2, p. 243 (type Pyrrhula Brisson).-
Pyrrhulae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 1, p. 28 ("group").
Coccothraustinae Swainson, 1837, Nat. Hist. Classif. Birds, vol. 2, pp. 108, 276 (subfamily; type
Coccothraustinae Brisson).-Coccothrausteae Ridgway, 1901, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50,
pt. 1, p. 28 ("group").
Ploceinae G. R. Gray, 1840 (before Apr.), List of Genera of Birds, p. 42 (subfamily; type Ploceus
Cuvier).-Ploceidae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv for Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 330
(familia).-Ploceinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 29 familiar) .
Drepaninae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv f. Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 325 (subfamilia;
type Drepanis Temminck).-Drepanidae Bonaparte, 1853 (31 Oct.), C. R. Acad. Sci.
Paris, vol. 37, no. 18, 644 (familia).-Drepanididae A. B. Meyer, in Wallace, 1876, Geo-
graphische Verbreitung der Thiere, vol. 2, p. 312 (family).-Drepaniidae Mayr, 1943,
Condor, vol. 45, p. 46 (family).-Drepaniinae Amadon, 1950, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
vol. 95, p. 173 (subfamily).
Spermestinae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv fOr Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 331 (subfamilia;
type Spermestes Swainson).
Viduanae Cabanis, 1847, Archiv far Naturg., Jahrg. 23, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 331 (subfamilia; type
Vidua Cuvier).-Viduinae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p. 446
(subfamilia).-Viduinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentamen, pt. 1, p. 29 familiar) .
Estreldina Blyth, 1849, fide Gray (type Estrelda Swainson, 1837, a junior synonym of Estrilda
Swainson, 1827).-Estreldinae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, pt. 1, p.
450 (subfamilia).-Estrildinae Chapin, 1917, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 37, art.
9, pp. 243, 251, 273 (subfamily; type Estrilda Swainson).
Chloridinae Sundevall, 1872, Tentatnen, pt. 1, p. 31 familiar ; type Chloris Moehring).
Textoridae Chapin, 1917, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 37, art. 9, pp. 243, 250, 265 (family;
type Textor Temminck).
Bubalornithinae W. L. Sclater, 1930, Systema Avium Aethiopicarum, pt. 2, pp. xi, 715 (sub-
family; type Bubalornis Smith).
Plocepasserinae W. L. Sclater, 1930, Systema Avium Aethiopicarum, pt. 2, pp. xi, 716 (sub-
family; type Plocepasser Smith).
Sporopipinae W. L. Sclater, 1930, Systema Avium Aethiopicarum, pt. 2, pp. xi, 728 (subfamily;
type Sporopipes Cabanis).
Psittirostrinae Amadon, 1950, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 95, p. 164 (subfamily; type
Psittirostra Temminck).

Genus Passer Brisson
Passer Brisson, 1760, Ornithologia, vol. 1, p. 36; vol. 3, p. 71 (type Fringilla domestic Linnaeus,
Recent, designated by Gray, 1841).

1. Passer predomesticus Tchernov
Passer predomnesticus Tchernov, 1962 (Nov.), Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3,
p. 102, text-fig. 1; pl. [3], fig. 22; pl. [6], figs. 15-16 holotypee from Oumm-Qatafa Cave,
premaxilla, Zool. Dept., Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem).
UPPER MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE (middle Acheulean). ISRAEL: Mugharet-
Oumm-Qatafa in Wadi Khareitoun, near Bethlehem.


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Genus Petronia Kaup
Petronia Kaup, 1829, Skizz. Entw. Nat. Syst., vol. 1, p. 158 (type by autonomy Fringilla petronia
Linnaeus, Recent).


2. Petronia brevirostris Tchernov
Petronia brevirostris Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 25, pl. 3,
figs. 9-17 (syntypes 67 elements from 'Ubeidiya, layers I1-23 and II-24, Hebrew Univ.,
Jerusalem).
UPPER MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE ('Ubeidiya Formation). ISRAEL: 'Ubeidiya,
on SW bank of Sea of Galilee.

Neospecies of Passeridae from the Pleistocene and "Holocene
1. Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus. IRELAND: Kesh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,
no. 893, p. 404). ENGLAND: Ightham (E. T. Newton, 1899, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London,
vol. 55, no. 219, p. 420); Langwith Bassett Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893,
p. 404); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786). SPAIN: Casteldefels (Vil-
lalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p. 98). GIBRALTAR: Devil's Tower (Bate, 1928, Jour. Roy.
Anthrop. Inst., vol. 58, p. 104). FRANCE: Balme-les-grottes (Chauvir6, 1963, C. R. Sommaire
Soc. Geol. France, fasc. 2, p. 53); L'Escale at Saint-Est6ve-Janson, Le Lazaret at Nice, La
Balauziere at Vers, Campalou at Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans, Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz,
Combe Grenal at Domme, Baume de Gonvillars, and Baum de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire,
1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 208); Grotte de Cottier at Retournac (Mourer-
Chauvire, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p.472). CORSICA: Grotta di Funtanedu (E. T. Newton, 1921,
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 231). SARDINIA: Pietro Tampoia cave on Tavolara Island
(Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 472). ITALY: Grotta di Cucigliana?, Caverna d'Equi,
Buca Tana di Maggiano, and Grotte de Grimaldi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786);
Grotte du Prince (Mourer-Chauvire, 1976, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, fasc. 2, pp. 363, 365).
SWITZERLAND: Ettingen and Schlossfelsen von Birseck bei Basel (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 786). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Balcarka (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6,
no. 2-4, p. 22); Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786). HUNGARY: *PilisszAnt6
(Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst., vol. 23, pp. 478, 481, 507). POLAND: Zytnia
Skala? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 132, 200). RUMANIA: Pfispokfiirdo
[Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatas, vol. 5, p. 29). UKRAINE: Tardenuaz, "Novgorod-
Seversk, and *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3,
pp. 34, 41, 58); Murzan-Koba cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds Caves USSR, p. 237).
ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 100);
Abu-Usba (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 134); 'Ubeidiya (Tchernov,
1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 27).
2. Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus. SWITZERLAND: Grotte de Cotencher (Dubois and
Stehlin, 1932, M6m. Soc. Suisse, vol. 52, p. 170). GERMANY: Westeregeln bei Magdeburg? and
Zwergloch bei Pottenstein (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786). CZECHOSLOVAKIA:
Volyn? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786). HUNGARY: Rem6tehegy (Lambrecht,
1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90).
3. Carduelis chloris (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Kesh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19,
no. 893, p. 403). ENGLAND: Clevedon Cave and Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,
vol. 19, no. 893, p. 403); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). FRANCE:
Gourdan and Teyjat (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787); Mas Rambault at Frontignan?,
L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson, and Orgnac-l'Aven (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol.
Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 208). ITALY: Grotta Romanelli (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeom.,
p. 787); Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,
no. 64, p. 208). MALTA: Ghar Dalam cave (Fischer and Stephan, 1974, Zeitschr. geol. Wiss.
Berlin, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 519). SWITZERLAND: Birseck and Ermitage (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 787). HUNGARY: *PilisszAnt6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. ungar. geol. Anst.,
vol. 23, p. 481). POLAND: Raj cave? (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 134,








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


201). UKRAINE: Adzhi-Koba, Syuren I, *Tardenuaz, *Novgorod-Seversk, and *Alimovsk (Voin-
stvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 27, 31, 41, 58). ISRAEL:
Oumm Qatafa Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 100); 'Ubeidiya?
(Tchernov, 1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 27).
4. Carduelis carduelis (Linnaeus). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,
vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). FRANCE: Le Lazaret at Nice, Grotte de Font6chevade at Montbron,
La Colombiere at Neuville-sur-Ain, Combe Grenal at Domme?, Baume de Gonvillars, and
*Baum de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 209).
UKRAINE: Adzhi-Koba, Syuren I, *Azil, *Novgorod-Seversk, *Nizhnee, *Alimovsk, and
*Okunevi (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 27, 31, 34,
41, 42, 58, 59). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel,
vol. 11, p. 100); Hayonim Cave and Abu-Usba Cave? (Bar-Yosef abd Tchernov, 1966, Israel
Jour. Sci., vol. 15, p. 133).
5. Carduelis spinus (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Mas Rambault at Frontignan? and Jean Pierre at
Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 209).
CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787); Balcarka (Skutil and
Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov,
1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 100).
6. Carduelis pinus (Wilson). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Geol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 181, pl. 13, fig. C); McKittrick (A. H. Miller, 1937, Condor,
vol. 39, no. 6, p. 250).
7. Carduelis tristis (Linnaeus). CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Sibley, 1939, Condor, vol.
41, no. 3, p. 127).
8. Carduelis citrinella (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Combe Grenal at Domme (Mourer-Chauvire,
1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, p. 360); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, An-
thropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); Abimes de la Fage at Noailles?, Orgnac-l'Aven, and Salpetre
de Pompignan (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 210, pl. 17,
fig. 13).
9. Carduelis cannabina (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Kesh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol.
19, no. 893, p. 404). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no.
893, p. 404). BELGIUM: Grotte Marie-Jeanne? (Ballmann, 1973, Gerfaut, vol. 63, p. 12).
FRANCE: Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); Abimes
de la Fage at Noailles, Grotte de Font6chevade at Montbron, Campalou at Saint-Nazaire-en-
Royans, Baume de Gonvillars, and *Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-ChauvirA, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol.
Fac. Sci. Lyon., no. 64, p. 209). MALLORCA: Son Bauza cave (Ballmann and Adrover, 1970,
Acta Geologica Hispanica, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 62). CORSICA: Grotta di Fontanedu (E. T. Newton,
1921, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 2, p. 231). ITALY: Verezzi (Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois.
Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 595). GERMANY: Thiede? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787).
CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). AUSTRIA: Schrei-
berswand cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). UKRAINE: "Krementsa and *Alim-
ovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 43, 58); Kriv-
chananska Cave (Burchak-Abramovich, 1968, Fossil Birds Caves USSR, p. 239). ISRAEL:
Hayonim (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 133); 'Ubeidiya (Tchernov,
1968, Prelim. Invest. Birds Pleist. Deposits 'Ubeidiya, p. 27).
10. Carduelis flammea (Linnaeus). SPAIN: Casteldefels (Villalta, 1964, Speleon, vol. 15, p.
98). FRANCE: Rond-du-Barry? (Mourer-ChauvirA, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39);
Abimes de la Fage at Noailles, Le Lazaret at Nice, Deux Avens at Vallons-Pont-d'Arc, and Combe
Grenal at Domme? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 209,
pl. 17, fig. 12). ITALY: Grotte du Prince at Grimaldi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787).
CZECHOSLOVAKIA: StrAnskA skAla (Skutil and Stehhk, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22).
11. Carduelis canaria (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Grotte du Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-ChauvirA,
1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. pr6hist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 62-78); L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 210). SARDINIA: Pietro
Tampoia cave on Tavolara Island (Lydekker, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 472). ISRAEL:
Oumm Qatafa Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 100).
12. Carpodacus erythrinus (Pallas). FRANCE: L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson and Soulab6
at Montseron (Mourer-ChauvirA, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 211). UKRAINE:


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


* Chernigov and *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3,
pp. 49, 58).
13. Carpodacus rubicilla (Giuldenstadt). GEORGIAN SSR: Gvardzilas-Klde near Chiaturi
(Burchak-Abramovich, 1966, Peschery Gruzii Speleologiskiy Sbornik, vol. 4, pp. 96, 108, fig. 9).
14. Carpodacus mexicanus (Miiller). CALIFORNIA: McKittrick (A. H. Miller, 1937, Condor,
vol. 39, no. 6, p. 250). NEW MEXICO: Conkling Cavern and Shelter Cave (Howard and A. H.
Miller, 1933, Condor, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 16).
15. Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Linnaeus). IRELAND: Edenvale Cave, *Newhall Cave, and Kesh
Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). FRANCE: Balme-les-grottes (Chauvire,
1963, C. R. Sommaire Soc. Geol. France, fasc. 2, p. 53); Les Romains at Pierre-Chatel (Des-
brosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, pp. 153, 155); Orgnac-l'Aven, Font6che-
vade at Montseron, Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, and *Jean Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-
de-Couz (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 211). SARDINIA:
Monte San Giovanni (Lydekker, 1892, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 472). ITALY: Verezzi (Milne-
Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 595). SWITZERLAND: Grotte de Cotencher
(Dubois and Stehin, 1932, Mem. Soc. Pal. Suisse, vol. 52, p. 169); Ettingen (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). AUSTRIA: Mixnitz (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787).
GERMANY: Hohlefels bei Ulm (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 303); Schelklingen (Lam-
brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). HUNGARY: Balla-Hbhle (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol.
19, p. 276); Oregkbohhle bei Bajot (Kormos and Lambrecht, 1914, Barlangkutatas, vol. 2, p. 106);
Remethehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21, p. 90); Pilisszint6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt.
Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 481); Otto Herman Cave (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22,
p. 190); Puskaporos (Lambrecht, 1916, Barlangkutatas, vol. 4, p. 206). CZECHOSLOVAKIA:
Strinska skila and Katerinski (Skutil and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22).
16. Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Linnaeus). IRELAND: *Newhall Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoolo-
gist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). ENGLAND: Chudleigh Cave (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4,
vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404); Merlin's Cave (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). MAL-
LORCA: Son Bauza cave (Ballmann and Adrover, 1970, Acta Geol. Hispanica, vol. 5, no. 2, p.
62). FRANCE: Grotte du Lazaret (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. pr6hist. Monaco,
no. 11, pp. 64-78); Le Morin at Pessac-sur-Dordogne (Chauvire, 1965, 89 Congres Soc. Savantes,
p. 255); Combe Grenal at Domme, Grotte de l'Hortus and *Grotte de l'Hortus at Valfaunes
(Mourer-Chauvirb, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1, pp. 280, 292, 360, fig. 7); Les Ro-
mains at Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvir6, 1973, Quartar, vol. 23-24, p. 153); Rond-
du-Barry at Sinzelles (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); Lunel-
viel, Orgnac l'Aven, L'Arago at Tautavel?, Salpktre de Pompignan, Les Balmes de Villerever-
sure, Campalou at Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans, Jean-Pierre at Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz, Grotte de
Cottier at Retournac, Pech de l'Az6 at Carsac Les Taniers de Vergisson, Baume de Gonvillars,
and *Baume de Gonvillars (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p.
211, pl. 17, fig. 15). SARDINIA: Pietro Tampoia on Tavolar Island (Lydekker, 1891, Proc.
Zool. Soc. London, p. 472, pl. 37, fig. 7). MALTA: Ghar Dalam cave (Fischer and Stephan,
1974, Zeitschr. geol. Wiss. Berlin, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 520). ITALY: Grottes de Menton, Grotte du
Prince at Grimaldi, Bucca del Tasso, Grotta di Frola, and Caverna delle Arene candida (Lam-
brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787). AUSTRIA: Schusterlucke? (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 787). HUNGARY: Otto Herman cave (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 190);
Pilisszant6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 481); *Remetehegy
(Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb. Kgl. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 22, p. 403). POLAND: Mamutowa
Cave, 'J6zef6w, and *Niedzwiedz (Bochenski, 1974, Birds Late Quaternary Poland, pp. 134,201,
figs. 84-85). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Certova di'ra (Capek, 1910, Ber. V Internat. Orn. Kongr.
Berlin, p. 940); Strinski skala, Holstyn skila, and KaterinskAi Skutil and Stehhlk, 1939, Ornitholog,
vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22). RUMANIA: Piuspokfirdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatds, vol. 5,
p. 29); O-Ruzsin, Sutto, and *Devencse (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787); Istil-
16sk6 (JAnossy, 1954, Aquila, vol. 55-58, p. 213). UKRAINE: Adzhi-koba, Syuren I, *Azil, *Tarde-
nuaz, Kara-Koba, *Krementsa, *Alimovsk, and *Okunevki (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Ob-
stanovka Fanny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 27, 31, 34, 36, 43, 44, 51, 58, 59); Staruni (Burchak-Abramo-
vich, 1973, Tezisi Dokladov k IV Vsesouznomu Soveshchaniu po Izucheniu Chetvertichnogo
Perioda, p. 82). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research Council Israel,
vol. 11, pp. 100, 102); Hayonim Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel Jour. Sci., vol. 15,
p. 133).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


17. Coccothraustes vespertinus Cooper. CALIFORNIA: Rancho La Brea (Dawson, 1948,
Condor, vol. 50, no. 2, p. 58).
18. Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus). AUSTRIA: Hundsheim? (Jdnossy, 1974, Sitzb. Osterr.
Akad. Wiss., math.-natw., pt. 1, vol. 182, no. 6-8, p. 212). HUNGARY: Pilisszmnt6 (Lambrecht,
1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 481); IstAll6sko? (Janossy, 1954, Aquila, vol.
55-58, p. 213).
19. Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus. FRANCE: Massat (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 304);
Grotte de Font6chevade at Montbron (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon,
no. 64, p. 210). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Certova dira (Capek, 1910, Ber. V. Internat. Ornith.
Kongr. Berlin, p. 940); Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 787); StrAnski skila (Skutil
and Stehlik, 1939, Ornitholog, vol. 6, no. 2-4, p. 22). HUNGARY: Puskaporos (Kormos, 1911,
Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 19, p. 150); Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1914, Aquila, vol. 21,
p. 90); Pilisszint6 (Lambrecht, 1915, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 23, p. 481); Otto
Herman cave (Lambrecht, 1916, Aquila, vol. 22, p. 189); Istill6sko (Jinossy, 1954, Aquila, vol.
55-58, p. 213). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Tugarinov, 1937, Trav. Sect. Soviet. Asso. Internat. Etude
Quat., pt. 1, pp. 102, 112); Tankov (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Prosh-
logo, vol. 3, p. 30). CALIFORNIA: Carpinteria (A. H. Miller, 1932, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol.
Sci., vol. 21, no. 7, p. 181, pl. 14, fig. f-g). NEW MEXICO: Burnet Cave (C. B. Schultz and E. B.
Howard, 1935, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 87, p. 277). ILLINOIS: Meyer Cave?
(Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleolog. Soc. Bull., vol. 29, p. 130).
20. Loxia pityopsittacus Borkhausen. FRANCE: Le Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975,
Doc. Lab. G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 211, pl. 17, fig. 14). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn
(Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786). UKRAINE: *Rasponits (Voinstvenski, 1967, Priro-
dnaya Obstanovka Fanny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 44).
21. Montifringilla nivalis (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Massat (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn.,
p. 786); Grotte du Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvire, 1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. Pr6hist.
Monaco, no. 1, pp. 64-78); Combe Grenal at Domme (Mourer-Chauvire, 1972, Etudes Quatern.,
M6m. no. 1, p. 360); Grottes inf6rieures d'Aurensan (Bouchud, 1972, Bull. Asso. Etude Quatern.,
vol. 1, pp. 54, 56); Les Romains at Pierre-ChAtel (Desbrosse and Mourer-Chauvire, 1973, Quartar,
vol. 23-24, p. 153); Rond-du-Barry (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p.
39; Grotte de l'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson?, Abfmes de la Fage at Noailles, Grotte de Salpetre
at Pompignan, La Balauziere at Vers, Grotte de Soulab6 at Montseron, Les Trois Freres at
Montesquieu-Avanths, La Colombiere at Neuville-sur-Ain, Abri Gay at Poncin, Le Blot at Cerzat,
Grotte de Cottier at Retournac, Baum de Gigny at Gigny-sur-Suran, and *Rond-du-Barry
(Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 213); Abri La Faye at Bruni-
quel (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976, op. cit., fasc. 2, p. 426). SWITZERLAND: Thierstein (Lam-
brecht, Handb. Palaeom., p. 786). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Strinski skila? (JAnossy, 1972, An-
thropos, vol. 20, p. 61). UKRAINE: Syuren I (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka
Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, p. 31).
22. Petronia petronia (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Grotte du Lazaret at Nice (Mourer-Chauvir6,
1964, Bull. Mus. Anthrop. Pr6hist. Monaco, no. 11, pp. 62, 64, 72, 78); Grotte de l'Hortus at
Valflaunes, and *Grotte de l'Hortus (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1972, Etudes Quaternaires, M6m. no. 1,
pp. 281, 293, 360, fig. 8); *Rond-du-Barry at Sinzelles (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie,
1974, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); Mas Rambault at Frontignan?, L'Escale at Saint-Esteve-Janson,
Abfmes de la Fage at Noailles, Eden Roc at Vaison-la-Romaine, Grotte Tournal at Bize, and
*Arago at Tautavel (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 213).
UKRAINE: Syuren I and *Azil (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo,
vol. 3, pp. 31, 34). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave and Kebara Cave (Tchernov, 1962, Bull.
Research Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 100); Hayonim Cave (Bar-Yosef and Tchernov, 1966, Israel
Jour. Zool., vol. 15, p. 133).
23. Passer moabiticus Tristan. ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Re-
search Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 100).
24. Passer montanus (Linnaeus). FRANCE: Le Lazaret at Nice, La Colombiere at Neuville-
sur-Ain, and Gare de Couze at Lalinde? (Mourer-Chauvire, 1975, Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci.
Lyon, no. 64, p. 212). SWITZERLAND: Ermitage and Felsen near Birseck (Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786). HUNGARY: Balla (Lambrecht, 1912, Aquila, vol. 19, p. 283). RU-
MANIA: Piispokfoirdo [Betfia] (Capek, 1917, Barlangkutatis, vol. 5, p. 30). UKRAINE: Adzhi-


Vol. 23, No. 3









BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Koba, Syuren I, *Azil, *Tardenuaz, and *Alimovsk (Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka
Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 27, 31, 34, 58).
25. Passer hispaniolensis (Temminck). SARDINIA: br6ches osseuses? (Milne-Edwards, 1871,
Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 597). ISRAEL: Oumm Qatafa Cave? (Tchernov, 1962, Bull. Research
Council Israel, vol. 11, p. 100).
26. Passer italiae (Vieillot). ITALY: Bucco della Volpe? (Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Tor-
ino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 197); Caverna d'Equi (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786).
27. Passer domesticus (Linnaeus). IRELAND: *Kesh Cave and *Edenvale Cave (Bell, 1915,
Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 19, no. 893, p. 404). ENGLAND: Langwith Bassett Cave, Chudleigh Cave,
and Ightham fissure (Bell, 1915, Zoologist, ser. 4, no. 893, p. 404). FRANCE: *Rond-du-Barry at
Sinzelles (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1974, Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 1, p. 39); L'Escale at Saint-
Estbve-Janson, Abimes de la Fage at Noailles, Le Lazaret at Nice, La Colombibre at Neuville-
sur-Ain, Combe Grenal at Domme, and *Arago at Tautavel (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1975, Doc. Lab.
G6ol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 212); Gare de Couze? (Mourer-Chauvir6, 1976, op. cit., fasc.
2, p. 505). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Volyn (Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 786).
HUNGARY: Puskaporos? (Kormos, 1911. Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 19, p. 150);
*Remetehegy (Lambrecht, 1916, Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst., vol. 22, p. 403). UKRAINE:
Syuren I, *Azil, *Fatma-Koba, *Novgorod-Seversk, *Pere-Voloka, "Chernigov, and *Alimovsk
(Voinstvenski, 1967, Prirodnaya Obstanovka Fauny Proshlogo, vol. 3, pp. 31, 34, 38, 41, 45,
49, 58, 59). ILLINOIS: *Meyer Cave (Parmalee, 1967, Nat. Speleolog. Soc. Bull., vol. 29, no. 4,
p. 130).

AVES INCERTAE SEDIS

1. Alauda gypsorum Portis

Alauda gypsorum Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Sci. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 186. fig. 4 (holo-
type from Sinigaglia, skeleton impression, coll. G. Scarabelli-Gommi-Flamini).
LOWER PLIOCENE (Messiniano). ITALY: Sinigaglia.
Generic and familial position uncertain.

2. Alauda major Portis

Alauda major Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Sci. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38 p. 190, fig. 11 holotypee
from Gabbro, impression of legs, coll. G. Scarabelli-Gommi-Flamini).
LOWER PLIOCENE (Messiniano). ITALY: Toscana: Gabbro.
Generic and familial position uncertain.

3. Anas benedeni Sharpe

Anas creccoides Van Beneden, 1871, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belgique, ser. 2, vol. 32, no. 11, p. 260,
figs. 3-6 (syntypes left humerus lacking proximal end, right humerus shaft, proximal part
of right ulna, distal part of left ulna, and proximal part of tibiotarsus; no diagnosis, il-
lustrated only; locality not stated but apparently from mouth of River Rupel).-Dollo,
1909, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 19, no. 4, pt. 1, p. 113 (type locality restricted to Rupel-
monde, age Rupelian).-Brodkorb, 1962, Auk, vol. 79, no. 4, p. 706 (left humerus illus-
trated in fig. 3 designated as lectotype; removed from Anatidae and Anseriformes to In-
certae Sedis).
Anas benedeni Sharpe, 1899, Hand-list Gen. Sp. Birds, vol. 1, p. 217 (new name for Anas crec-
coides Van Beneden, 1871, preoccupied by Anas creccoides King, 1828, Zool. Jour., vol. 4,
no. 13, p. 99).-Anas Benedini Lambrecht, 1918, Aquila, vol. 24, p. 216 (lapsus).
UPPER OLIGOCENE (Rupelian Sand). BELGIUM: East Flanders: Rupelmonde.
Not anseriform.

4. Anthus boniaskii Pycraft

Anthus boniaskii Pycraft, 1909, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 368, fig. 47 holotypee from Gabbro,









BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


plate and counterplate, with impression of femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, and
hallux, Brit. Mus.).
LOWER PLIOCENE (Messiniano). ITALY: Toscana: Gabbro, near Livorno.
Needs comparison with Alauda gypsorum Portis and Alauda major Portis.


5. Ardea rupeliensis Van Beneden

Ardea rupeliensis Van Beneden, 1873, Patria Belgica, p. 373. holotypee distal part of tibiotar-
sus, Brussels Mus.?).
UPPER OLIGOCENE (Rupelian Sand). BELGIUM: East Flanders: [Rupelmonde?].
Practically a nomen nudum. The entire reference is given below.
"Sous ce nom, nous d6signons un oiseau du rupdlien don't M. le professeur Dewalque
nous a communique un tibia bien conserve dans su parties inf6rieure; cet os indique un oiseau
un peu plus petit que le butor."
As Van Beneden had a very poor record in assigning avian fossils to the correct family
or order, we have no assurance that the type is referable to Botaurus, or even to the Ardeidae.


6. Colinus eatoni Shufeldt
Colinus eatoni Shufeldt, 1915 (Feb.), Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci., vol. 19, p. 70, pl. 13, fig. 103
(types shipped from Fort Wallace, western Kansas, but horizon, exact locality, and col-
lector not stated; complete "left" [i.e., right] carpometacarpus and proximal phalanx of
index digit, Yale Peabody Mus., no. 949).
LOWER PLIOCENE (Ogallala Formation) or possibly PLEISTOCENE loesss). KANSAS: near Fort
Wallace.
Shufeldt said that the type is thoroughly fossilized, nearly white, with small, scattered
spots of reddish staining. Bones from the Lower Pliocene Ogallala Formation are similarly pre-
served. The Ogallala is present in Wallace County, resting upon Cretaceous rocks (the Smoky
Hill Chalk) and overlain by Pleistocene loess (Elias, 1931, Univ. Kansas Bull., vol. 32, no. 7,
Kansas Geol. Surv. Bull., no. 18, pp. 131-180). That this bird was a contemporary of Hesperor-
nis is inconceivable, and the type came almost certainly from the Ogallala or possibly from the
loess.
The photograph clearly represents a right carpometacarpus, not a left. Shufeldt often
had difficulty in distinguishing rights from lefts.
This is neither a bobwhite quail, nor a phasianid, nor even a member of the order Galli-
formes. It belongs in the passerine family Icteridae and is close to and perhaps identical with
Sturnella.


7. Corvus betfianus Kretzoi
Corvus betfianus Kretzoi, 1962 (Feb.), Aquila, vol. 67-68, p. 172 holotypee from Betfia 5, distal
portion of left carpometacarpus, Mus. Oradea, no. 1899 a/4).
MIDDLE LOWER PLEISTOCENE (Biharian). RUMANIA: Betfia 5.
Inadequately described, without measurements or illustration. Mourer-Chauvir6 (1975,
Doc. Lab. GCol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, no. 64, p. 237) suggested it may be a synonym of Corvus hun-
garicus, of which, however, the carpometacarpus is unknown.


8. Cygnus bilinicus Laube
Cygnus bilinicus Laube, 1909, Lotos, vol. 57, p. 159, pl. 1 holotypee from Preschen, impression
of radius, ulna, and incomplete carpometacarpus, Teplitz Mus.).
LOWER MIOCENE (Aquitanian plastic clay). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Preschen, near Bilin, at foot
of Erz Mountains.
According to Lambrecht (1933, Handb. Palaeorn., pp. 383, 674), it seems to be a bird of
prey, not a swan.


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


9. Dakotornis cooper Erickson

Dakotornis cooper Erickson, 1975 (Dec. 19), Sci. Publ. Mus. Minnesota, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 1, figs.
1-3 holotypee from Wannagan Creek, right humerus, Science Mus. of Minnesota, no.
P74.24.106).
UPPER PALEOCENE (Tongue River Formation). NORTH DAKOTA: Billings County: Wanna-
gan Creek, in NW 1/4, Sec. 18, Township 141 N, Range 102 WV).
Type, by original designation of genus Dakotornis Erickson and family Dakotornithidae
Erickson (loc. cit.).
Described as "closely allied to the ibises, yet similarity to a number of diverse groups is
noted." Needs comparison with Proplegadis fisher Harrison and Walker (1971), which is of about
the same size and with which it is practically contemporaneous.

10. Dolichonyx kruegeri Fischer and Stephan

Dolichonyx kruegeri Fischer and Stephan, 1971, Wiss. Zeitschr. Humboldt-Univ. Berlin, Math.-
Nat. R., vol. 20, no. 4-5, p. 597, pls. 3, 5, 6, figs. 18-21 holotypee from Pio Domingo Cave,
right humerus, Univ. Habana, no. Av. 877/67; paratypes prox. end humerus, juv. humerus,
left ulna, 6 tibiotarsi, right tarsometatarsus, nos. Av. 878-887/67).
UPPER PLEISTOCENE (cave deposit). CUBA: Prov. Pinar del Rio: Pio Domingo Cave.
This is almost certainly the female of one of the two living Cuban species of Agelaius,
with which it was not compared.

11. Eopteryx mississippiensis 0. Meyer

Eopteryx mississippiensis 0. Meyer, 1887, Ber. Senckenberg. Naturg. Ges. Frankfurt am Main
for 1886, p. 14, pl. 2, fig. 22a-c holotypee from Jackson, fragmentary dorsal vertebra,
Senckenbergian Mus.?).
UPPER EOCENE (Jackson Formation). MISSISSIPPI: Jackson.
Type by monotypy of genus Eopteryx 0. Meyer (loc. cit.).

12. Falco falconellus Shufeldt

Falco falconella Shufeldt, 1915 (Feb.), Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci., vol. 19, p. 40, pl. 15, figs.
139-143 (types from Dry Creek?, ungual phalanx, upper part of "left" [= right] coracoid,
distal part of left humerus, pedal phalanx, and fragment of a condyle of a long bone, "be-
longing to the same individual," Yale Peabody Mus., no. 863).
MIDDLE EOCENE (Bridger Formation). WYOMING: Uinta County: Dry Creek?
Wetmore stated (1936, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 84, no. 3003, pp. 77-78) that the type
material included a mammal bone (the last fragment listed above) and representatives of at least
three orders of birds, none falconiform and none identifiable.

13. Fringilla trochanterica Giebel

Fringilla trochanterica Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 15 (type from the Se-
veckenberg near Quedlingburg, right femur).
PLEISTOCENE. GERMANY: Seveckenberg near Quedlingburg.
According to Lambrecht (1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 644), this represents some living
species. Giebel compared it with "Fr. linaria.

14. Hirundo fossilis Giebel

Hirundo fossilis Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 18 (types from the Sevecken-
berg near Quedlingburg, 2 distal fragments of radius, upper part of tarsometatarsus, cora-
coid, carpometacarpus).
PLEISTOCENE. GERMANY: Seveckenberg near Quedlingburg.
Giebel compared it with the Recent H. rustic, with which Lambrecht (1933, Handb.
Palaeorn., p. 636) tentatively synonymized it.


1978








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


15. Laornis edvardsianus Marsh

Laornis edvardsianus Marsh, 1870 (March), Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 49, no. 146, p. 206 (holo-
type from Pemberton Marl Company quarry, distal portion of right tibiotarsus, Yale Pea-
body Mus. no. 820).-Shufeldt, 1915, Trans. Connecticut Acad. Arts Sci., vol. 19, p. 21,
pl. 2, fig. 10 (type restudied).-Cracraft, 1973, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 151, p.
46, fig. 20 (type restudied).
UPPER CRETACEOUS (lower part of Hornerstown Formation, late Maestrichtian age).
NEW JERSEY: Burlington County: Birmingham.
Type by monotypy of genus Laornis Marsh (loc. cit.) and family Laornithidae Cracraft
(op. cit., p. 44).
Marsh described it in the "Order Natatores" and thought it related to the Anatidae. Shu-
feldt said it was not a swimmer and implied relationship with cranes or other large waders. Fol-
lowing this lead, Cracraft erected a new family in the suborder Ralli.
Examination of the published photographs shows that the distal end of the external con-
dyle is unnotched, a condition that eliminates the Ralliformes, Ciconiae, and Phoenicopteri. An
unnotched condyle is present in the Pelecaniformes, Ardeae, Anseriformes, Accipitriformes,
Galliformes, and Charadriiformes, but the photographs are inadequate to permit ordinal assign-
ment of the fossil. If I had to make a guess, it would be Pelecaniformes.

16. Laurillardia longirostris Milne-Edwards
Laurillardia longirostris Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, sig. 47, p. 374, pl. 161,
fig. 1 holotypee from Montmartre, skeleton impression, Paris Mus.).
UPPER EOCENE (Gypse de Montmartre). FRANCE: Paris: Montmartre.
Type by original designation of genus Laurillardia Milne-Edwards. Apparently a member
of one of the higher orders.

17. Laurillardia munieri Flot

Laurillardia munieri Flot, 1891, M6m. Soc. G6ol. France, Pal6ont. M6m., no. 7, text-fig. 3, pl.
18, fig. 3 holotypee from Montmorency, skeleton impression).
UPPER EOCENE (Gypse de Montmartre). FRANCE: Seine-et-Oise: Montmorency.

18. Laurillardia parisiensis Flot

Laurillardia parisiensis Flot, 1891, M6m. Soc. G6ol. France, Pal6ont. M6m., no. 7, p. 1, text-fig.
1, pl. 18, figs. 1-2 (type from Montmorency, skeleton impression and counter plate).
UPPER EOCENE (Gypse de Montmartre). FRANCE: Seine-et-Oise: Montmorency.
Flot places the genus between the Turdidae and Sturnidae.

19. Macrornis tanaupus Seeley

Macrornis tanaupus Seeley, 1866, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. 18, p. 110 holotypee from
Hordwell, proximal part of right tibiotarsus, Woodwardian Mus.).
UPPER EOCENE (Hordwell beds). ENGLAND: Hampshire: Hordwell.
Type of genus Macrornis Seeley (loc. cit.).
Said to be a struthious bird as large as an emu, but showing similarities to some waders
and gallinaceous birds.

20. Marinavis longirostris Harrison and Walker

Marinavis longirostris Harrison and Walker, 1977 (Sept.), Tertiary Research Special Paper, no.
3, p. 6, fig. 1 holotypee from Abbey Wood, fragment of right dentary and associated frag-
ment of left edge of rostrum, Brit. Mus. no. Z4267; paratype terminal hook of premaxilla,
no. A4268; referred left carpometacarpus, no. A4233).
LOWER EOCENE (Blackheath beds). ENGLAND: Kent: Abbey Wood.


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BRODKORB: CATALOCUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


Type species of genus Marinacis Harrison and Walker and family Marinavidae Harri-
son and Walker (loc. cit.).
Described in order Procellariiformes with similarities to Pelecaniformes. Better material
is needed for definite assignment to a major taxon.

21. Mfetapteryx bifrons DeVis

Metapteryx bifrons DeVis, 1892, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, ser. 2, vol. 6, p. 453, pl. 23,
fig. 8 holotypee from Queensland, juvenile tarsometatarsus, Queensland Mus.).
UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Nototherium beds). QUEENSLAND.
Type by monotypy of the genus Metapteryx DeVis.
Described in the family Apterygidae, but almost certainly a partly grown emu.

22. Miocorvus larteti (Milne-Edwards)

Corvus larteti Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, sig. 48, p. 381, pls. 151-152, 153,
fig. 21 (types from Sansan, tarsometatarsus, tibiotarsus, ends of femur, coracoid, scapula,
humerus, ulna, carpometacarpus, phalanges, quadrate).-Miocorax larteti Lambrecht,
1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 636.-Miocorvus larteti Lambrecht, op. cit., p. 1005 (in index).
UPPER MIOCENE (Sansan limestone, Helvetian). FRANCE: Gers: Sansan.
Generic type of Miocorax Lambrecht (op. cit., p. 636), preoccupied by Miocorax Lani-
brecht (p. 291) for a cormorant. "Corrected" to Miocorvus on p. 1005 (in index) and on p. 1024
(Druckfehler).
Needs restudy.

23. Motacilla humata Milne-Edwards

Motacilla humata Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 390, pl. 158, figs. 7-11; pl.
159, figs. 10-11 (type from Langy, tibiotarsus, Paris Mus.).
LOWER MIOCENE (Aquatanian). FRANCE: Allier: environs of Langy.

24. Motacilla major Milne-Edwards

Motacilla major Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 391, pl. 158, figs. 1-6; pl. 159,
figs. 13-14 (types from Langy, tarsometatarsus, tibiotarsus, Paris Mus.).
LOWER MIOCENE (Aquatanian). FRANCE: Allier: Langy.
Lambrecht (1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 641) pointed out that the plate showed the hypo-
tarsus open, unlike the condition in Passeres.

25. Onychopteryx simpsoni Cracraft

Onychopteryx simpsoni Cracraft, 1971 (April), Ibis, vol. 113, no. 2, p. 230, pl. 9 holotypee from
Cafiadon Hondo, proximal end of right tarsometatarsus, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., no. 3188).
LOWER EOCENE (Casamayor Formation). ARGENTINA: Chubut: Cafiadon Hondo near Paso
Niemann, south of Rio Chico del Chubut).
Type by original designation of genus Onychopteryx Cracraft (p. 230) and family Ony-
chopterygidae (p. 229). Described in "order" Opisthocomiformes, to which it seems unrelated.

26. Palaeoupterodytes ictus (Ameghino)

Apterodytes ictus Ameghino, 1901, Anales Soc. Cient. Argentina, vol. 51, p. 81 holotypee from
Colfo de San Jorge, proximal part of right humerus, Mus. Argentino Ciencias Naturales,
Buenos Aires, unnumbered).-Simpson, 1946, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 87, art. 1,
pp. 31, 49 (species indeterminate; pathological?).
Palaeoapterodytes ictus Ameghino, 1905, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, vol. 13, p. 120, pl. 3,
fig. 16 (descr., meas.).-Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 229 holotypee seems
broken, not atrophied).-Brodkorb, 1963, Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 7, no. 4, p. 236








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


(as synonym of Palaeospheniscus gracilis).-Simpson, 1972, Amer. Mus. Novitates, no.
2488, p. 29 holotypee is broken and abraded, not pathological, but is indeterminate be-
yond family level).
MIOCENE (upper Patagonian). ARGENTINA: Golfo de San Jorge.
Type of genus Apterodytes Ameghino, 1901 (preoccupied by Apterodytes Hermann, 1783).
Type of genus Palaeoapterodytes Ameghino, 1905 (loc. cit.).
Probably a synonym of an earlier described species of Spheniscidae.

27. Palaeolestes gorei DeVis

Palaeolestes gorei DeVis, 1911, Ann. Queensland Mus., no. 10, p. 15, pl. 2, figs. 4-6 holotypee
from Yandilla, toe phalanx, Queensland Mus.).
UPPER PLEISTOCENE (Darling Downs Clay). AUSTRALIA: Queensland: Yandilla.
Type by monotypy of genus Palaeolestes De Vis (loc. cit.).
Described as a member of the Accipitres, but it is doubtfully avian.

28. Palaeospiza bella Allen

Palaeospiza bella J. A. Allen, 1878 (3 May), Bull. U.S. Geol. Geogr. Surv., vol. 4, no. 2, p. 443,
pl. 1 holotypee from Florissant, skeleton on plate and counter plate, now in Mus. Comp.
Zool., Harvard Univ.).-Wetmore, 1925, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 67, no. 2, text-figs.
1-2, pls. 1-4 (type restudied).
UPPER MIOCENE (Florissant Lake Beds). COLORADO: Teller County: Florissant.
Type by monotypy of genus Palacospiza Allen (loc. cit.) and family Palaeospizidae Wet-
more (op. cit., p. 190).
Usually treated as a primitive oscine passeriform, but even the ordinal assignment may be
incorrect.

29. Palaeotringa vetus Marsh

Palaeotringa vetus Marsh, 1870 (March), Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 49, no. 146, p. 209 (holo-
type from Arneytown, three fragments of distal portion of left tibiotarsus, Acad. Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia).-Shufeldt, 1915, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci., vol. 19, p. 24, pl. 8, fig. 59
(type restudied).
UPPER CRETACEOUS (Navesink Formation). NEW JERSEY: Burlington County: Arneytown.
Appears to be indeterminate.

30. Pelophilus radoboyensis Tschudi

Pelophilus radoboyensis Tschudi, 1839, M6m. Soc. Sci. Neuchatel, vol. 2, art. 3, pp. 22, 47, 84,
pl. 1, fig. 2 holotypee from Radoboj, impression of legs, K. Hof-Mineralienkabinet, Wien).-
Fringilla? radoboyensis H. von Meyer, 1865 (Aug.), Palaeontographica, vol. 14, no. 3,
p. 125, pl. 30, fig. 1 (new name for Pelophilus radoboyensis Tschudi).
UPPER MIOCENE (diatomite beds). RUMANIA: Croatia: Radoboj.
The generic type, Pelophilus agassizi Tschudi, is a large toad from the Upper Miocene
Oeningen chalk of Baden, Germany. Pelophilus radoboyensis was also described by Tschudi
as a member of the Anura. Meyer renamed it Fringilla? radoboyensis when he transferred it
tentatively to Fringillidae. While it is avian, the family cannot be determined from the very
poor figure.

31. Piscator tenuirostris Harrison and Walker

Piscator tenuirostris Harrison and Walker, 1976 (Dec.), Zool. Jour. Linn. Soc., vol. 59, p. 328,
pl. 2, figs. A-D holotypee from Hordle, anterior end of premaxilla, Brit. Mus. no. A146).
UPPER EOCENE (Hordwell beds). ENGLAND: Hampshire: Hordle (Hordwell). Described
in Phalacrocoracidae.


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1978


BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


32. Ptenornis Seeley

Ptenornis Seeley, 1866, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. 18, p. 109 (sternal end of right cora-
coid, Woodwardian Mus., Cambridge; no species name included).
LOWER TERTIARY. ENGLAND: Isle of Wight: Hempstead.

.33. Sitta? curieri Gervais

Sitta? cuvieri Gervais, 1852, Zoologie et paldontologie frangaise, ed. 1, p. 228, pl. 50, fig. 2 (holo-
type from Montmartre, obverse and reverse skeleton impression, Paris Mus.).-Palaegi-
thalus cuvieri Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 378, pl. 161, figs. 2-3
(type restudied).-Palaegithalus (?) curcieri Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 640
(placed in Paridae).
UPPER EOCENE (Gypse de Montmarte). FRANCE: Paris: Montmartre.
Type by monotypy of genus Palaegithalus Milne-Edwards (loc. cit.). Family uncertain;
does not belong in Sittidae.

34. Sitta senogalliensis Portis

Sitta senogalliensis Portis, 1888, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 184, fig. 3 (type
from Sinigaglia, skeleton impression lacking legs and pelvis).
LOWER PLIOCENE (Messiniano). ITALY: Sinigaglia.
Needs restudy.

35. Turdicus tennis Kretzoi

Turdicus tenuis Kretzoi, 1962 (Feb.), Aquila, vol. 67-68, p. 173 holotypee from Betfia 5, eroded
left coracoid, Mus. Oradea, no. 3).
UPPER LOWER PLEISTOCENE (Biharian). RUMANIA: Bihar: Betfia 5.
Size of Turdus ciscirorus, but more slender; procoracoid long and slender, with double
medial margin. Species dubia. Type by monotypy of genus Turdicus Kretzoi.

36. Turdus bresciensis Giebel

Turdus bresciensis Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1, pt. 2, pp. 13, 39 holotypee from
Rizza, humerus).
UPPER PLEISTOCENE (bone breccia). SARDINIA: Rizza.
The statement that the humerus is similar in size and form to that of T. merula or T.
pilaris cannot qualify as a diagnosis, but Giebel's reference to Rudolph Wagner's illustration
(1832, Abhandl. k. bayr. Akad. Wiss., vol. 1, pp. 751-786, pl. 2, fig. 57) saves this from being a
nomen nudum. It probably is a synonym of some living species.



INDICIA AvIUM

Feather impressions, egg shells, and footprints add to our knowledge of
the history of birds. Although they are indeterminable specifically, gener-
ically, and in some cases at any taxonomic level below class, some have been
given generic and specific names. These nomina vana are treated below in
three groupings, Plumae, Putamina Ovorum, and Vestigia Avium.
A few of the multitude of names applied to the notorious Triassic and
earlier "foot marks of birds (Ornithichnites)" are included in the section en-
titled Nomina non Avium.








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


PLUMAE

Three generic and six specific names have been based on feather impres-
sions, none identifiable at those levels.



1. Archaeopteryx lithographica Meyer
Archaeopteryx lithographica Hermann von Meyer, 1861 (after 11 Oct., before 9 Nov.), Neues
Jahrb. Geognos., Geol., Petref.-Kunde, Jahrg. 1861, no. 5, p. 679 holotypee from Solen-
hofen [now Solnhofen], obverse of left remex, now in Geol.-Pal. Abt., Mus. f. Naturkunde,
Berlin; reverse now in Pal. Staatssammlung, Miinchen; no descr. but based on short
descr. and meas. in Meyer, after 30 Sept. 1861, op. cit., p. 561).-Meyer, 1862, Palaeon-
tographica, vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 53, pl. 8, fig. 3 (descr. holotype feather).-Lambrecht, 1933,
Handb. Palaeorn., p. 80, fig. 29 (reverse of holotype).-Ostrom, 1970, Science, vol. 170,
p. 537 holotypee said to be probably not identifiable at any taxonomic level).
Archeopteryx [sic] lithographic Owen, 1864, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, p. 33 holotypee
said to be not specifically identifiable).
UPPER JURASSIC (middle Kimmeridgian, Solnhofen limestone). BAVARIA: Solnhofen (exact
locality unknown).
Type by monotypy of the nominal genus Archaeopteryx Meyer (loc. cit.), the nominal
family Archaeopterygidae Huxley (1872) and the nominal order Archaeopterygiformes FOir-
bringer (1888).
Transferred from Part 1 of the Catalogue. The holotype and only specimen is much
smaller than the other known Jurassic remiges.

2. Fontinalis pristine Lesquereux
Fontinalis pristine Lesquereux, 1883, Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., vol. 8, p. 135, pl. 21, fig. 9
holotypee from Florissant, "moss," U. S. Nat. Mus.).-Knowlton, 1916, Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus., vol. 51, p. 245 (type is a feather fragment, not a moss).-Wetmore, 1925, Bull. Mus.
Comp. Zool., vol. 67, no. 2, p. 184 (Aves incertae sedis).
MIDDLE OLIGOCENE (Florissant lake beds). COLORADO: Teller County: Florissant.
Type by monotypy of the nominal genus Fontinalis Lesquereux.

3. Ornitholithes bosniaskii Portis
Ornitholithes bosniaskii Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 189, figs. 9-10
(syntypes from Ancona, 2 feathers in coll. Cav. Sigismondo de Bosniaski; 1 unfigured
feather in Museo di Pisa).
LOWER PLIOCENE (Messiniano). ITALY: Prov. Livorno: Ancona.

4. Ornitholithes faujasi Zigno
Ornitholithes faujasi Zigno [MS.], Omboni, 1885, Atti R. Ist. Veneto Sci. Lett. Arti, ser. 6, vol.
3, p. 772, pl. 12, figs. 1-3 (syntypes from V6stena Nuova, 2 feathers, Paris Mus.).
MIDDLE EOCENE (Lutetian). ITALY: Verona: Monte Bolca: V6stena Nuova.
Ornitholithes was proposed as a French vernacular by Gervais in his thesis (1844, Re-
marques sur les Oiseaux Fossiles, pp. 5-7 et seq.) for all fossil remains of birds, whether of bones
(for which he erected the form genus Osteornis to include those not specifically identifiable),
footprints (for which he adopted Hitchcock's form genus Ornithichnites), feathers, or eggs.
Ornitholithes is apparently a translation of Ornitholithus Linnaeus (1768, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol.
3, p. 157), used in the same sense, although Gervais fails to cite Linnaeus.
The Italian paleontologists Zigno, Omboni, and Portis later used Ornitholithes exclusively
for fossil feathers. As I have been unable to find an earlier use of this name as a form genus, I
hereby designate 0. faujasi Zigno as type of the form genus Ornitholithes Zigno (in Omboni,
1885).


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BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


5. Ornitholithes gabbrensis Portis

Ornitholithes gabbrensis Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 192, figs. 13-17
(syntypes from Gabbro, 5 feathers in coll. Sigismondo de Boniaski; an additional feather
said to be in Museo Geologico di Bologna on authority of Capellini).
LOWER PLIOCENE (Messiniano). ITALY: Livorno: Gabbro.

6. Ornitholithes procaccinii Portis

Ornitholithes procaccinii Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 188, figs. 5-8
holotypee from San Angelo, feather in coll. Prof. Scarabelli, Bologna).
LOWER PLIOCENE (Messiniano). ITALY: Sinigaglia: San Angelo.

7. Ornitholithes tenuipennis Zigno

Ornitholithes tenuipennis Zigno [MS.], Omboni, 1885, Atti R. Ist. Veneto Sci. Lett. Arti, ser.
6, vol. 3, p. 772, pl. 13, figs. 4-7 (syntypes from Monte Bolca, 2 feathers in coll. Achille
De Zigno; 1 feather in Geol. Coll., Univ. Padova).
MIDDLE EOCENE (Lutetian). ITALY: Verona: Monte Bolca.



PUTAMINA OVORUM


Two generic and 10 specific names of birds have been proposed on the
basis of egg shells or their fragments, all of ratite size. In the present stage of
our knowledge it is very doubtful that assignment finer than family can be
made in the absence of association with identifiable osteological remains.


1. Aepyornis grandidieri Rowley

Aepyornis grandidieri Rowley, 1868 (Apr.), Proc. Zool. Soc. for 1867, pt. 3, p. 892 holotypee
from Cape Ste. Marie, egg shell fragment, coll. Alfred Grandidier).
QUATERNARY. MADAGASCAR: Cape Sainte Marie.

2. Psammornis lybicus Moltoni

Psammornis lybicus Moltoni, 1928, Ann. Museo Civico Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria, vol. 52,
p. 399, fig. (not seen by me, orthography from Lambrecht; holotype from Giarabub, egg
shell fragment, Mus. Civico Giacomo Doria, Genoa, no. MSNG 25 172).
Psammornis libycus Sauer, 1969, Bonner Zool. Beitrage, vol. 20, no. 1-3, p. 293, figs. 6-8 (not
separable from Struthio).
CENOZOIC (sand dune). LIBYA: Giarabub.

3. Psammornis rothschildi Andrews

Psammornis rothschildi Andrews, 1911, Ver. 5 Internat. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 1910, p. 169 (syn-
types from east of Touggourt, egg shell fragments, Brit. Mus. no. A 1334, and Tring
Mus.).-Sauer, 1969, op. cit., p. 292, figs. 1-5 (not separable from Struthio).
CENOZOIC (sand dune). ALGERIA: Touggourt.
Type by monotypy of the nominal genus Psammornis Andrews.

4. Struthio anderssoni Lowe

Struthio anderssoni Lowe, 1931 (Oct.), Palaeontologia Sinica, ser C, vol. 6, fasc. 4, p. 26, text-








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


fig. 2 (syntypes from banks of Hwang Ho, complete egg shell, Brit. Mus. no. A. 1308, and
2 complete egg shells in Tring Mus.).
PLEISTOCENE loesss). CHINA: Honan province: banks of Hwang Ho at Wuan, Ho-Yin-
Hsien, Hsin-An-Hsien, and Mien-Chih-Hsien. Shansi province: P'ing-Lu-Hsien (Uppsala Mu-
seum).

5. Struthio indicus Bidwell
Struthio indicus Bidwell, 1904, Ibis, ser. 9, vol. 4, p. 760, fig. 7 (syntypes from Nullas, 3 egg shell
fragments in Brit. Mus., 2 in Tring Mus., 1 in Calcutta Mus.).
LOWER PLIOCENE? (Siwalik series). INDIA: Uttar Pradesh: Nullas (on Kain River, SW of
Allahabad).

6. Struthio mongolicus Lowe
Struthio mongolicus Lowe, 1931 (Oct.), Palaeontologia Sinica, ser. C, vol. 6, fasc. 4, p. 34, pl. 4,
fig. 5 (syntypes in Uppsala Mus., 15 egg shell fragments from Ertemte, 25 fragments from
Olan Chorea, 2 fragments from Doshen, and 1 fragment from Tjel-gol-Tabool; figured
fragment is from Olan Chorea).
LOWER PLIOCENE (Ertemte stage). MONGOLIA: Olan Chorea, Ertemte, Doshen, and Tjel-
gol-Tabool.

7. Struthio oshanai Sauer
Struthio oshanai Sauer, 1966, Cimebasia, no. 14, p. 18, figs. 2-15 holotypee from Beisebvlakte,
egg shell fragment, State Museum Windhoek, no. PA 15340; 82 referred fragments).
PLIOCENE OR PLEISTOCENE? (well core at depth of 114 feet). NIMIBIA (formerly SOUTH
WEST AFRICA): Etosha Pan: Beisebvlakte.

8. Struthiolithus adzalycensis Roshin
Struthiolithus adzalycensis Roshin, 1962, Trudy Odesskogo um-ta im. I. I. Mechnikova, vol. 152,
ser. geol.-geog. Nauk, no. 8 holotypee from Buldyka, entire egg shell; reference from
Ganya and Kurochkin, 1967, Mesto i Znachenie Iskopaemykh Mlekopitayushikh Mol-
davii v Kainozoe SSSR, p. 106).
LOWER PLIOCENE. UKRAINE: village of Buldyka (near Odessa).

9. Struthiolithus alexejevi Roshin
Struthiolithus alexejevi Roshin, 1962, Trudy Odesskogo Mechnikova, vol. 152, no. 8 holotypee
from Buldyka, entire egg shell; reference from Ganya and Kurochkin, loc. cit.).
LOWER PLIOCENE. UKRAINE: village of Buldyka (near Odessa).

10. Struthiolithus chersonensis Brandt
Struthiolithus chersonensis Alexander von Brandt, 1873, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, vol. 18,
p. 158 holotypee from near Malinkova, egg shell fragments, present whereabouts un-
known).-Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 104 (history of holotype).-Burchak-
Abramovich and Vekua, 1971, Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 22 (age
uncertain).
LOWER PLIOCENE? UKRAINE: Kherson province: near village of Malinkova. Type of genus
Struthiolithus Brandt, by monotypy.

VESTIGIA AVIUM

This section includes two generic and six specific names based on fossil
footprints that are apparently traces of birds of Cretaceous or Tertiary age. It


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


does not include the numerous Triassic and Jurassic "ornithichnites" originally
thought to have been made by birds but now known to be of amphibian or rep-
tilian origin. Naming footprints has muddied the taxonomic literature badly.



1. Antarctichnus fuenzalidae Coacevich and Lamperein
Antarctichnus fuenzalidae Coacevich and Lamperein, 1970, Inst. Antdrtico Chileno Ser. Cient.,
vol. 1, no. 1, p. 68, text-fig. 6, pis. 2-3 holotypee from Peninsula Fildes, 3 imprints of a
pair of tracks of both feet, Inst. Antart. Chileno, no. IRJ 8; 3 paratypes and 7 other track-
ways).
OLIGOCENE or MIOCENE (Unit 4 interbedded in volcanic tuff with Nothofagus and other
plants). SOUTH SHETLAND ARCHIPELAGO: King George Island: 1200 meters south of Base Presi-
dente Frei.
Type by original designation of the nominal genus Antarctichnus Coacevich and Lam-
perein (p. 66). Described in the family Rallidae.

2. Ignotornis mcconnelli Mehl

Ignotornis mcconnelli Mehl, 1931 (May), Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 5, vol. 21, no. 125, p. 494, fig. 1
holotypee from near Golden, trackway of 3 left and 3 right footprints, Univ. Colorado
Mus., Boulder, no. 17614).
UPPER CRETACEOUS (Dakota Sandstone, Cenomanian age). COLORADO: Jefferson County:
11/2 miles northwest of Golden.
Type by original designation of the nominal genus Ignotornis Mehl (p. 443). Not cer-
tainly avian.

3. Ornithichnites argenterae Portis
Ornitichnites [sic] argenterae Portis, 1879, Atti R. Accad. Sci. Torino, vol. 15, p. 221, pl. 15 (holo-
type from Argentera, track, Istituto Geologico di Bologna).
UPPER EOCENE (Liguriano). ITALY: Piemonte: Argentera.
Portis consistently misspelled Ornithichnites and did not intend to propose a new genus.

4. Ornithichnites taurinus Portis

"Ornitichniti di Verrua (collina di Torino)" Portis, 1879, Atti R. Accad. Sci. Torino, vol. 15, p.
381 (descr. bird tracks).
Ornitichnites [sic] taurinus Portis, 1888, Mem. Accad. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 38, p. 201 (holo-
type from Verrua, but the name is based on the tracks described in 1879).
UPPER EOCENE (Liguriano). ITALY: Piemonte: Verrua Savoja on Collina di Torino.

5. Ornithoidichnites badensis Bohm

Ornithoidichnites badensis B6hm, 1896, Freiburger Universitaits-Festprogramm zum seibzigsten
Geburtstag seiner Kbniglichen Hoheit des Grossherzogs Friedrich, p. 229, fig. (type from
Bellingen, 10 3-toed tracks, Mus. Badischen Geologischen Landesanstalt).
UPPER OLIGOCENE (Cyrene marl, Chattian age). GERMANY: Baden-Wuirttemberg: Kreiss
Lorrach: Bellingen.

6. Urmiornis abeli Lambrecht

Urmiornis abeli Lambrecht, 1938, Palaeobiologica, vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 242, pl. 19 holotypee from
Jebel Hamrin, 3 footprints).
PLIOCENE (upper level of lower Fars beds). IRAN: Jebel Hamrin.








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


NOMINA NUDA

1. Anas arcensis Kretzoi, 1962, Aquila, vol. 67-68, p. 170 (hill on Royal Palace grounds,
Budapest, Hungary).
2. Anas crecca Milne-Edwards, 1871, Oiseaux Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 573 (Aquitanian,
Lower Miocene, Langy, France).
3. Anas macroptera Milne-Edwards, 1871, op. cit., p. 573 (Aquitanian, Langy, France).
4. Anser brumeli Milne-Edwards, 1871, op. cit., p. 585 (Helvetian, Middle Miocene,
Faluns de Suevres, France).
5. Anser eldaricus Burchak-Abramovich and Gadzier, in Anslanova and Burchak-Abram-
ovich, 1968 (30 July), Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, vol. 13, no. 14, pp. 326, 335 (Upper Sar-
matian, Lower Pliocene Hipparion fauna, Eldar, Georgian SSR).
6. Archaeopteryx vicensis Anonymous, in Lambrecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 80
(Vicensa, Italy). A pterosaur, fide Otto Kleinschmidt.
7. Ardea effosa Lepsius, 1887, Geologie von Deutschland, p. 623 (Lower Miocene,
Weisenau, Germany).
8. Ardeafornnosa Milne-Edwards, op. cit., p. 572 (Aquitanian, Langy, France).
9. Ardea latipes Lepsius, 1887, Geologie von Deutschland, p. 623 (Lower Miocene,
Weisenau, Germany).
10. Argala arvernensis Milne-Edwards, 1871, op. cit., p. 572 (Aquitanian, Langy,
France).
11. Biziura latouri Forbes, 1891, Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 24, p. 188 (Quaternary,
New Zealand, Brit. Mus.). A synonym of Recent Biziura lobata (Shaw) fide Harrison and Walker
(1970, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 6-10, pl. 1).
12. Carbo risgoviensis Oskar Fraas, in Engel, 1908, Geologischen Handweiser durch
Wiirttemberg, ed. 3, p. 567 (Upper Miocene Ries chalk, the Spitzberg, Germany, Stuttgart
Mus.).
13. Gallus steinheimensis Theodor Fraas, in Engel, 1908, op. cit., p. 567 (Upper Mio-
cene, Steinheim, Germany, Stuttgart Mus.).
14. Gypaetus osseticus Burchak-Abramovich, 1973, Theses of Reports presented to IV
All-Union Conference of Quaternary Period, p. 82 paleolithicc, Georgian SSR).
15. Himantopus brevipes Milne-Edwards, 1871, Ois. Foss. France, vol. 2, p. 572 (Aqui-
tanian, Langy, France).
16. Osteornis scolopacinus Gervais, 5 Aug. 1844, Remarques sur les Oiseaux Fossiles,
p. 38, cf. also p. 12 (Cretaceous [i.e. Oligocene], Glaris canton, Switzerland, skeleton of passerine
bird size of a lark; no descr., based on report by Meyer, 1839, Jahrb. f. Min., pp. 684-685, which
also has no descr.). Later called Protornis glarniensis Meyer, also a nomen nudum.
17. Otis agilis Milne-Edwards, 1871, op. cit., p. 572 (Aquitanian, Langy, France).
18. Palaeocicomia Romer, 1966, Vert. Paleontology, ed. 3, p. 376. An apparent lapsus
for Palaeociconia Moreno and Mercerat.
19. Paleortyx media Milne-Edwards, 1871, op. cit., p. 571 (Aquitanian, Langy, France).
20. Palaetus rapax Milne-Edwards, 1871, op. cit., p. 571 (Aquitanian, Langy, France).
The generic name is also a nomen nudum.
21. Parapavo oklahomensis Stovall and Sandoz, 1936, Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci., vol.
16, p. 77 (Chicakasha, Oklahoma, horizon not indicated, left tarsometatarsus with complete
spur core, Univ. Okla. Mus. Paleo. no. 4500). Abstract only, no description.
22. Phalacrocorax major Forbes, 1892, Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 24, p. 189 (Pleis-
tocene, New Zealand).
23. Phasianus nicheti Gaillard, in Bastin, Apr. 1933, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Ardennes, vol.
28, no. 30, p. 52 (Pleistocene, Grotte de Nichet at Fromelennes. Ardennes, France).
24. Protornis glarniensis Meyer, 1844, Jahrb. f. Min., p. 338 (Cretaceous [Oligocene],
Glaris, Switzerland). Later described as Protornis glaronensis Meyer.
25. Titanornis Romer, 1966, Vert. Paleontology, ed. 3, p. 376. Apparent lapsus for Ti-
tanis Brodkorb.
26. Tomodus Romer, 1966, Vert. Paleontology, ed. 3, p. 376. Preoccupied by Tomodus
Trautschold, 1879, and by Tomodus Davis, 1883. An apparent lapsus for Tolmodus Ameghino.


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


NOMINA NON AVIUM

This section enumerates taxa described in Aves but belonging elsewhere.
It is a witches' brew whose ingredients include a catfish skull, some moss,
bones of flying dragons, a wooden fetish, the snout of a crocodile, a rat's foot,
the Leviathan's hip bone, toe nails of an anteater, dinosaur traces, bits of the
Loch Ness monster, vestiges of the Flood, and other scarce commodities.
I have included names founded on the "bird tracks" described by Edward
Hitchcock under the terms Ornithichnites and Ornithoidichnites as for the
most part they were based on described and figured specimens. Many authors
have refused to accept these and their binomials as generic and specific terms
because his practice of repeatedly changing names was so capricious. Fortu-
nately for avian paleontology all the tracks named by Hitchcock are from de-
posits that long antedate the origin of birds.

1. Alabamornis gigantea Abel, 1906 (Aug. 1), Centralblatt f. Min. Geol. Pal., no. 15, p.
458, figs. 3-4 (Upper Eocene Jackson Formation, Choctaw County, Alabama, U. S. Nat. Mus.).
Type by monotypy of the genus Alabamornis Abel. Described as the coracoid of a giant pen-
guin, it is the pelvis of Basilosaurus cetoides (Owen), a zeuglodon, Cetacea, Basilosauridae (see
Lucas, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, p. 327, pls. 5-7; Richmond, 1917, op. cit., vol. 53,
p. 575).
2. Aquila antique Shufeldt, 1913 (4 Aug.), Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 32, art. 16,
p. 297, pl. 55, fig. 26 holotypee from Church Buttes, Wyoming, Eocene Bridger Formation,
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. no. 5164, claw core). Type of genus Minerva Shufeldt, 1915, Trans. Conn.
Acad. Arts Sci., vol. 19, p. 42, pl. 15, figs. 131-136, 148-152a-b, 154a-i. Shufeldt described it as
an eagle, then transferred it to the owls, but Wetmore (1933, Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 680,
p. 1) showed it to be from an edentate mammal, probably of the same species as Aquila ferox.
3. Aquila ferox Shufeldt, 1913, op. cit., p. 297 holotypee from Henrys Fork, Wyoming,
Lower Eocene Bridger Formation, claw core and median phalanx, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., no.
5163). Shufeldt also described this as belonging to an eagle and then placed it in his supposed
genus of owls, Minerva, but it is probably from the same species of edentate mammal as Aquila
antique (see Wetmore, loc. cit.).
4. Bradycnemne draculae Harrison and Walker, Aug. 1975, Palaeontology, vol. 18, p. 565,
text-fig. Ic, pl. 65, figs. 1-5 holotypee from Sz6ntpeterfalva, Hatszeg, Transylvania, Romania,
Upper Cretaceous, Maestrichtian, distal end of right tibiotarsus, Brit. Mus. no. A 1588). Type by
original designation of genus Bradycneme Harrison and Walker (p. 565) and family Bradycnemi-
dae Harrison and Walker (p. 564). Described in order Strigiformes. The holotype had been
doubtfully referred to Elopteryx nopcsai by Andrews (1913, Geol. Mag., n.s., decade 5, vol. 10,
no. 5, p. 195), but it almost certainly represents a theropod dinosaur.
5. Bucklandium diluvii C. D. E. Koenig, "1825"= 1838, Icones Fossiles Sectiles, Cen-
turia Prima, fig. 91 (Isle of Sheppey, Kent, England, London Clay, Upper Paleocene, Brit. Mus.).
Type by monotypy of genus Bucklandium. Originally described as from a web-footed water
bird, it is a skull of the oldest known catfish according to A. S. Woodward (1932, Text-book of
Palaeontology, 2nd English ed. of Zittel, p. 158).
6. Caenagnathus collins R. M. Sternberg, Jan. 1940, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 14, no. 1,
p. 81, figs. 1-5 holotypee lower jaw from southeast of mouth of Sand Creek, Steveville area,
south-central Alberta, Canada, Pale beds of Belly River series, Upper Cretaceous, Campanian
age, Geol. Surv. Canada no. 8776). Type by monotypy of genus Caenagnathus, family Caenag-
nathidae, and order Caenagnathiformes (loc. cit.). Chaenagnathus W. K. Gregory (1951, Evolu-
tion Emerging, vol. 1, p. 322), and Caenognathus and Caenognathidae (T. E. White, 1973, An-
nals Carnegie Mus., vol. 44, no. 9) are misspellings. A coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur near
Oviraptor in family Ornithomimidae (see Brodkorb, 1976, Smithsonian Contr. Paleobiology, no.
27, p. 67).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


7. Caenagnathus sternbergi Cracraft, Sept. 1971, Jour. Paleontology vol. 45, no. 2, p.
806, fig. 2 holotypee posterior end of right mandibular ramus, Steveville locality, Alberta, Upper
Cretaceous, Nat. Mus. Canada no. 2690). Somewhat smaller than C. collins.
8. Cimoliornis diomedeus Owen, 1846 (preface dated Feb.), Hist. Brit. Foss. Mam. &
Birds, p. 545, figs. 230-231 (Cretaceous Wealden Formation, Neocomian age, near Maidstone,
England, distal end of tibia, shaft of wing bone). Type by monotypy of Cimoliornis Owen. A
pterosaur, possibly synonymous with Ornithocheirus Seeley, 1866, over which it has priority.
9. Cretornis hlavaci Anton Fritsch, 1881, Sitzungsber. B6hm. Ges. Wiss. for 1880, p.
275 (Upper Cretaceous bird wing bones, Bohemia).-Cretornis hlavatschi A. S. Woodward,
1932, Text-Book Palaeontology, 2nd English ed. of Zittel, vol. 2, p. 423 (Pterosauria, Ornitho-
cheiridae).
10. Diatryma (?) filifera Cockerell, 1923 (16 March), Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 62, p. 4,
fig. IB-C (Eocene, above Seller's ranch, Roan Creek, western Colorado, 2 slabs with supposed
feather impressions). Moss filaments, not feathers (W. N. Edwards, 7 July 1923, Nature, vol.
112, p. 9).
11. Dromaeus (?) sivalensis Lydekker, 1879, Records Geol. Surv. India, vol. 12, pt. 1,
p. 53.-Lydekker, 1884, Palaeontologia Indica, ser. 10, vol. 3, pt. 4, p. 145, figs. 2, 4-6 (Pliocene,
western Punjab, India, phalanges 1 and 2 of 4th toe).-Lydekker, 1886, op. cit., preface, p. xxiv
("the phalangeals described on pp. 145-6 really belong to an ungulate mammal allied to
Hippopotamus ").
12. Gobipteryx minute Elzanowski, 1974, Palaeontologia Polonica, p. 104, text-figs. 1-2a,
pls. 32-33 holotypee from Khulsan, Nemegt basin, Mongolia, Upper Cretaceous Barum Goyot
Formation, Campanian age, badly crushed mandible and skull lacking occipital region, Palaeo-
zool. Inst. Polish Acad. Sci. Warsaw, no. MgR-I/12).-Elzanowski, 4 Nov. 1976, Nature, vol. 264,
p. 51, figs. 1-2 (another crushed skull descr.). Type by original designation of genus Gobipteryx,
family Gobipterygidae, and order Gobipterygiformes (all on p. 104), in superorder Palaeogna-
thae. I believe this is a small dinosaur. The quadrate is totally unlike that of any bird.
13. Gryphus antiquitatis Gervais, 1844 (5 Apr.), Remarques sur les Oiseaux Fossiles
(These de G6ologie), p. 30 (ile de Lachow and coasts of Bering Sea; "appartient an group des
Vautours mais nous ignorons ses caracthres;" no descr.).-Gryphus antiquitalis [sic] Lam-
brecht, 1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 62. Based on Ami Bou6, 1837, Guide du g6ologue voyageur,
vol. 2, p. 256 (not seen by me), but this apparently refers to the woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta
antiquitatis.
14. Heptasteornis andrewsi Harrison and Walker, Aug. 1975, Palaeontology, vol. 18, p.
566, text-fig. IC, pl. 65, figs. 6-7; pl. 66, figs. 1-7 (Sz6ntpeterfalva, Hatszeg, Transylvania, Ro-
mania, Upper Cretaceous, Maestrichtian age, holotype distal end left tibiotarsus, Brit. Mus. no.
A 4359; paratype dist. end left tibiotarsus, no. A 1528). Type by original designation of genus
Heptasteornis (p. 566). Described in order Strigiformes, family Bradycnemidae, but like Brady-
cneme it too is almost certainly a theropod dinosaur and is definitely not avian.
15. Hypornithes jurassica Jaekel, 1929, Pal. Zeitschrift, vol. 11, p. 211, fig. 20 (tracks from
Upper Jurassic Solnhofen limestone, Bavaria). Type by monotypy of genus Hypornithes Jaekel.
According to Abel (1930, Palaeobiologica, vol. 3, p. 372) it is identical with Kouphichnium litho-
graphicum Oppel, the track of a coelurosaurian dinosaur of the family Comsothgnathidae.
16. Hypselornis sivalensis Lydekker, 1891, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 354 (Upper Plio-
cene, Siwalik Hills, India, phalanx 2 or right pedal digit III, Brit. Mus. no. 39733). See also
Lydekker, 1884, Palaeontologia Indica, ser. 10, vol. 3, pt. 4, p. 146, pl. 4, fig. 8. Type by mono-
typy of genus Hypselornis Lydekker, described in family Casuariidae. According to Lowe (1929,
Ibis, ser. 12, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 571, pl. 18, fig. 3) it is a crocodile.
17. Laopteryx priscus Marsh, Apr. 1891, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. 21, p. 341 (quarry
9, Como Bluff, Albany County, Wyoming, Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, holotype posterior
part of skull, Yale Peabody Mus.).-Simpson, 1926, op. cit., ser. 5, vol. 12, p. 3 (type restudied;
Marsh's descr. inaccurate; may be pterosaur rather than bird).-Laopteryx prisca Brodkorb, 1971,
Avian Biology, vol. 1, p. 29 (gender corrected; angle between basitemporal and occiput re-
sembles pterosaur not bird). Almost certainly a pterosaur.
18. Larus priscus Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1, p. 31 (the Seveckenberg near
Quedlingburg, Germany, diluvium, holotype ankle bone). It is the metatarsus of the living jerboa,
Alactaga jaculus, Dipodidae, Rodentia (Nehring, 1880, Zeitschr. Naturwiss., vol. 53, p. 524).


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


19. Leguatia gigantea Schlegel, 1858, Verslag. Mededeel. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam,
vol. 7, p. 142 (Mauritius; type a wooden model, Leiden Mus., based on the account of Le Geant
(Francois Leguat, 1708, Voyage et ventures en deux isles desertes des Indes Orientales, p. 171).
Type by monotypy of Leguatia Schlegel. For discussion see Stresemann (1923, Journ. f. Orn.,
vol. 71, pp. 158-160; 451-456; 511-512), Lambrecht (1933, Handb. Palaeorn., p. 479), and Green-
way (1958, Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World, p. 109). The bird is fictitious and so ap-
parently is Leguat. The book is an antecedent of Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe (1719).
20. Lithosteornis Gervais, 5 Aug. 1844, Remarques sur les Oiseaux Fossiles, p. 7 note
(preferable alternate to Osteornis, but considered too long a word). In the event that Lithosteornis
be considered validly proposed, I designate as its type species Osteornis ardeaceus Gervais,
which is likewise the type of Osteornis.
21. Ornithichnites caudatus Jaekel, 1929, Pal. Zeitschr., vol. 11, p. 211, fig. 20 (tracks
from Solnhofen limestone, Upper Jurassic, Bavaria. According to Abel (1930, Palaeobiologica,
vol. 3, p. 372) this is a synonym of Koupichnium lithographicum Oppel, 1862, a coelurosaurian
dinosaur of the family Compsothgnathidae.
22. Ornithichnites crassus E. Hitchcock. Listed without description by Giebel (1847,
Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 36 in text), but I have been unable to trace its place of publi-
cation by Hitchcock. It is not in Hay's Catalogues.
23. Ornithichnites culbertsonii A. T. King, Dec. 1844 (1845), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphia, vol. 2, p. 176, fig. 2 ("bird" tracks, Carboniferous, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania).
Amphibia?
24. Ornithichnites diversus E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29,
pp. 316, 319 (new Red Sandstone, Upper Triassic, Horse Race, Massachusetts, tracks). Reptilia.
25. Ornithichnites diversus clarus E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 317,
320, fig. (bird tracks, Upper Triassic Newark sandstone, Montague and Horse Race in Gill, prob-
ably also Northampton and South Hadley canal). Reptilia.
26. Ornithichnites diversus platydactylus E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29,
pp. 317, 321, fig. (Triassic bird tracks, Horse Race in Gill, Mass.). Along with 0. diversus it was
later named Steropoides elegans E. Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Assn. Amer. Geol-
ogists & Naturalists, p. 24). Reptilia.
27. Ornithichnites fulicoides E. Hitchcock, 1843, Reports 1st, 2d, 3d Meetings Assn.
Amer. Geol. & Nat., p. 258, pl. 11, fig. 3 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts). Later renamed Plesior-
nis minor E. Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Amer. Assn. Geol. Nat., p. 23). 0. fuli-
coides is type of the genus Deanea Reichenbach (1852, Avium Systema Naturale, p. xxii). Rep-
tilia.
28. Ornithichnites gallinuloides A. T. King, 1845, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia for
Dec. 1844, vol. 2, p. 176, fig. 1 (Carboniferous bird track, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania).
Amphibia?
29. Ornithichnites giganteus E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, p. 316, fig.
(Triassic tracks, Northampton, Mass., Amherst Mus.). It is the type by elimination of Ornithich-
nites Hitchcock, 1836 (Bonaparte, 1856, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 43, no. 18, p. 840). It is the
type of Eubrontes E. Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat., p. 23)
designated by Hay (1902, Bull. U.S. Geol. Surv., no. 179, p. 543). It is the type by monotypy of
Bellona Reichenbach (1852, Avium Systema Naturale, p. xxx). Reptilia.
30. Ornithichnites ingens E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 316, 319,
fig. (Triassic tracks, Horse Race in Gill, Mass.). Later called Steropoides ingens and Sillimanius
adamsanus E. Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat., p. 24). Reptilia.
31. Ornithichnites ingens minor E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 316,
319, fig. (Triassic tracks, Horse Race in Gill, Mass.).-Ornithichnites robustus E. Hitchcock, 1837,
Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 1, vol. 32, p. 175 (new name for above). Later called Argoides robustus.
Reptilia.
32. Ornithichnites minimus E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 317, 325,
fig. 9 (Triassic tracks, Horse Race in Gill, Mass.). Renamed Ornithoidichnites isodactylus E.
Hitchcock (1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p. 496, pl. 45, figs. 38-39). Hay (1902, Bull. U.S.
Geol. Surv., no. 179, p. 540) designated E. minimus as generic type of Argoides E. Hitchcock,
1845. Reptilia.
33. Ornithichnites minusculus Hitchcock, in Giebel, 1847, Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. 1,








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


pt. 2, p. 36 (bird tracks, no descr.). I have been unable to trace this name. Brontozoum minus-
culum Hitchcock, 1858 (Ichnology of New England, p. 65, pl. 11, fig. 1; pl. 40, fig. 2; pl. 41, fig. 1;
pl. 42, fig. 3; pl. 47, fig. 2) is much later. Reptilia.
34. Ornithichnites palmatus E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 317, 324,
fig. 15 (Triassic tracks, Horse Race in Gill, Mass.). Later called Sauroidichnites palmatus E. Hitch-
cock (1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p. 483, pl. 34, fig. 15) and still later renamed Palamopus
anomalus E. Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat., p. 24). Reptilia.
35. Ornithichnites tetradactylus E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 1, vol. 29, pp.
317, 323, fig. (Triassic tracks, Horse Race in Gill, Mass.). Later called Sillimanius tetradactylus
E. Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Assn. Geol. Nat., p. 24) and then renamed Ornithopus
gallinaceus E. Hitchcock (1848, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., ser. 2, vol. 3, p. 192, pl. 8, fig. 1).
Reptilia.
36. Ornithichnites tuberosus E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 1, vol. 29, pp. 316,
318, fig. (Triassic tracks, Northampton, Mass., and apparently also Horse Race). Type by mono-
typy of genus Cybele Reichenbach, Avium Syst. Nat., p. xxx). Hitchcock renamed it Brontozoun
loxonyx (1848, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., ser. 2, vol. 3, p. 172, pl. 2, figs. 1-2) and later Bronto-
zoum validum (1858, Ichnology of New England, p. 67, pl. 12, fig. 2; pls. 38-51; pl. 57, fig. 3).
Reptilia.
37. Ornithichnites tuberosus dubius E. Hitchcock, 1836, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 316,
318, fig. (Triassic tracks, Northampton, Mass.). Later renamed Ornithichnites parallels E.Hitch-
cock (1837, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 1, vol. 31, p. 175), which was still later referred to his genera
Brontozoum and Grallator. Reptilia.
38. Ornithodesmus cluniculus Seeley, 1887, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 43, p. 206
(sacrum, Wealden, Lower Cretaceous, Neocomian age, Brook, Isle of Wight, England). Type of
genus Ornithodesmus Seeley (loc. cit.), designated by Richmond, 1902, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
vol. 24, no. 1267, p. 701). Reptilia, Pterosauria, Ornithocheiridae.
39. Ornithodesmus latidens Seeley, 1887, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 43, p. 220,
pl. 12 (skull, Wealden Lower Cretaceous, Isle of Wight). Ornithocheiridae.
40. Ornithoidichnites cuneatus E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, pp.
476, 484 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut and New Jersey). Later called Grallator cuneatus (E. Hitch-
cock, 1858, Ichnology of New England, p. 72). I designate 0. cuneatus as type species of both
Ornithoidichnites Hitchcock (1841) and Grallator Hitchcock (1858), since apparently none has
been previously selected. Reptilia.
41. Ornithoidichnites danae E. Hitchcock, 1844, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 47, p. 306, pl. 3,
fig. 5 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts). Reptilia.
42. Ornithoidichnites deanii E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p. 493,
pl. 42, figs. 31-32 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut). Reptilia.
43. Ornithoidichnites delicatulus E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p.
497, p. 45, fig. 40 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut). Later called Calopus delicatula E. Hitchcock
(1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Assoc. Amer. Geol. Nat., p. 25). Reptilia.
44. Ornithoidichnites divaricatus E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p.
495, pl. 44, figs. 36-37; pl. 48, fig. 63 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts).-Ornithopus loripes E.
Hitchcock, 1848, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., ser. 2, vol. 3, p. 193, pl. 7, fig. 3 (new name for
the above). Reptilia.
45. Ornithoidichnites elegans E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p. 491,
pl. 41, figs. 28-29; pl. 48, figs. 57-62 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts).-Steropoides elegans E.
Hitchcock (1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat., p. 24). Reptilia.
46. Ornithoidichnites elegantior E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p.
493, pl. 42, fig. 30; pl. 48, fig. 58 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts). Reptilia.
47. Ornithoidichnites expansus E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p. 487,
pl. 38, fig. 23; pl. 39, fig. 24 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts). Reptilia.
48. Ornithoidichnites gracilior E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p.
498, pl. 46, fig. 43 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut). He later called it Sillimanius gracilior (1845)
and Ornithopus gracilior (1848). Reptilia.
49. Ornithoidichnites gracilis E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p. 489,
pl. 48, fig. 44 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut). Reptilia.
50. Ornithoidichnites gracillimus E. Hitchcock, 1844, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 47, p. 305,


Vol. 23, No. 3








BRODKORB: CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL BIRDS


pl. 3, fig. 4 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts).-Hitchcockia gracillima Reichenbach, 1852, Avium
Svstema Naturale, p. xx.-Hitchcockia fulicaria Reichenbach, 1852, op. cit., p. xxi (new name
for the above?). Referred by Hitchcock to his genera Eubrontes (1845), Brontozoum (1848),
Grallator (1858), and Anomoepus (1865). It is the type species of Hitchcockia Reichenbach (1852,
op. cit., p. xx). Reptilia.
51. Ornithoidichnites lyellii E. Hitchcock, 1843, Reports 1st, 2d, 3d Meetings Assn. Amer.
Geol. Nat., p. 257, pl. 11, fig. 1 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts).-Fulicopus lyellianus E. Hitch-
cock, 1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meetings Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat., p. 23 (new name for the above).
Type species of Fulicopus E. Hitchcock (loc. cit.). Later referred by him to his genera Aethyopus
(1848) and Amblonyx (1858). Reptilia.
52. Ornithoidichnites macrodactylus E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2,
p. 494, pl. 43, fig. 35 (Triassic tracks, Horse Race in Gill, Mass.).-Platypterna deaniana E. Hitch-
cock, 1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meeting Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat., p. 25 (new name).-Argozoumi dis-
paradigitatum E. Hitchcock, 1848, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., ser. 2, vol. 3, p. 186, pl. 6, fig. 3.
Reptilia.
53. Ornithoidichnites parrulus E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p. 489,
pl. 39, fig. 26; pl. 48, fig. 44 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut).-Sauroidichnites deweyi Hitchcock,
1843, Repts. 1st, 2d, 3d Meetings Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat., p. 261, pl. 11, fig. 9 (new name for the
above).-Batrachopus dewceyanus E. Hitchcock, 1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meet. Assn. Amer. Geol.
Nat., p. 25 (new name for S. deweyi). Amphibia.
54. Ornithoidichnites redfieldii E. Hitchcock, 1844, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 47, p. 304, pl.
3, fig. 1 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts).-Ornithoidichnites redfieldianus Hitchcock, 1845, Proc.
6th Ann. Meet. Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat., p. 24 (new name for the above).-Argoides redfieldianus
E. Hitchcock, 1845, loc. cit. (alternate new name for the above).-Berecynthia redfieldi Reichen-
bach, 1852, Avium Systema Naturale, p. xxx. Type species of F. ... 'I,'',.i Reichenbach. Reptilia.
55. Ornithoidichnites rogersi E. Hitchcock, 1843, Repts. 1st, 2d, 3d Meetings Assn. Amer.
Geol. Nat., p. 256, pl. 11, fig. 7 (Triassic tracks, Massachusetts).-Sillimanius rogersianus E. Hitch-
cock, 1845, Proc. 6th Ann. Meet. Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat., p. 24 (new name for the above). Rep-
tilia.
56. Ornithoidichnites sillimanii E. Hitchcock, 1843, Repts. 1st, 2d, 3d Meets. Assn. Amer.
Geol. Nat., p. 256, pl. 11, fig. 2 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut).-Brontozoum sillimnanium E. Hitch-
cock, 1847, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 4, p. 49 (new name for the above). Reptilia.
57. Ornithoidichnites tennis E. Hitchcock, 1841, Final Rept. Geol. Mass., vol. 2, p. 494,
pl. 43, figs. 33-34 (Triassic tracks, Connecticut).-Platypterna tennis Hitchcock, Proc. 6th Ann.
Meet. Assn. Amer. Geol. Nat., p. 25 (new name for the above). Reptilia.
58. Osteornis ardeaceus Gervais, 5 Aug. 1844, Remarques sur les Oiseaux Fossiles, p. 38,
cf. also p. 12 (Wealden Formation, Tilgate Forest, Sussex, England, tarsus, humerus, radius; no
descr.; based on Mentell, 1835, Proc. Geol. Soc. London, p. 205). This is only an abstract (with-
out description or illustration) of Gideon A. Mantell's paper read before the Geological Society.
Mantell's paper describing the remains was not published until 1837 (Trans. Geol. Soc. London,
ser. 2, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 175-177, pl. 13), and Gervais's thesis presents no evidence that he had
seen it. 0. ardeaceus is thus a nomen nudum with no status in nomenclature.
Gervais proposed Osteornis (p. 7) as a catchall for any fossil bird bones whose specific
identification seemed impossible. He stated (p. 7, note) that Lithosteornis would have been pref-
erable but considered it too long a word. Nevertheless, Gervais (p. 38) proposed three new spe-
cies in Osteornis, 0. ardeaceus, 0. dimnedeus, and 0. scolopacinus. Richmond (1902, Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus., vol. 24, p. 701) selected 0. ardeaceus as the type species, and later (1908, op. cit.,
vol. 35, p. 618) treated Lithosteornis as an alternative name for Osteornis. Possibly this would
make Lithosteornis available if Osteornis were found to be preoccupied, but not otherwise. But for
present purposes this question is academic, as the type species is a nomen nudum, and the bones
attributed to it are from a pterosaur (see Owen, 1846, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 2,
pp. 96 ff; Romer, 1966, Vertebrate Paleontology, ed. 3, p. 369).
59. Osteornis diomedeus Gervais, 5 Aug. 1844, Remarques sur les Oiseaux Fossiles, p. 38,
cf. also p. 12 (Cretaceous, near Maidstone, England, humerus and fragmentary tibia). A nomen
nudum based on Owen (1840, Proc. Geol. Soc. London, p. 298), an abstract of a paper read be-
fore the Geological Society. The paper was later published by Owen (1842, Trans. Geol. Soc.
London for 1840, ser. 2, vol. 6, pp. 411-413, pl. 390), but there is no evidence that Gervais had
seen it. See Cimoliornis diomedeus Owen, discussed above. A pterosaur.


1978








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


60. Palaeonornis struthionoides Emmons, 1857, American Geology, p. 148, fig. 114 (Upper
Triassic Newark sandstone, Anson County, North Carolina, fragment of "sacrum," present loca-
tion unknown). Type by monotypy of Palaeonornis Emmons. Donald Baird (personal communica-
tion) writes that it has a high degree of recognizability and consists of the mid-section of the
rostrum of a phytosaur (cf. Rutiodon), exposed in palatal view, with the lateral margins of the
premaxillae destroyed and the empty alveoli filled with matrix. The "cf." was included only as
an act of punctiliousness.
61. Palaeornis cliffti Mantell, 1835, Philos. Mag., vol. 7, p. 518 (Wealden Lower Creta-
ceous, Tilgate Forest, Sussex). Type of genus Palaeornis Mantell, which is preoccupied by Palaeor-
nis Vigors, 1825. A pterosaur, possibly of the genus Ornithocheirus Seeley. See Lambrecht, 1933,
p. 933; Romer, 1966, p. 369.
62. Protorhea azarae Moreno and Mercerat, 5 Aug. 1891, Anal. Mus. La Plata, vol. 1,
p. 69, pl. 19, fig. 7 (Pampean stage, Monte Hermoso, Argentina, left femur and phalanges, Museo
La Plata). A synonym of the extinct camel Auchenia luajnensis Ameghino, and the locality should
be Lujan (see Ameghino, 1891, Revista Arge. Hist. Nat., vol. 1, p. 448).
63. Protornis bavarica Jaekel, 1929, Pal. Zeitschr., vol. 11, p. 211, fig. 20 (Upper Jurassic
tracks, Solnhofen limestone, Bavaria). A compsothgnathid dinosaur, Koupichnium lithographicum
Oppel (1862, Pal. Mitteil. Mus. Kgl. Bayer. States, vol. 2, pp. 121-125). See Abel (1930, Paleo-
biologica, vol. 3, p. 372 ff.).
64. Protornis blumeri 1865, Urwelt der Schweiz, p. 236, fig. 143 (partial skeleton from
Lower Oligocene slate quarries on the Plattenberg, Matt parish, Glarus canton, Switzerland).-
Heer, 1876, Primaeval World of Switzerland, vol. 1, p. 249, fig. 143. Transferred from family
Halcyonidae (pt. 4, p. 253). The type, whose present whereabouts is unknown, was said to rep-
resent the lower mandible, wings, tibiae, tarsi, and toes of a small bird, but the figure almost cer-
tainly represents the pelvis, urostyle, arms, and legs of a frog. See also Olson, 1976, Smithsonian
Contr. Paleobiol., no. 27, p. 117.
65. Wyleyia valdensis Harrison and Walker, Nov. 1973, Palaeontology, vol. 16, pt. 4,
p. 721, text-figs. 1-2, pl. 1 (Lower Cretaceous Weald Clay, Henfield, Sussex England, proximal
portion of right humerus, Brit. Mus. no. A3658). Type of genus Wyleyia Harrison and Walker,
by original designation. Almost certainly a reptilian humerus with the epiphysis unfused or
eroded.


Vol. 23, No. 3






















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